Tuesday, August 2, 2011

-155- The Rules of Fasting


THE RULES OF FASTING (SAUM)
by Shaikh Abdullah Faisal

(evening dars: 7.31.11)





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Bismillah….
>>>
TONIGHT WE BEGIN OUR TARAWEEH PRAYERS
- as the moon was sighted Alhamdulillah
- you have the choice between 8 or 20 rakat
- you’re not permitted to say anything about someone
- who doesn’t pray the number you do

The RULES of FASTING

Definitions:

- the linguistic meaning: abstention (imsaak)
- to abstain from food, drink, smoking, sexual intercourse
- from the athan of fajr to the athan of Maghrib for the sake of ALLAH
- (technical meaning)
- if you do not fast for the sake of ALLAH, it will not be accepted
- those who fast for cultural reasons, they will not get any baraka
- those who practice the fast to lose weight, they will not get any barakah,
- it was not done for the sake of ALLAH
- whenever you fast, it MUST be for the sake of ALLAH - all acts of ibadah must be

Say (O Muhammad): "Verily, my Salat (prayer), my sacrifice, my living, and my dying are for Allah, the Lord of the 'Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists). (6:162)

WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SAUM AND SIYAM?

Saum is only for Ramadan
Siyam is for the general fast

2 athaans are important in Ramadan
the athan of fajr means to stop eating
the athan of Maghrib means: rush to break your fast
you take your suhoor and when you hear the athan for fajr you stop eating -
it is makrooh for you to delay breaking your fast

Sahl ibn Sa'd reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "People will continue to be all right as long as they hurry to break the fast." [IMAM NAWAWI Agreed upon]

WHO ARE THOSE WHO ARE EXEMPTED FROM FASTING:

1. THE INSANE

The Prophet (sal Allahu alaihi wa sallam) said: “Whoever does not make the intention before dawn (Fajr), there is no fast for him.” [Sunan Abu Dawood (2454), Al-Tirmidhi, Al-Nasaa’i and others - Classed as Sahih by Sh al-Albaani]


- actions are by intention
- since the madman cannot make the intention
- no act of ibadah is accepted from him

2. KIDS BENEATH THE AGE OF TEN
3. THE ELDERLY

- the elderly person does not fast, but he feeds a fasting person,
- he gives 200 dollars to a poor family

4. THE SICK
- those who are sick temporarily
- those who are sick permanently - terminally ill
- if you are sick temporarily, you do not fast the days you are sick
- you make up those days when Ramadan is finished
- the man or woman who is terminally ill,
- they do not fast any days of Ramadan whatsoever
- they are supposed to feed a fasting person for the entirety of Ramadan
-(200 USD dollars)

Ata' said, One should break the fast on account of illness, whatever it may be, as Allah has said. And Hasan and Ibrahim said, concerning the woman who gives suck and the one with child, when they fear about themselves or their child, they should break the fast, then fast on other days. And as to the very old man when he cannot bear fasting. Anas, after he became old, fed one who was needy, for a year or two daily with bread and meat, and broke the fast. (Bukhari Vol 65 No 25.)

5. THE PREGNANT WOMAN

[Observing Saum (fasts)] for a fixed number of days, but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days. And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g. an old man, etc.), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day). But whoever does good of his own accord, it is better for him. O you who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly except it be a trade amongst you, by mutual consent. And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allah is Most Merciful to you. (4:29)


- the pregnant woman who fears for her health or her child’s
- she gives away 200 dollars to a poor family
- those who say she must make her up fast, are weak in fiqh
- some Muslim sisters miss 3 or 4 Ramadans,
- how can you tell that sister to make up all those months?
- whenever you are sick, and the fasting aggravates your sickness
- then you are not allowed to fast

And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allah is Most Merciful to you. (4:29)

- what if she is poor and she cannot find anything to give?
- then she does not have to give anything at all >> 2:286

6. THE NURSING MOTHERS
- i.e. the breastfeeding mothers

Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope. (2:286)

- they do not have to fast in Ramadan, they also give away 200 dollars in charity
- ONLY to the Muslims not to the kuffar
- they fall into the category of those who are terminally ill >> 2:184

7. THE MUJAHIDEEN
- they make up the fasts after the Jihad is finished
- Spain, Mecca, Badr, Hittin, and Ain Jaloot - all these battles were in Ramadan
- you are allowed to do JIHAD in RAMADAN - THE MUJAHIDEEN are exempted from fasting

8. THE TRAVELER
9. THE MENSTRUATING WOMEN

The menstruating woman has to fast afterwards, and she has not to perform any prayer (for the prayers omitted). (Bukhari Vol 30 No 41)


- she does not fast the 5, 10 days she does not fast for
- but when Ramadan is finished she must make up these days
- a woman who wants to fast the 29,or 30 days of Ramadan without any interruption
- she is allowed to take tablets to suspend her menses
- the woman who wants to make hajj is also allowed
- to take tablets to suspend her menses

10. THE WOMAN IN NIFAS (BLEEDING AFTER CHILDBIRTH)

11. A PERSON WHO IS FASTING
AND FOR SOME REASON IS SUFFERING ACUTE HUNGER AND THIRST
- and the fasting becomes unbearable
- he is allowed to break that fast for that day
- but he must make up that day

THE DURATION OF FASTING
- the athaan of fajr till the athan of Maghrib
- athaan of fajr : stop eating suhoor
- athaan of Maghrib : rush to break your fast
- concerning the person in the state of janabah
- (he had sexual intercourse with his wife or wet dream)
- the scholars of Islam say you’re allowed to start your fast in the state of janabah
- but that man should make ghusl and pray his fajr -
- even though he’s allowed to fast in the state of janabah
- he should make ghusl and perform fajr
- he is not allowed to be in state of janabah while the salatul fajr came and went
- the validity of fasting depends upon your abstention
- from food, drink, sexual intercourse from dawn till dusk (Maghrib)

KISSING
- as for kissing your wife in Ramadan, it is permissible,
- but it is unwise for those who are young couples who have raging hormones
- the Rasul allowed the old couple to kiss but not the young couple

Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam from Ata ibn Yasar that Abdullah ibn Abbas was asked about people kissing while fasting and he said that he allowed it for old men but disapproved of it for young men. [Al-Muwatta' of Imam Malik, Book 18, Number 19]

SEX DURING RAMADAN

- (in the daylight hours of Ramadan) sex during Ramadan is a sin
- daylight hours = athan of fajr till athan of Maghrib
- if you have sex with your wife during this time you have done a MAJOR haraam
- if you did, you must do kafa’a = free a slave, fast 2 months, or feed 60 people
- that is your atonement

Imam Malik : it is up to a man to choose one of these three options
- the rest of the madhabs said : that’s not the case,
- you must do it the way the Rasul outlined it in his certain order
- free a slave, fast 2 months, and feed 60 people

When anyone of you is fasting, he should not engage in sexual activities nor raise the voice; or if anyone reviles him or quarrels with him, he should say: 'I am fasting.' ... (Bukhari 1904) (Source: Summarized Sahih Muslim, Volume 1, 571)

If is better you go with the majority for safety,
- as that’s the way the Rasul outlined it
- the women who haves sex with her husband in Ramadan,
- nothing is compulsory on her (kafaa’a) unless she was the one who initiated it
- if she did not initiate it, then nothing is compulsory on her

MASTURBATION IN RAMADAN
- if a man masturbates in Ramadan, his fast in broken if he ejaculates
- his atonement is he must make up fasts - if he masturbates 3 days in Ramadan
- he must make up 3 days of fast after Ramadan
- his fast is broken only if he ejaculates

EATING AND DRINKING DUE TO FORGETFULNESS
- if you eat or drink in Ramadan forgetfully, your fast is still valid not broken

Abu Hurayrah reported that the prophet S.A.S said, “If anyone forgets and eats or drinks by accident while he is fasting, he should complete his fast, for it is Allah who has fed him and given him drink.” [Bukhari]

Verily Allah has pardoned [or been lenient with] for me my ummah: their mistakes, their forgetfulness, and that which they have been forced to do under duress. A Hasan hadeeth related by Ibn Majah, and al-Bayhaqee and others.

Whenever you are fasting in Ramadan
, and you forgot it was Ramadan
- and you ate or drank, your fast is still valid

THOSE THAT MISS THEIR SUHOOR BECAUSE THEY OVERSLEPT
- if you miss your suhoor because you’ve overslept,
- you have to go through the day and fast, you must fast without suhoor
- your fast is still valid even though you did not take suhoor
- if you know that you have a problem waking up, set your alarm,
- ask your family to wake you up, ask a friend to give you a call!
- the Rasul said : take your suhoor because there is baraka in the suhoor
- even if your suhoor is a glass of water, you should wake up and take it

Salmaan (RA) said that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: Blessings are found in three things, the Group (Al-Jama'ah), Ath-thareed (a type of food) and As-Suhoor (the Pre-dawn meal)." [At-Tabaraanee, Abu Na'eem]

INTENTION

- the Rasul said : anybody who fasts in Ramadan
- and did not make their intention before fajr,
- they have no fast for that day
- if you allow fajr to elapse, and you then make intention to fast after fajr,
- you have NO fast for that day

The Prophet (sal Allahu alaihi wa sallam) said: “Whoever does not make the intention before dawn (Fajr), there is no fast for him.” [Sunan Abu Dawood (2454), Al-Tirmidhi, Al-Nasaa’i and others - Classed as Sahih by Sh al-Albaani]

Imam Malik:
you make ONE intention, and it suffices for the whole Ramadan
- the rest of the madhabs : you must make intention everyday
- the correct opinion is that of the jamhoor (majority)

WHAT BREAKS YOUR FAST?
1. eating deliberately
2. drinking deliberately
3. smoking of any type
4. to make yourself vomit (induce vomiting)
5. menses
- menstruating women, her fast is broken and she must make up that day
- if the menses comes in the daylight hours, her fast is broken
- if her menses starts after Maghrib, she has no days to make up
- but if the menses comes between fajr and Maghrib her fast is broken

Abu Hurairah said, When a person vomits, he should not break the fast. (Bukhari Vol 30 No 32)

6. nifas (bleeding after childbirth)
7. masturbation

- the person who masturbates, if he/she ejaculates she must make up that day

8. sexual intercourse
- you must free a slave, fast 2 months, or feed 60 people
- Malik : the man has a choice between these three
- jamhoor : you must go with the arranged format given by the Rasul

9. nutritional injections
-IV therapy and hyper-alimentation = nutritional supplements

10. apostasy
- if a person is fasting, and he says
- "I don’t believe the Quran is fully kalamullah,
- I don’t believe everything in the Quran is true " << that persons fast is broken - to lie on the Rasul is a form of apostasy THINGS THAT DO NOT BREAK YOUR FAST

1. to eat or drink out of forgetfulness
- if you eat or drink out of forgetfulness you should continue to fast
- because it was ALLAH who fed you

Abu Hurayrah reported that the prophet S.A.S said, “If anyone forgets and eats or drinks by accident while he is fasting, he should complete his fast, for it is Allah who has fed him and given him drink.” [BUKHARI]

2. to vomit unintentionally

- if you vomit unintentionally, your fast is still valid

Abu Hurairah said, When a person vomits, he should not break the fast. (Bukhari Vol 30 No 32)

3. brushing your teeth with toothpaste

- this does not break your fast
- those who pass fatwas otherwise are weak in fiqh

4. swallowing ones saliva, dust from the street, smoke from the kitchen
- these do not break your fast
- regardless how much smoke one consumes during cooking, it does not break the fast

5. medical injections
-medical injections do not break the fast
-the one that breaks the fast is the injection that is used as a supplement for food

6. asthmatic pumps
7. eye drops, eardrops, mascara, and kuhul

- none of these break the fast
- nose drops (if it goes in stomach, it breaks fast)

8. to have a wet dream in Ramadan
-while fasting, it does not break the fast

WHEN IT IS HARAAM TO FAST
- on youm shakk (a doubtful day)
- it is haraam to fast on the 10,11,12,13 of Dhul hijah
- it is haraam to fast on the 2 Eid days
- these four days - 10,11,12,13 Dhul hijah are Eid days
- that’s why its haraam to fast on them
- the big Eid is Eid ul Adha (four days)
- you are supposed to visit your family and friends on Eid ul Adha and to feast
- you cannot fast on these days
- the Rasul said : fast when you see the crescent,
- and if the clouds block the moon, count shaman as having thirty days

“Whosoever fasts on a doubtful day disobeys the Messenger of Allah.” Tirmidhi # 1248

SHOULD WE FOLLOW THE LOCAL SIGHTING OR THE MOON OF MECCA

- the scholars of Islam have discussed the matter between themselves
- and they have said it is better to go along with the moon of Mecca
- to unite the ummah of Muhammad saws

Fast when you see the crescent and finish fasting when you see the crescent. If you do not perceive it, complete the month of Sha’ban with 30 days.” (Reported by Al Bukhari, vol. 5, p. 3476)

TARAWEEH PRAYER

- when the moon is sighted, Ramadan has started and you must pray Taraweeh that night
- the Taraweeh can be 8 or 20 rakat, those who do 8
- should not criticize those who do 20
- 8 is the sunnah of the Rasul, 20 is the sunnah of Umar

THE FAST OF YAWM ARAFAT
- (the 9th of Dhul hijjah)
- the previous & coming years will be forgiven
- this fasting is for people who are not on hajj

The Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu alaihi wa sallam) was asked about fasting on the Day of Arafa. He said, "It expiates the sins of the previous year and of the coming year." [Sahih Muslim]

THE MAKROOH FAST

- it is makrooh to fast on a Friday by itself because it is the Eid of the week
- unless you are fasting the fast of David (as)

Narrated by Abu Huraira I heard the Prophet saying, "None of you should fast on Friday unless he fasts a day before or after it." Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 31, Number 206

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said to `Abd Allah b. `Amr b. al-`As: “Fast one day and break your fast one day. This was the fast of David (peace be upon him), and it is the best of fasts.” `Abd Allah b. `Amr then said: “I can do better than that.” The Prophet (pbuh) replied: “There is no fast better than that.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî (1840)]

THE RASUL SAID THERE IS NO FAST BETTER THAN THE FAST OF DAVID

- fast one day and skip one day
- if you are doing the fast of David and it falls on Friday
- you did not do makrooh
- but if you single out Friday for your fast, then you have done makrooh

The Prophet (PBUH) said: "Do not fast on Saturday, unless it is a part of what Allah has prescribed for you. If you could not find anything to eat but a grape skin or a piece of wood, you should chew it." (Ahmed)

- it is makrooh to fast on Saturday because it is the day of the Jews
- it is makrooh to fast on a Sunday because it is the day of the Christians
- the days you are supposed to fast are on Mondays and Thursdays
- the best days to fast which is the sunnah are Mondays and Thursdays -

Aishah related ” The prophet S.A.S used to fast on Mondays and Thursdays” In an another it is said by prophet S.A.S that ‘A man’s deeds are raised up to Allah on Mondays and Thursdays, and I prefer to be fasting when my deeds are reported.”

- to single out Friday, Saturday, Sunday to fast is makrooh
- the fast of David - fast one day and skip one day
- if you are doing the fast of David and it falls on Friday , you did not do makrooh
- it is sunnah to fast on the tenth of Muharaam
- it is sunnah Muakkadah to fast on the tenth of Muharaam
- you must fast 2 days - the 9th and 10th, or 10th and 11th
- in order to be different from the Jews
- women who are married should not fast without the permission of the husband
- because his sexual needs might be in jeopardy
- this fast is nawfl (voluntary/optional)

This prohibition rests on the reported by Abu Hurairah (RAA) that the Prophet (PBUH) said: "Women should not fast one day while her husband is present, without his permission, except in Ramadan." (Muslim, Bukhari and others)

- but in Ramadan she must fast even without the permission of her husband
- outside of Ramadan, she needs her husband’s permission

OWING DAYS OF YOUR FAST UPON DEATH
- whenever you have a family member and they die
- and they owe ALLAH a certain number of days
- a member of that family may fast on her behalf
- example: a traveler missed 5 days of fasting
- and he died before he could make it up
- a member of his family should fast to make it up

FASTING OUTSIDE OF RAMADAN BECOMES FARD WHEN YOU HAVE TAKEN A OATH
- example : OH ALLAH remove my predicament and I will fast three days
- if you died before you could fulfill this oath
- a member of your family must fulfill your oath on your behalf

THE FASTING OF A KAAFIR IS BAUTIL
- they only get hunger and thirst

In an another, the Holy Prophet warned, "How many persons fast and get nothing out of their fasting except hunger and thirst and how many persons pray at night and get nothing out of it except sleeplessness."

PEOPLE WHOSE FAST ARE NOT ACCEPTED

1. munafiqh / hypocrite
2. murtad/ apostate
3. kaafir
4. the mushrik (pagan)


- whenever a Barelvis fasts, he is only getting hunger and thirst (his fast is bautil, he is a pagan)
- the fast of a Shia is also bautil (they are kuffar)
- note: salah behind a Shia is bautil

"Verily, Allah accepts only from those who are Al-Muttaqun (the pious - see V.2:2)." (5:27)

And indeed it has been revealed to you (O Muhammad ), as it was to those (Allah's Messengers) before you: "If you join others in worship with Allah, (then) surely (all) your deeds will be in vain, and you will certainly be among the losers." (35:65)


- A Shia is a mushrik, a pagan, Barelvis, and Goofi Sufis are pagans
- their salah and fasts are bautil!
- You must fast ONLY to seek the pleasure of ALLAH SWT !
- Your tongue, your eyes, your ears must FAST!
- your two hands must fast, unless you are in jihad
- your limbs must fast