Tuesday, August 2, 2011

-156- FASTING: What You Need to Know


FASTING: WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW
by Shaikh Abdullah Faisal

(morning dars; 8.1.11)





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Bismillah...

SAUM and SIYAM are used interchangeably
-Saum is only for Ramadan
-Siyam is for the general fast

SHAIKH IN UNIVERSITY
-he asked his shaikhs to explain the difference between the words
-Saum is just for Ramadan and Siyam is our any day fast
-it's like heaven and Paradise: used interchangeably
-but there's a difference between them:
-heaven, you can be thrown out (as Adam and Eve)
-Paradise we abide forever
-Rasool and Nabi are the interchangeable
-destiny and predestination: destiny (qadr)
-destiny can be changed w/ your daily duaa
-predestination can not be changed....

...they will abide therein forever... (Al-Bayyina 98:8)

THE RULES OF FASTING
-literal / linguistic meaning is imsaak (abstention)
-when Maryam, the mother of Isa did sign language (this was her fast)
-technical meaning is to abstain from food, drink and s-xual intercourse, and smoking
-from the athaan of Fajr till the athaan of Maghrib
-with the intention of SEEKING ALLAH'S PLEASURE
-those who fast to lose weight: there's no barakah
-those who fast to save face: there's no barakah

The Prophet (sal Allahu alaihi wa sallam) said: “Whoever does not make the intention before dawn (Fajr), there is no fast for him.” [Sunan Abu Dawood (2454), Al-Tirmidhi, Al-Nasaa’i and others - Classed as Sahih by Sh al-Albaani]

-this aspect of intention can never be over-emphasized

WHO IS EXEMPT FROM FASTING?

1. MADMEN / INSANE

-because he can't make his intention
-sanity is required for fasting, zakah, hajj, and marriage and such
-it's haraam to marry a madman
-sanity is required for all acts of ibaadah

2. KIDS BENEATH THE AGE OF TEN
-they are not held responsible for their actions till puberty
-this is because of hadith saying to teach kids to pray
–if you tell a child who is 7 years old to fast, they should only fast for ½ a day
-the only fast for a full day is fro a 10 year old

3. THE ELDERLY

Ata' said, One should break the fast on account of illness, whatever it may be, as Allah has said. And Hasan and Ibrahim said, concerning the woman who gives suck and the one with child, when they fear about themselves or their child, they should break the fast, and then fast on other days. And as to the very old man, when he cannot bear fasting. Anas, after he became old, fed one who was needy, for a year or two daily with bread and meat, and broke the fast. (Bukhari Vol 65 No 25)


-the elderly person does not fast, but he feeds a fasting person,
-he gives 200 USD dollars to a poor family

And as to the very old man when he cannot bear fasting. Anas, after he became old, fed one who was needy, for a year or two daily with bread and meat, and broke the fast. (Bukhari Vol 65 No 25.)

Ata' said, One should break the fast on account of illness, whatever it may be, as Allah has said. And Hasan and Ibrahim said, concerning the woman who gives suck and the one with child, when they fear about themselves or their child, they should break the fast, then fast on other days.

Anas ibn Malik fed poor people when he was old and no longer able to fast

4. THE SICK

a) temporarily sick
b) terminally sick

-if you are sick temporarily, you do not fast the days you are sick
-and you don't feed poor people
-you make up the days you missed after Ramadan
-terminally sick are not to fast but they are to
-feed a poor person every day (if you can afford it)
-a person w/ ulcer stomach is considered terminally ill:
-so he feeds a poor person every day of Ramadan

Ata' said, One should break the fast on account of illness, whatever it may be, as Allah has said. And Hasan and Ibrahim said, concerning the woman who gives suck and the one with child, when they fear about themselves or their child, they should break the fast, and then fast on other days. And as to the very old man when he cannot bear fasting. Anas, after he became old, fed one who was needy, for a year or two daily with bread and meat, and broke the fast.
(Bukhari Vol 65 No 25.)

....And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allah is Most Merciful to you. (An-Nisa 4:29)


- the temporarily sick person does not fast,
- but must fast the same number of days later
- this is the same ruling for the menstruating woman

5. THE PREGNANT WOMAN
-she falls into the category of the terminally ill
-they feed poor people and do not make it up
-some women miss 4 Ramadan’s .. because of pregnancy or breast-feeding
-so they can not make it up [that's too difficult for them]

[Observing Saum (fasts)] for a fixed number of days, but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days. And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g. an old man, etc.), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day). But whoever does good of his own accord, it is better for him. And that you fast, it is better for you if only you know. (2:184)

6. THE NURSING MOTHERS
7. THE TRAVELER

-they make up their fasts after Ramadan

8. THE MUJAHIDEEN
-they are exempt but they make up when Ramadan is over

9. MENSTRUATING WOMEN
-they make up their fasts after Ramadan
-those w/ erratic cycles are confused so ...
-if you bleed continuously, it’s from broken blood vessel (istihadah - abnormal bleeding)

The menstruating woman has to fast afterwards, and she has not to perform any prayer (for the prayers omitted). (Bukhari Vol 30 No 41)

-haidh (menstruation)
-istihadah (bleeding for more than 10 days);
-this is abnormal and due to blood vessel bursting
-sisters should study their cycle to know when menstruation starts
-if you don't, you're not considered pious
-don't pay attention to the start/stop but the duration
-if you normally menstruating for 10 days,
-then you can't fast till the menstruating ends
-you are permitted to take tablets to halt the menses so you can fast uninterrupted
-you can also take the tablets to increase regular menses
-you can also take the tablets to make your menses BECOME regular

10. THE WOMAN IN NIFAS (BLEEDING AFTER CHILDBIRTH)

11. A PERSON WHO IS FASTING AND FOR SOME REASON
IS SUFFERING ACUTE HUNGER AND THIRST
-he is allowed to break that fast for that day but must make it up

THE DURATION OF FAST
- the athaan of Fajr till the athan of Maghrib
- athaan of Fajr (stop eating) and athaan of Maghrib (hurry to break fast)

Sahl ibn Sa'd reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "People will continue to be all right as long as they hurry to break the fast." [IMAM NAWAWI Agreed upon]

IN A STATE OF JANABAH .
.
-means you had intercourse w/ your wife, so you're in ritual impurity
-you can start your fast then because janabah has no bearing on the fast
-but when Fajr comes, you must make ghusl and perform Fajr salah
-if you continue in that state after Fajr w/o praying Fajr,
-your fast will not be accepted

When anyone of you is fasting, he should not engage in sexual activities nor raise the voice; or if anyone reviles him or quarrels with him, he should say: 'I am fasting.' ... (Bukhari 1904) (Source: Summarized Sahih Muslim, Volume 1, 571)

VALIDITY OF FAST

-depends on abstaining from food, drink, smoking, s-xual intercourse from
-the athaan of Fajr till the athaan of Maghrib
-from dawn till dusk (also called)
-but KISSING is allowed while you're fasting
-the Rasool (saws) kissed his wives while they were fasting
-but not wise to tell young people to kiss because their hormones are raging
-but older people can

Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam from Ata ibn Yasar that Abdullah ibn Abbas was asked about people kissing while fasting and he said that he allowed it for old men but disapproved of it for young men. [Al-Muwatta' of Imam Malik, Book 18, Number 19]

INTERCOURSE DURING RAMADAN


-between the athaan of Fajr and athaan of Maghrib is a major sin
-if you do: you must free a slave or fast 2 months or feed 60 poor people
-in that order

Imam Malik said you have a choice between those three things
-but Iman Shafi'i said you must give him the format of the Prophet (pbuh)
-the Malikis make it a choice
-the correct opinion is the jamhoor (majority)
-now if a woman goes to bed w/ her husband during the daylight hours
-she does not pay atonement UNLESS she initiates the intercourse
-then she and her husband BOTH feed 60 poor people

MASTURBATION DURING RAMADAN
- if a man / woman masturbates in Ramadan (daylight hours)
- their fast in broken if they ejaculate
- they must make up THAT day

EATING AND DRINKING DUE TO FORGETFULNESS

Abu Hurayrah reported that the prophet S.A.S said, “If anyone forgets and eats or drinks by accident while he is fasting, he should complete his fast, for it is Allah who has fed him and given him drink.” [Bukhari]

ISLAM IS MERCIFUL

-forgetting / duress and mistakes (thinking something is halal which is haraam)

The Authority Of Ibn Abbas: The messenger of Allah said : "Allah has pardoned for me my people for [their] mistakes and [their] forgetfulness and for what they have done under duress." [Hadith 39 compiled by Imam Nawawi, related by Ibn Majah, Al-Baihqi, and others]

WE MUST REPEAT THE RULES OF FASTING AND HOW TO PRAY SALAH MUST BE REPEATED ONCE A YEAR


-we discussed wagging your finger and other matters
-we bring classical scholars

Imam Nawawi mentions in the Majmu‘ (3.454) from Abu Dawud and others with a sound chain of narrators on the authority Abdullah Ibn Az-Zubayr, that he described the prayer of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) by saying, “He would point with his finger while supplicating without moving it.” As for what is present in the narration that mentions, that he (Allah bless him and grant him peace) “used to move it”, the expression, “move it is an unreliable anomalous (Ar. shadhdh) narration because the narrator who relates [this Hadith] on the authority of the Companion Wael Ibn Hujr (Allah be pleased with him) contradicts everyone else who narrated from him

-people were not praying properly and this caused fitnah in our class
-SHAIKH FAISAL brings top scholars of hadith,
-so we can't say HE said because he quotes the classical scholars

THIS IS A HALLMARK SIGN OF THE SAUDI SALAFIS ..
-wagging your finger is excessive movement during salah
-the munafiqh will never have good character or knowledge of Islam

SHAIKH AND A PALESTINIAN SHAIKH
-Shaikh wagged his finger and the other Sh said not to pray like that
-if you want to learn your deen, you must mix
-with other shaikhs and not just book knowledge
-wagging the finger is the sign of a retard
-there's no authentic hadith and it's not the Sunnah of Muhammad (pbuh)
-if it's not sunnah then it's bid'ah

ISLAM IS MERCIFUL
-forgetting / duress and mistakes (thinking something is halal which is haraam)

THOSE THAT MISS THEIR SUHOOR BECAUSE THEY OVERSLEPT

Salmaan (RA) said that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: Blessings are found in three things, the Group (Al-Jama'ah), Ath-thareed (a type of food) and As-Suhoor (the Pre-dawn meal)." [At-Tabaraanee, Abu Na'eem]


-sometimes we overslept because we didn't set our alarm
-you must go thru the whole day without Suhoor
-ask someone to wake you up
-set your alarms and mobile phones

INTENTION FOR FASTING

Imam Malik: you make ONE intention, and it suffices for the whole Ramadan
-Shafi'i, Hanbal and Abu Hanifa say we're to make 30 intentions for the 30 days (or 29)
-correct opinion is: 30 intentions

The Prophet (sal Allahu alaihi wa sallam) said: “Whoever does not make the intention before dawn (Fajr), there is no fast for him.” [Sunan Abu Dawood (2454), Al-Tirmidhi, Al-Nasaa’i and others - Classed as Sahih by Sh al-Albaani]

Verily Allah has pardoned [or been lenient with] for me my ummah: their mistakes their forgetfulness, and that which they have been forced to do under duress. A Hasan hadeeth related by Ibn Majah, and al-Bayhaqee and others.

WHAT BREAKS THE FAST

1. eating deliberately
2. drinking
3. smoking
4. induce vomiting (such as Bulimia)
5. menses
6. NIFAS (bleeding after child birth)
7. masturbation (make up as many days as you did it)
8. jimaa w/ your wife (must feed 60 poor people for atonement)
9. nutritional injections
10. apostasy

- a person who fasts and says I DON’T BELIEVE EVERYTHING IN THE QURAN IS ACCURATE:
-has no fast!
-statements or actions of kufr breaks your fast [you have no fast]

THINGS THAT DO NOT BREAK YOUR FAST

1. to eat or drink out of forgetfulness

Abu Hurayrah reported that the prophet S.A.S said, “If anyone forgets and eats or drinks by accident while he is fasting, he should complete his fast, for it is Allah who has fed him and given him drink.” [BUKHARI]

2. to vomit unintentionally

Abu Hurairah said, When a person vomits, he should not break the fast. (Bukhari Vol 30 No 32)


-induced vomiting breaks fast [like Anorexic and Bulimic women / men]

3. brushing your teeth with toothpaste
-regardless how often you brush your teeth
-this is hygienic
-those who say it breaks the fast are weak in fiqh

4. swallowing ones saliva, dust from the street, smoke from the kitchen
5. medical injections

-only nutritional supplements break the fast

6. asthmatic pumps
7. eye drops, eardrops, mascara, and kuhul

- nose drops (if it goes in stomach, it breaks fast)

8. to have a wet dream in Ramadan
-what breaks a fast is what goes IN the body not OUT
-sisters w/ erratic menses should know their cycle
-and they fast when the menses stops

WHEN IT IS HARAAM TO FAST

“Whosoever fasts on a doubtful day disobeys the Messenger of Allah.” Tirmidhi # 1248

-it’s haraam to fast on a doubtful day ie not sure it's Ramadan
-it is haraam to fast on the 2 Eid days (Malik, Shari’s and Hanbal) = t
-hey are correct opinion
-Abu Hanifa said it was makrooh (disliked)
-11, 12 and 13th after Eid ul Adha you're not to fast because it's still Eid
-so this is the BIG Eid .. 4 days long ..
-this is called Eid kabeer (4 days)
-our salah is the 10th ............

SHOULD WE FOLLOW THE LOCAL SIGHTING OR THE MOON OF MAKKAH

"Fast when you see the crescent and finish fasting when you see the crescent. If you do not perceive it, complete the month of Sha’ban with 30 days.” (Reported by Al Bukhari, Vol. 5, p. 3476)


-follow the moon of Makkah to unite the ummah of Muhammad (saws)
-the Barelvis and Goofi Sufis never fast when we do; they do it sometimes 31 days
-never celebrate to Eid on the right day
-they do not belong to our ummah

Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "Whoever does not give up forged speech and evil actions, Allah is not in need of his leaving his food and drink (i.e. Allah will not accept his fasting.)" Bukhari 111 / 127

THE FAST OF YAWM ARAFAT

-this is a great barakah
-(the 9th of Dhul hijjah) but not for people on hajj
-the previous & coming years will be forgiven

The Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu alaihi wa sallam) was asked about fasting on the Day of Arafa. He said, "It expiates the sins of the previous year and of the coming year." [Sahih Muslim]

THE MAKROOH FAST

Narrated by Abu Huraira I heard the Prophet saying, "None of you should fast on Friday unless he fasts a day before or after it." Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 31, Number 206


- it is makrooh to fast on a Friday by itself because it is the Eid of the week
- unless you fast the fast of DAVID

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said to `Abd Allah b. `Amr b. al-`As: “Fast one day and break your fast one day. This was the fast of David (peace be upon him), and it is the best of fasts.” `Abd Allah b. `Amr then said: “I can do better than that.” The Prophet (pbuh) replied: “There is no fast better than that.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî (1840)]

The Prophet (PBUH) said: "Do not fast on Saturday, unless it is a part of what Allah has prescribed for you. If you could not find anything to eat but a grape skin or a piece of wood, you should chew it." (Ahmed)

SATURDAY AND SUNDAY FASTS

- it is makrooh to fast on Saturday because it is the day of the Jews
- it is makrooh to fast on a Sunday because it is the day of the Christians
- women who are married should not fast without the permission of the husband
- because his sensual (jimaa) needs might be in jeopardy
- Abu Hanifa said it's makrooh but the jamhoor said it's haraam

This prohibition rests on the reported by Abu Hurairah (RAA) that the Prophet (PBUH) said: "Women should not fast one day while her husband is present, without his permission, except in Ramadan." (Muslim, Bukhari and others)

Aishah related ” The prophet S.A.S used to fast on Mondays and Thursdays” In an another it is said by prophet S.A.S that ‘A man’s deeds are raised up to Allah on Mondays and Thursdays, and I prefer to be fasting when my deeds are reported.”

SUNNAH IS TO FAST ON MONDAYS AND THURSDAYS

OWING DAYS OF YOUR FAST UPON DEATH

- whenever you have a family member and they die
-and they owe ALLAH a certain number of days
-ie a traveler or someone in menses
- the family member should make up those days on their behalf (husband, children)

FASTING OUTSIDE OF RAMADAN BECOMES FARD WHEN YOU HAVE MADE A VOW
-if you died before you could fulfill this vow,
-a family member must fast on your behalf
-ie OH ALLAH remove my predicament and I will fast [three] days
-family member fasts for those # of days
-some say WALLAHI and break it ... expatiation is in 5:89
-feed 10 poor people or clothe them
-free a slave or fast 3 days

Allah will not impose blame upon you for what is meaningless in your oaths, but He will impose blame upon you for [breaking] what you intended of oaths. So its expiation is the feeding of ten needy people from the average of that which you feed your [own] families or clothing them or the freeing of a slave But whoever cannot find [or afford it] - then a fast of three days [is required]. That is the expiation for oaths when you have sworn. But guard your oaths. Thus does Allah make clear to you His verses that you may be grateful. (Al Maida 5:89)

-some people's fast give them nothing but hunger and thirst

In an another, the Holy Prophet warned, "How many persons fast and get nothing out of their fasting except hunger and thirst and how many persons pray at night and get nothing out of it except sleeplessness."

PEOPLE WHOSE FASTS ARE NOT ACCEPTED

1. munafiqh / hypocrite 2. murtad/ apostate 3. kaafir 4. the mushrik (pagan)

In an another, the Holy Prophet warned, "How many persons fast and get nothing out of their fasting except hunger and thirst and how many persons pray at night and get nothing out of it except sleeplessness."

"Verily, Allah accepts only from those who are Al-Muttaqun (the pious - see V.2:2)." (5:27)

WILL CONVINCE THE BARELVIS OR SHIITE THAT THEY ARE MUSLIM, BUT THEY ARE KAAFIRS
“Allah often lies and does mistakes” [Usool-al-Kafi, page 328, Yacoob Kulayni, Vol. 1]

How can Shiite be Muslim .. when they don't believe in some of the ayahs of the Qur'an

Say, "I am only a man like you, to whom has been revealed that your god is one God. So whoever would hope for the meeting with his Lord - let him do righteous work and not associate in the worship of his Lord anyone." (18:110)

NOTE:
Do not be stopped by Bilal's Adhan or the (ascending) whiteness, until it spreads. (At-Tabari) The Prophet (saws) said, “Let not the Adhaan of Bilal prevent you…” meaning, the first Adhaan, “…because he gives the Adhaan in order to awaken the person who is sleeping, and so that the person who wishes to eat the pre-dawn meal can do so. So eat and drink until Ibn Umm Maktoom gives the Adhaan.”
Eat and drink and do not be rushed by the ascending (white) light. Eat and drink until the redness (of the dawn) appears. [Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi]

YOUR HEART HAS TO FAST: to seek Allah’s pleasure.

- you have to fast to seek Allah’s pleasure, not to be seen by the
- you are not allowed to look at haraam: your eyes have to fast
- your tongue has to fast also, do not use bad language or backbite
- you are not allowed to be obese or anorexic / please check if you
- a Muslim is supposed to take care of themselves.

Allah said: O you who believe! Observing As-Sawm (the fasting) is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become Al-Muttaqoon (pious) [Al-Baqarah 2:183]

"A Muslim is the one from whose hands and tongue other Muslims are safe." [Tirmidhi]
You will gain taqwa, by your heart, tongue, and eyes fasting as well as abstaining from food and drink Allah's Apostle said, "Whoever can guarantee (the chastity of) what is between his two jaw-bones and what is between his two legs (i.e. his tongue and his private parts), I guarantee Paradise for him." [Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 76, Number 481]


- many people do not benefit from fasting in Ramadhan:
- as they do not know how to fast properly
- you fast with your eyes, tongue, hands, feet, body parts, sexual organs, heart,
- you are not allowed to carry a grudge

The gates of Paradise will be opened on Mondays and on Thursdays, and every servant [of Allah] who associates nothing with Allah will be forgiven, except for the man who has a grudge against his brother. [About them] it will be said: Delay these two until they are reconciled; delay these two until they are reconciled. Qudsi 20

Indeed, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire - and never will you find for them a helper - (4:145)


- you can boycott a munafiqh, or keep grudge with them.
- you are not allowed to boycott a Muslim for more than three days

Abu Khirash Hadrad bin Abu Hadrad Al-Aslami said: I heard the Prophet PBUH) saying, "Whosoever forsakes his brother for a year is like one who sheds his blood.'' [Abu Dawud]

The Prophet said, "Whoever has the following four (characteristics) will be a pure hypocrite and whoever has one of the following four characteristics will have one characteristic of hypocrisy unless and until he gives it up. 1. Whenever he is entrusted, he betrays. 2. Whenever he speaks, he tells a lie. 3. Whenever he makes a covenant, he proves treacherous. 4. Whenever he quarrels, he behaves in a very imprudent, evil and insulting manner." Bukhari (Book #2, Hadith #33)


- you are allowed to boycott a munafiqh
- you are not allowed to go to the janaza of a munafiqh

And do not pray [the funeral prayer, O Muhammad], over any of them who has died - ever - or stand at his grave. Indeed, they disbelieved in Allah and His Messenger and died while they were defiantly disobedient. (9:84)

Hudaifah Ibn Unman : was the keeper of the secrets of the prophet, the Rasool told him all the names of the munafiqeen , so Umar used to watch him, if he went to the funeral of someone Umar would go, but if he did not, then Umar did not go, as he knew that the man must have been a munafiqh


- how wonderful to have a friend who keeps your secrets
- friend - enemy - frenemy
- these are the types of people, a real friend, an open enemy,
- and the one who pretends to be your friend.
- the most dangerous one is the frenemy.
- Allah spoke about the one who pretends to be your friend in Quran

Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into (the hearts of) the enemies, of Allah and your enemies, and others besides, whom ye may not know, but whom Allah doth know. Whatever ye shall spend in the cause of Allah, shall be repaid unto you, and ye shall not be treated unjustly. (8:60)

- Allah said there are other enemies that you do not know about
- these people are so clever, they deceive you
- as you cannot tell what's in their hearts.