Friday, September 2, 2011

-176- The Fiqh and Merits of Zakah


THE FIQH AND MERITS OF ZAKAH (ALMS)
by Shaikh Abdullah Faisal

(evening dars: 9.1.11)





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Bismillah...

ZAKAH has 2 meanings:
1. to grow
-when we pay zakah, our wealth increases

Allah will destroy Riba (usury) and will give increase for Sadaqat (deeds of charity, alms, etc.) And Allah likes not the disbelievers, sinners. (Al-Baqarah 2:276)

-the same way we see the breakdown of communism from such riba
-hadith says man who charges riba is worse than man who has s-x w/ his own mother
-Muslims give money to poor people; the opposite of capitalism

And We have sent you (O Muhammad SAW) not but as a mercy for the 'Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists). (Al-Anbiya 21:107)

"Riba consists of seventy-three kinds of evil, and the least of them is like having sex with one's own mother"[Ibn Majah, al-Hakim and others].


2. to purify (when we pay it, we purify our wealth and heart from hypocrisy)

Shaikh Faisal learned so many hadeeth when he was studying in university
-Zakah is one of the 5 pillars of Islam:
-anyone who refuses to pay it, has become a kaafir

But if they repent, perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat) and give Zakat, then they are your brethren in religion. (In this way) We explain the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) in detail for a people who know. (At-Tawbah 9:11)

-you, the revert, must make taubah from Christianity or other religion;
-perform the 5 daily prayers and
-pay the zakah

WHEN YOU PAY ZAKAH
-you're to give it to sensible people
-not to children or fools

And give not unto the foolish your property which Allah has made a means of support for you, but feed and clothe them therewith, and speak to them words of kindness and justice. (An-Nisa 4:5)

-some people are not in a madhouse but they are not responsible w/money
-so we can't give zakah to a drug addict
-some drug addicts will gamble all their money, even if someone gave them zakah
-if you want to help them, buy them food and clothing;
-do not give them money for casinos or alcohol
-some women are shop-oholics and eat and shop to comfort themselves
-do not give your money to them

And give not unto the foolish your property which Allah has made a means of support for you, but feed and clothe them therewith, and speak to them words of kindness and justice. (An-Nisa 4:5)

PUNISHMENT FOR NOT PAYING REQUIRED ZAKAH

...And those who hoard up gold and silver [Al-Kanz: the money, the Zakat of which has not been paid], and spend it not in the Way of Allah, -announce unto them a painful torment. (At-Tawbah 9:34)

"Whoever is made wealthy by Allah and does not pay the Zakat of his wealth, and then on the Day of Resurrection his wealth will be made like a bald-headed poisonous male snake with two black spots over the eyes. The snake will encircle his neck and bite his cheeks and say, 'I am your wealth, I am your treasure.' (Bukhari Volume 2, Book 24, Number 486.)


THE NISAAB FOR GOLD AND SILVER

The Nisaab for gold is 85 grams
-there is zakah on silver and gold that we store up
-the threshold [minimum amount of money needed to be zakah-table]
-the nisaab for Gold is 20 mithqaalan, a measure
-which is equivalent to 85 grams of Pure Gold
-(1 mithqaal = 4.25 grams).

Nisab for Silver and currencies made from Silver is 200 dirhams, which is equivalent to 595 grams of Pure Silver (1 dirham = 2.975 grams).

The Nisaab for silver is 595 grams
-so we're to weigh the gold and silver
-we can't give a cash amount because cash fluctuates w/ gold and silver

The Nisaab for cash is 3,000 pounds or 5,000 USD [as of 9.1.11]

WHO SHOULD PAY ZAKAH?
-if you have less than 5,000 USD, you are considered poor

1. Must be a Muslim because kaafirs pay jizya
2. The person must be an adult
3. The person has to be sane
4. The person has to be free not a slave
5. The person has to be the owner of the goods
6. The money has to reach the nisaab, less than that, you do not pay zakah
7. The person must be solvent; can not be bankrupt
-if you have 1 million USD and you owe 2 million, you are not solvent
-some scholars say if you were entrusted
-to look after the wealth of an orphan, should trade w/ it
-so that it can earn money and not be eaten up by managing it
-many scholars do not accept this hadith

Anas bin Malik reported that the Messenger of Allah (saws) said: "Trade with the money of the orphan, lest it is eaten up by Zakat." (At-Tabraani) In another Hadith `Amru bin Shuaib related from his grandfather that the Messenger of Allah said:

Ibn 'Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah's Messenger (may Allah's blessings and peace be upon him) as saying, "He who acquires property is not liable for zakah on it till a year passes." (Tirmidhi)


-the wealth has to be 1 year old

The nisaab we discussed is re: cash and valuables but now:

ZAKAH ON FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
-Pay it the day we reap the crop
-we can't put food away for 1 year!

...Eat of their fruit when they ripen, but pay the due thereof (it’s Zakat, according to Allah's Orders 1/10th or 1/20th) on the day of its harvest, and waste not by extravagance. Verily, He likes not Al-Musrifûn (those who waste by extravagance), (Al-An'am 6:141)

ALL the scholars who give tafseer on this ayah
-say this is re: fruits and vegetables
-the one who translated this, might have known some fiqh
-there are 2 types of crops:
a) Allah irrigated it
b) man irrigated it

So, the one who translated the ayah, he made it easy for you to figure it out
-if Allah irrigated it, you pay 1/10th
-if man irrigated it, you pay 1/20th

WHAT IS THE NISAAB FOR FRUITS AND VEGETABLES?
-the nisaab for fruits and vegetables 1,360 lbs or 612 kilos

WHAT IS THE ZAKAH ON CATTLE?
-there is zakah on camels, goats, sheep, and cows that are free-ranging

1. the nisaab for camels is 5 camels;
-if you have 4, you don't pay zakah
-if you have 5 you must give away 1

2. the nisaab for cows is 30 cows
-so camels are more expensive / valuable than a cow
-we use camels for jihad

3. the nisaab for sheep and goat is 40
-these must be free-ranging

4. the nisaab on honey is 72.5 kilos

WHO SHOULD RECEIVE ZAKAH?

As-Sadaqat (here it means Zakat) are only for the Fuqara'[] (poor), and Al-Masakin[] (the poor) and those employed to collect (the funds); and for to attract the hearts of those who have been inclined (towards Islam); and to free the captives; and for those in debt; and for Allah's Cause (i.e. for Mujahideen - those fighting in the holy wars), Tawbah 9:60) and for the wayfarer (a traveler who is cut off from everything); a duty imposed by Allah. And Allah is All-Knower, All-Wise. (At-Tawbah 9:60)

THE PEOPLE WHO RECEIVE ZAKAH should be:

1. THE POOR AND THE NEEDY

-these are so poor they can't pay bills
-they are struggling
-these RECEIVE zakah
-they should be given enough to satisfy them for 1 full year
-a student is considered poor and needy
-some of these have student loans
-when the Dajjaal loans you student loan money, they take back their money
-by automatic means in your salary
-many of these finance companies are own by Jews
-who will not loan you money to pay them back

In a hadith reported by Ahmed, Abu Dawud, and Nasa'e, two men came to the Messenger of Allah (saws) and asked for Zakat. He looked at them closely and found them strong and able, he said, "If you want I will give you. But you should know that the wealthy or an able person who can work has no share in Zakat" (Ahmad)

2. THOSE WHO ADMINISTER THE ZAKAH DEPARTMENT

-bookkeeping, making lists and making financial calendars

related by Abu Musa Al-Ashi`ari (raa), the Messenger of Allah said: "A trustworthy Muslim executor is the one who executes completely what has been entrusted to him of Zakat money in good faith." (Bukhari)

...and Al-Masakin[] (the poor) and those employed to collect (the funds)...(At-Tawbah 9:60)

3. THE NEW REVERTS TO ISLAM

-those we want to harmonize into the beauty of Islam
-Islam is divided into 2 equal halves:

1. Ibaadah (this is how we treat God)
2. mu'aamala (this is how we treat people)

...and for to attract the hearts of those who have been inclined (towards Islam);...(At-Tawbah 9:60)

4. THE PERSON IN CAPTIVITY

-if you pay the gora money, he will release captives
-we can use zakah to free Muslim prisoners

...and to free the captives;...(At-Tawbah 9:60)

5. THOSE THAT ARE IN DEBT
-we can use zakah money to get people out of debt

...and for those in debt;...(At-Tawbah 9:60)

In a hadith reported by Qubaysah Al-Hilaaly (raa), he said I was under debt (hamaalah) and I came to the Messenger (saws) and begged him to help me pay it off. The Messenger told him: "Wait until we receive charity, so we will command that it be given to you." However, the Messenger stated: "O Qubaysah, begging is not permitted except for one of three categories of people:


-begging is halal for the poor person

begging is permissible till he gets what will support him, or will provide him subsistence. Besides these three, Qubaysah, begging is forbidden for every other person, and one who engages in such consumes that which is forbidden." (Muslim)

6. THOSE WORKING IN THE PATH OF ALLAH (OUR MUJAHIDEEN)

...and for Allah's Cause (i.e. for Mujahideen - those fighting in the holy wars),...(At-Tawbah 9:60)


-they need bullets, money, food, ammunition, transportation
-when we say Fesabilillah we mean IN THE PATH AND FOR THE SAKE OF ALLAH
-anything that raises the banner of Islam
-also, this is for those who do fulltime dawah

7. THE WAYFARER (traveler)
8. THE PEOPLE IN DEBT

...and for the wayfarer (a traveler who is cut off from everything)...(At-Tawbah 9:60)

WAYFARERS
are not only travelers but stranded
-zakah can not be used to bury a person, you have to use Sadaqah to bury the person
-if a person died as a pauper w/o money to bury him, we use Sadaqah to bury him

The Messenger of Allah (sal Allahu alaihi wa sallam) said: “A man (from amongst the people before you) said: ‘Indeed! I will give in charity.’ So he took his Sadaqah out and (unknowingly) placed it in the hand of a thief. In the morning people talked (about this incident) and said: ‘Sadaqah was given to a thief last night.’ The man said: ‘O Allah! Praise be to You. I have given Sadaqah to a thief. Indeed, I will give in charity!’ So he took his Sadaqah out and he placed it (unknowingly) in a prostitute's hand. In the morning people talked (about this incident) and said: ‘Sadaqah was given to a prostitute last night.’ On hearing this, the man said: ‘Praise be to You, O Allah! I gave Sadaqah to a prostitute. Indeed, I will give in charity!’ So he took his Sadaqah out and placed it in a rich man's hand. In the morning people talked (about this incident) and said: ‘Sadaqah was given to a rich man last night.’ The man said: ‘O Allah! Praise be to You (for helping me) give charity to a thief, a prostitute and a rich man.’ Then he had a dream in which he was told that his Sadaqah to the thief might result in his refraining from his theft, his Sadaqah to the prostitute might help her abstain from her immorality, and his Sadaqah to the rich man might help him pay heed and spend from what Allah had bestowed upon him.” [Sahih Bukhari]

-IF WE HAVE ZAKAH MONEY TO BE PAID AND IT'S STOLEN,
WE'RE NOT REQUIRED TO PAY IT AGAIN

-IF YOU CAN'T REMEMBER IF YOU PAID ZAKAH, YOU DID NOT PAY IT


And most of them follow nothing but conjecture. Certainly, conjecture can be of no avail against the truth. Surely, Allah is All-Aware of what they do. (Yunus 10:36)

-IF YOU ARE REQUIRED TO PAY 100 USD, AND YOU WANT TO PAY 200 USD, THIS IS PERMISSIBLE

-IF YOU LEND SOMEONE MONEY AND THEY CHEATED YOU W/O PAYING IT BACK

-you do not need to pay zakah off that money which is lost

-WHEN YOU GIVE ZAKAH TO A POOR PERSON, YOU DO NOT SAY IT IS FOR ZAKAH
-say it is for a gift
-you only need make the intention quietly to yourself

-IF YOU PAY ZAKAH TO SOMEONE WHO PRETENDED TO BE POOR BUT THEY ARE RICH
-it is classified as zakah and you get reward as intention

"A man expressed his intention to give charity, so he came with his charity and placed it in the hand of an adulteress. In the morning the people were talking and saying charity was given to an adulteress last night. The donor said: O Allah, to thee be the Praise - charity to an adulteress! He then again expressed his intention to give charity, so he went out with it and placed it in the hand of a rich person. In the morning the people were talking and saying charity was given to a rich person. The donor said, O Allah to You be the praise - charity to a rich man! He then expressed his intention to give charity, so he went out with his charity and placed it in the hand of a thief. In the morning the people were talking and saying charity to the thief. So the man said, O Allah to You be the praise (what a misfortune that charity has been given) to the adulteress, the rich and the thief! Then someone came to him and told him your charity has been accepted. As for the adulteress the charity might become the means whereby she might restrain from fornication. The rich man might perhaps learn a lesson and spend from what Allah has given him, and the thief might thereby restrain from committing theft. (Muslim/ Bukhari)

THE MERITS OF ZAKAH
insh'allah

Bismillah...

1. IT FIGHTS and ERADICATES POVERTY FROM THE UMMAH
-poverty has a lot of negativities that comes w/ it
-prostitution, burglary, theft,
-in [poor] Muslim countries, there are many prostitutes

Allah's rights over us is salah and our brother's rights over us is zakah

2. PURIFIES YOUR WEALTH AND PURIFIES YOUR HEART FROM GREED
-if you don’t pay your zakah your salah is not accepted
-you cannot come into Islam and pick and chose. Allah said 83 times in Quran
-that you should establish salah and pay the zakah

3. IT CAUSES YOUR WEALTH TO GROW

Allah will destroy Riba (usury) and will give increase for Sadaqat (deeds of charity, alms, etc.) And Allah likes not the disbelievers, sinners. (Al-Baqarah 2:276)


WHEN WE STOP PAYING ZAKAH, WE STOP GETTING THE RAIN FROM ALLAH

HAD IT NOT BEEN FOR THE ANIMALS, ALLAH WOULDN'T EVEN SEND US RAIN

...If people should withhold Zakat, you should realize that this has never happened without the rain being stopped from falling; and were it not for the animals' sake, it would never rain again.... (Ibn Majah)

4. IT FIGHTS GREED AND AVARICE
[natural instinct to love your own money]

Abu Jahl was riding on his horse and he say Abu Bakr feeding some poor people, so eh asked why; he said that Allah ‘tala would feed them if he wanted to; Abu Jahl said he wouldn't embrace Islam because he didn't want to part w/ his money to poor people; The ayah was revealed for ABU JAHL

And when it is said to them: "Spend of that with which Allah has provided you," those who disbelieve say to those who believe: "Shall we feed those whom, if Allah willed, He (Himself) would have fed? You are only in a plain error." (Ya-Sin 36:47)

And when it is said to them: "Spend of that with which Allah has provided you," those who disbelieve say to those who believe: "Shall we feed those whom, if Allah willed, He (Himself) would have fed? You are only in a plain error." (Ya-Sin 36:47)

5. IT PROVES YOUR EEMAN

-proves you're a believer
-83 times it's mentioned side by side w/ salah
-some cows give a bucket of milk and then kick over the bucket
-the same as some people take their Shahadah and then do something to nullify it

6. HELPS THE MUJAHIDEEN
-it finances them
-they are fighting to liberate man and land
-they need our help
-only zakah money helps them bring back Khilafah
-1st we have kingship, then tyrants, then Khilafah
-Khilafah comes before Imam Mahdi
-and before Jesus returns

7. IT ENHANCES THE BROTHERHOOD AND SISTERHOOD
-by paying zakah, we show we love each other
-it can cause hatred if we don't give rights to the poor

8. IT ERADICATES ENVY and JEALOUSY
-when you have money and ignore the poor, they envy us for our wealth

9. IT STOPS WARS IN THE COUNTRY
-hungry men are angry men

THE RIOTS IN LONDON LATELY
-so because hungry men are angry men
-something about being broken up into groups

Narrated By Abu Hurayrah: The Prophet (pbuh) said: The Jews were split up into seventy-one or seventy-two sects; and the Christians were split up into seventy one or seventy-two sects; and my community will be split up into seventy-three sects. [Abu Dawud, Book 35, Hadith #4579]

Narrated By Khaula Al-Ansariya: I heard Allah's Apostle saying, "Some people spend Allah's Wealth (i.e. Muslim's wealth) in an unjust manner; such people will be put in the (Hell) Fire on the Day of Resurrection." [Sahih Bukhari, Vol 4, Book 53, Hadith #347]

'Amr b. 'Auf, who was an ally of Banu 'Amir b. Luwayy (and he was one amongst them) who participated in Badr along with Allah's Messenger (way peace be upon him) reported that, Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) sent Abu Ubaida b. Jarrah to Bahrain for collecting Jizya and Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) had made a truce with the people of Bahrain and had appointed 'Ala' b. Hadrami and Abu Ubaida (for this purpose). They came with wealth from Bahrain and the Ansar beard about the arrival of Abu Ubaida and they had observed the dawn prayer along with Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him), and when Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) had finished the prayer they (the Ansar) came before him and Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) smiled as he saw them and then said: I think you have heard about the arrival of Abu Ubaida with goods from Bahrain. They said: Allah's Messenger, yes, it is so. Thereupon he said: Be happy and be hopeful of that what gives you delight. By Allah, it is not the poverty about which I fear in regard to you but I am afraid in your case that (the worldly) riches way be given to you as were given to those who had gone before you and you begin to vie with one another for them as they vied for them and these may destroy you as these destroyed them. [Sahih Muslim, Book 42, Hadith #7065 & Sahih Bukhari, Vol 4, Book 53, Hadith #385]

10. WHEN YOU PAY ZAKAH, YOU RECEIVE ALLAH'S MERCY

-He will show his mercy by sending rain

Narrated Ka’b bin ‘Iyad: Allah’s Messenger said, “Verily, there is a Fitnah (trial) for every nation and the trial for my nation (or Ummah) is wealth.” (At-Tirmidhi)