Saturday, October 1, 2011

-1- Mostalah (Hadeeth) class by Abu Abdullah

WHAT IS HADITH by Abu Abdullah
(Saturday evening: 10.01.11)


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Bismillah...

Allah said in the Quran that hadith is Qur’an
- Hadith can also be a talk

WE NEED TO DEFINE HADITH
- Anything the Rasul (saw) said or did is a hadith
-whether authentic or not
-even if he only acknowledges the act, it is hadith
-if he did not disagree then it’s also hadith

WHERE DOES HADITH STAND?
- Hadith was not there when Rasul (saw) was alive
-the Sahabahs used to ask whether he (saw) said so
-and if the person said yes then they accept it
-they believed in each other
-but since the major fitnah during the time of Ali (ra),
-we started having lies
-so we had to tell whether a hadith is authentic or not

Allah said in Sura 3 that our wali is Allah and Rasul (saw)
-and those who perform salah
-it meant those consistent with performing their salah
-we interpret this from tafsir ibn Kathir it said
-this referred to Ali ibn Abi Talib
-once while he was praying he gave money to someone
-another meaning is that it includes all the Mu’minun
-some say this is not Ali (ra) because he will never do this in salah
-also they said by looking at the Isnaad the hadith can’t be true

SO THIS IS A TOOL WE USE IN HADITH

-e.g imam Ahmad said when you come for jummah
-and the imam is doing khutbah don’t do anything just sit down
-Imam Abu Haneefah said if you go pray the 2 rakat before sitting
-so hadith gives us fiqh

Imam Shafi’i said if the hadith is authentic then it’s his word
-the hadith controls fiqh and Qur’an
-hadith explains the Qur’an for us

HADITH EXPLAINS EVEN SEERAH

-e.g. in one narration ‘Omar one day went out
-and saw 300 apostates and wiped them off’
-but if you read from hadith you will realize
-he killed only one man in his life
-so hadith controls Seerah
-someone said if you pray a 100 rakat btw ASR
-and Maghrib you will have great reward
-but we know this is not true
-because it is not allowed to pray Nawafil during this time
-so you have to learn hadith for everything

WHY DO WE HAVE TO LEARN IT
-when a man dies 2 angels will ask him questions in the grave
-and everybody have to answer these questions
-what do you think about the man Allah sent
-the answer is Muhammed (saw) is my messenger and he was good
-but that’s not all to it, you have to abide by what he said
-the answer is I followed my prophet and did all that he said
-I kept my fard: this is your answer not just to say he was good
-this is what we will be asked in the grave
-but you have to know what he said and asked you to do or not
-that’s when you will be able to answer the questions
-in order to know the above we have to study the hadith
-the hadith collection was not done at first
-this came about in the 100th year after hijra
-before that there were memos in which
-the Sahabahs wrote what they heard from Rasul (saw)
-it was not put the way it is now
-but in the time of Omar Ibn Abdul Aziz this started to be compiled
-others say it started earlier
-during the time of Ali Ibn Abi Talib (ra)
-when lies started to spread in the ummah
-so when someone said something is from the
-Rasul (saw) people will ask the person questions to verify it

RULES:
1. A DEVELOPING PROCESS


- the ulama said if the Rasul (saw) died in a particular year
-and the hadith was heard 82 years later can
-the person that related it have heard it
-when was he born and how did he hear about the hadith?
-and the person he heard it from is that person
-authentic and did other people hear it with him?
-then they document it with the chain the person mentioned
-but if someone said the hadith was heard 290 years after
-the Rasul (saw) died they will do the math to see
-how many generations can be alive during that period
-so they will say there are certain names that
-should be present in that chain of transmission
-person A hearing a hadith from B had to be alive when person B was alive
-but person A can’t be born after B died
-so it involves mathematics

WE ALSO HAVE TO KNOW IF THE PERSON IS TRUSTWORTHY:
-we have to know the people that related the hadith
-trustworthy means that the person is:

1. NOT FORGETFUL
-so it does not only mean the person is a liar
-the memorizing capability of the person counts a lot
-this is a very big definition
-the ulama used to refuse testimony from actors
-they did not take hadith from these people
-why? he might be thinking he is someone else
-at the time you asked him because that is his profession
-because he takes different roles as an actor

CONDITIONS FOR HADITH TO BE SAHIH

1. the chain of transmission has to be continuous
2. it does not have to be shaaz meaning odd

-we have to learn these rules because to learn these rules is very important

HADITH CAN BE CLASSIFIED AS:

1 Sahih (authentic)
2. Hasan (permsisible)
3. Daeef (weak)


A - B - C - D - E
Sahih means authentic and for a hadith to be classified so:

THERE HAS TO BE CONTINUITY WITH THE CHAIN OF TRANSMITTERS

-they have to be trustworthy people
-the person should not be someone who accepts everything he is told
-so if the person is like that then the hadith is Daeef
-if someone is Daeef in the chain then the hadith is weak
-if one person in the chain did not meet the other in the chain
-but only read his books then the hadith becomes Daeef also
-if B is not famous or C is famous but does not memorize many hadith
-in this case we can’t say it is deaf and we can’t say it is Sahih

WHAT WE CAN SAY IS IT IS HASAN:
-the middle way
-Hasan hadith can be used as hujjah
-judging by the hadith of Hasan they were respected by ulama in the past
-but if it comes to beheading a man or divorcing you can’t use Hasan hadith
-we use it as hujjah for something lesser
-the hadith daeef is not accepted all the time

WE KNOW A HADITH IS SAHIH FROM ITS CHAIN OF TRANSMITTERS
-A B C D E
-we have to know all these people in the chain
-the hadith Daeef has categories
-it can go as bad as Maudu'u hadith meaning fabricated
-and usually it will be about Ali Ibn Abi Talib
-because the Shiites quote such hadith
-the Rasul (saw) was asked who is the most beloved to him and
-he replied Aisha and her father
-the SHIAs have the same hadith but change the names within the hadith
-and say the Rasul (saw) replied
-the most beloved to me is Fatima and Ali

SHIAS WANT TO COMPARE MARYAM TO FATIMA,
-therefore they lie and say Fatima was a virgin as well
-this is nowhere found in the sunnah

THERE ARE HADITH THAT HAVE NO ORIGIN
-these hadith are not accepted generally
-but can be used in cases of softening people's heart
-AT4’s shaikh said to him that if he reads Abu Bakr Baghdadi
-some hadith there have no sanah
-for example: if someone says: FEAR ALLAH
-then this does not create issues
-but if you have hadith talking about aqeeda - then you have to be careful
-you must choose authentic hadith when regarding tawheed, aqeedah
-a hadith said the woman should obey her husband
-the hadith might be weak but it can be used
-e.g if you hear the same thing from more than one person
-even if one has weak memory you accept it because many people said it

THIS HADITH MAY BE WEAK, but if it comes from more than one way:
-many narrations
-if 4 or 5 people have said this; then you should accept it
-the narrators are not daeef in terms of lying
-the hadith can come from many ways
-e.g if an English man told you Tokyo is the capital of Japan
-you will accept it not because the English don’t lie but because;
-they will not gather to lie about it so it is accepted

For example: how many people will tell you that Tokyo is the capital of Japan?
-this is known knowledge - millions will tell you this
- so similarity there are Hadiths that many people narrated,
-where there is no reason to lie
-mutawaatir
-the hadith is mutawaatir when
-there is no reason for the people to lie about it
-but it has to come from reliable sources
-e.g in hajj if you come and tell people you from Morocco
-and tell them many things they will accept it from you
- so you go around many tents changing your dressing and accent
-and tell them many lies and they will accept
-so people go home and say these and it becomes widespread

Back then in the time of Ahmad ibn Hanbal there was no pictures or internet
-a person can claim to be Ahmad ibn Hanbal, when in reality
-he is not and fool many people and spread lies,
-and many people would believe it
-similarly, some Hadiths of this kind are spread around
-later in the course, we will discuss how these Hadiths were spread,
-and what Hadiths they are
-but the ulama stood up and made rules to protect the hadith

Imam Malik is the first man of hadith which we of ASWJ have
- Tirmidhi
- Nazza'i
- ibn Maaja
-Musnad Imam Ahmad


These are the 5 books of hadith

-if we meet next time he will take questions insha Allah
-and next Saturday will be a new topic insha Allah
-it is difficult to understand especially the Arabic words
-but we have to understand them in Arabic
-in order not to use English to explain English

The next class is Tuesday @ 9pm UK time
[every Tues/Sat, same time], insh'allah