Sunday, October 9, 2011

-2- Mostalah (hadeeth) class by Abu Abdullah

MUSTALAH CLASS by Abu Abdullah
October 8, 2011


-Our lesson today will be to re- iterate last dars
-The scholars have done a great job for us with regards to hadith
-when we are given information about the Rasul (saw) we verify it
-the Jews and the Christians have lost a lot of their books
-and they don’t even know what is in their books or not
-but we the Muslims have our books preserved
-the ulama categorized hadeeth into 3:

-which means authentic


-this means hujjah
-if you ask a brother something and he tells you this is Hassan it means hujjah
-so when we read something we use the tools of hadeeth
-to know whether to accept the hadeeth or not

-it is not authentic

There is also another way to classify hadeeth
-for example if after dars we ask what did shaikh Faisal say?
-if a brother says what he said it is not strong
-but when many people testify to the same thing he said then it is Sahih
-the higher the number the greater the authenticity
-from the top after the Rasul (saw)
-we start with the Sahabahs who met the Rasul (saw)
-e.g. Aisha, ibn Abbass, Abu Bakr etc
-the more Sahabah that narrated a hadith the more authentic it becomes
-next we need to know all the students of the sahabah e.g. Ibn Abbass- it’s in seerah
-so we look at all his students e.g Taawoos
-so if 3 or 4 students of the Sahabah narrated the hadith and also the Tabieen, it gets stronger
-if it is narrated by one person we say it is Ahaad

If it came from more than 4 people we call it mutawaatir
-if someone says mutawaatir is stronger than aahaad we say yes
-but we can’t say aahaad is daeef
-if we want to know what the Rasul (saw) did in the house,
-how he made ghusl and
-how he prayed at night before going to bed
-all these questions and the like can be answered by only one person- Aisha
-in the cave it was only 2 people present

-so if we want to know the events of this journey there is only one source that can provide it
-as testified by Allah in sura 9:40

If you help him (Muhammad SAW) not (it does not matter), for Allāh did indeed help him when the disbelievers drove him out, the second of two, when they (Muhammad SAW and Abu Bakr) were in the cave, and he (SAW) said to his companion (Abu Bakr): "Be not sad (or afraid), surely Allāh is with us." Then Allāh sent down His Sakīnah (calmness, tranquillity, peace, etc.) upon him, and strengthened him with forces (angels) which you saw not, and made the word of those who disbelieved the lowermost, while it was the Word of Allāh that became the uppermost, and Allāh is All-Mighty, All-Wise. (At-Tawbah 9:40)

-we have to believe in hadeeth ahaad
-we have to believe in Aisha because she knew the private life of the Rasul (saw)
-this is the problem we have with the mu’tazila
-they reject hadith ahaad
-there are Sahabah who will say they don’t know about a particular hadith
-so we have to accept when one person narrates it

-he started with the hadith of Omar which says actions are by intentions
-this hadith is ahaad because only Omar narrated it n only one student of Omar narrated it too

I heard the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, say: "Actions are (judged) by motives (niyyah), so each man will have what he intended…" [Al-Bukhari & Muslim]

-there are many instances when the Rasul took only one person with him
-and this person's hadith should be accepted because he was the only one present
-however we don’t deny that hadeeth mutawaatir is stronger but ahaad is not daeef
-they both have sweetness but one is sweeter than the other
-like Abu Abdullah said before there is no reason why an English man will lie about Tokyo being the capital of Japan
-so sometimes a crowd narrates the same thing when it is impossible for them to disagree or lie about it

We ask why people will lie about one thing.

-we all know Jesus was not crucified
-but millions have been saying he was killed
-and we know this is not true even though it is mutawaatir
-but the problem is it lacks authenticity
-e.g. in hajj there are many tents for the people from various countries
-and people wear the same clothing
-so you can go to a tent where you don’t belong and give any false lie and they will accept
-you can go to a different tent pretending to be a particular imam and they will accept
-you will be telling lies in each tent in the name of an imam but they wont know
-so if those people are asked about the information,
-they will say they were told by so and so imam
-and the people will accept

But the ulama knew about this thing
-e.g. Imam Dhahabee said you can smell the smell of fabrication in a hadeeth
-also from the language we can say the Rasul (saw) could have never said that

There is a hadeeth that the prophet (saw) said this is a Sunnah
-the ulama say how can he say that when he was the founder of Sunnah
-if the hadeeth is bad or damaging for the reputation of a Sahabah
-we know this is unlikely to be authentic
-we will explain in detail about all these things

A book brought all the mutawaatir and ahaad hadeeth

Another classification of hadeeth
-when you look at a hadeeth and it is weak
-is it weak beyond repair or not?
-for example if one person said so and so happened and you asked the 2nd person and he said yes it’s true
-so the hadeeth is testified by 2 people but they both were lying
-the problem sometimes is not with the number
-we consider the good memory of the person
-some people have the habit of memorizing a hadeeth using their own saying
-not letter by letter
-so if you take hadeeth from this person you have problems
-because re ordering the hadeeth sometimes can be a disaster
-some people even use their own verbs in narrating the hadeeth
-e.g the dua we say in the night of qadr

Allahumma innaka 3afuwun tuhibbul afwa fa af3anna

-some people change the verbs in the hadeeth
-this hadeeth is daeef because the person does not have good memory
-but it can be repaired
-and some people repair it to Sahih
-e.g there is a poem mentioned in the books but we find out that the poem
-is not authentic and they say imam ibn Mubarak wrote it
-so we ask ‘is the poem telling people anything bad in religion?’
-and if it is not, but instead it is telling people to love jihad
-we try to find out who wrote it because this person can’t be a bad person
-so the ulama say this kind of hadeeth can be mentioned without too much investigation
-because we say this person can’t be a bad person
-there is a hadeeth that said the Rasul (saw) was on top of a mountain
-and there was Abu Bakr, Omar and other people too
-and the mountain started to shake so the Rasul (saw) said to it
-be steady oh mountain for on you is the Rasul, 2 martyrs and the siddiq
-so if a hadeeth tells us Abu Bakr has thousands of acres in Jannah we don’t mind about it
-because the other hadeeth said on the mountain is the Siddiq

Narrated By Anas: The Prophet ascended the mountain of Uhud and Abu Bakr, 'Umar and 'Uthman were accompanying him. The mountain gave a shake (i.e. trembled underneath them). The Prophet said, "O Uhud ! Be calm." I think that the Prophet hit it with his foot, adding, "For upon you there are none but a Prophet, a Siddiq and two martyrs." [Sahih Bukhari, Vol 5, Book 57, Hadith #049]

Another aspect of hadeeth is its verification
-Allah said in sura 49:6:

O you who believe! If a rebellious evil person comes to you with news, verify it, lest you harm people in ignorance, and afterwards you become regretful to what you have done. (Al-Hujurat 49:6)

If an Evil person comes to you with a news, verify it
-this ayat has been described by my shaikh as the basis for ilm of hadeeth
-we have to verify the news
-and the news has 2 parts:

1. Evil person (the person himself)
2. The news itself

-this evil person we will call it mustala7 sanad
-which means chain
-we call it chain because it means the number of people between the Rasul (saw) and when it was written
-because it was not written during the time of the Rasul (saw)

the 2nd part is news
-we call that matn
-which means the actual trunk
-e.g a man without a head is the trunk
-the actual body
-so the person that said it and the news itself are different

-matn means the block of the hadeeth- the actual body
-how do we recognize one from the other in a hadeeth?
-the matn is started by a quotation mark
-the matn starts after the word the prophet (saw) said
-and is written in a different color in some books
-if you read ‘Ahmad said Hassan told him he heard Ali saying he heard from his friend who said’
-after this saying everything that comes next is the matn

Next is how is this chain built?
-we know the Rasul (saw) died in the 11th hijri
-and then shaikh Bukhari wrote it in the year
-so there is around 240 and 250 year between them
-where do we start to pursuit the hadeeth?
-we start by looking for a Sahaabi
-because the person that heard it must be a Sahaabi
-the Sahabahs that used to say we hear from the Rasul (saw) are written in 13 books
-we have to know that there are Sahabah who died before the prophet
-for example Hamza ibn Abdul Muttalib and Ja’far ibn Abi Talib in Battles
-the Rasul (saw)'s wife Khadija and Sumayya also died before him
-these Sahabah can’t narrate a hadeeth because they died before the Rasul (saw)
-we also find Sahabah that outlived the Rasul:

1. Ali ibn Abi Talib
-he was the 4th caliph and he lived in the time of fitan

2. Aisha
-she is VIP
-she was very young when the Rasul died and she lived through the time of the 4 caliph
-she was cultivated and groomed by the Rasul (saw)
-she was with him all the time
-one of the reasons the Rasul married Aisha when she was young was that
-she will outlive him and carry the message

Abu Huraira, why?
-the Rasul (saw) made a dua for him
-he took Shahadah at 7 years
-the Rasul (saw) prayed for him to have a good memory
-so he memorized many hadeeth
-he was from the ahlus-suffah
-he used to wait for sadaqa at the door of the Rasul (saw)
-and he used to be present when everything happens

3. Abdullah Ibn Abbas
-he was a boy by then
-and he met the 1st 2 khilaafa

4. Ibn Omar
-he was also very lucky
-he heard hadith from his father
-and he attended major situations
-when his father and Abu Bakr were arguing about whether to fight those who rejected to pay zakat
-both of them quoted an ayat
-and it was ibn Omar who said his father was wrong and Abu Bakr was right

5. Anas Ibn Malik
-he was the Rasul (saw)'s dedicated person (servant)
-he used to do some chores for the Rasul
-Zaid ibn Harith also did this
-they used to guard his tent etc

6. Abdullah ibn Masud

-most of these people were very young and lived long after him

7. At Tuffail ibn Aamur
-there are a lot of hadeeth narrated by Hassan also

1st condition will be fulfilled if a Sahaabi was present in the chain
-there is a book with the names of the Sahabah
-the last Khutba the Rasul (saw) did had many Sahabah present but not all of them narrated hadeeth
-e.g. Khalid ibn Walid
-he was busy with the army
-Abu Ubaida amr ibn al jarra
-he also did not narrate hadeeth
-but there are hadeeth that talked about him

8. Abdullah Ibn Amr al As
-these are the very famous narrators
-also we know from the familiarity of the name
-if the name of the Sahabah is not strange
-the name Abdullah is very common but four are famous
-but the young Abdullahs are excluded
-so if the hadeeth said qaala Abdullah without elaboration we take it to be Abdullah ibn Masud
-not the younger ones (Abdullah Ibn Omar and Abdullah Ibn Abbas)

-if the aalim says it was mentioned by one of the Muhajiroon,
-or qalaa Ansar,
-qalaa rajul al Ansar,
-or man from Madina,
-don’t go to the person and say who
-because all Sahabah are authentic
-as long as he was from the time of the Rasul (saw)
-if someone says Abdullah ibn Omar or Abu Huraira said the Rasul did something in Mecca
-we will stop and think

Abu Huraira did not know things before hijra
-but we should not ask how did he know about those events
-it is none of our business
-even if he was an adolescent
-as far as he is a recognised Sahabah
-we accept his word
-the Qur’an was said to us by these people
-therefore ASWJ have agreed everything the Sahabah say is accepted

If a Sahabah says to you do something and then another comes to tell you the opposite

What do we do?
-how do we verify it
-e.g a hadeeth said ibn Abbas said mut’ah is halal

Mahmud ibn Ghaylan reported from Sufyan ibn Uqbah (brother of Qabisah ibn Uqbah), from Sufyan Thawri, from Musa ibn Ubaydah, from Muhammad ibn Ka’b and he from lbn Abbas (RA) that he said, “Mutah was allowed in the beginning of Islam. If anyone travelled to a new place where he had no acquaintance then he took a wife there for as many days as he intended to stay there that she may take care of his property and serve him. This went on till this verse was revealed: Except in regard to their spouses or those whom their right hands possess. Thereafter, all sexual relationships beside these two became forbidden. (Tirmidhi 1125)

-but then his cousin Ali came and said in the year of Khaibar mut’ah was cancelled

Ali ibn Abu Talib reported that the Prophet (SAW) forbade Mutah (temporary marriage) of women, and the consuming of the flesh of domestic asses. This was during the Battle of Khaybar. [Bukhari 5115, Muslim 1406, Tirmidhi 1124, Nisai 2262, Ibn e Majah 1961]

-so in this issue we accept Ali because he is older
-and also there are other hadeeth that said it is haraam
-the hadeeth of kufr duna kufr said by ibn Abbas
-this hadeeth is not authentic
-but even if it is, Ibn Mas’ud said it is kufr
-so we take the latter’s words
-there is an issue regarding the hadeeth of the people of the book
-e.g what was the name of the dog in the cave in sura Al- kafh
-what happened to the stick of prophet Sulayman etc
-these ilm are ilmun laa yanfah
-if we do not know it, it does not harm us
-there is a Sahabah who used to read the books of the people of the book
-Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-'As
-so sometimes he will tell you something and it is not the saying of the Rasul (saw)

But we accept what Omar al Khattab told us and Abu Bakr

-whatever they tell us we accept
-because they can’t cross the line and make up a hadeeth