Thursday, October 13, 2011

-3- Mostalah (Hadeeth) Class

-3- Mostalah (Hadeeth) class by Abu Abdullah
11th October, 2011


--Insha Allah today’s class will be for Questions and Answers
--and elaboration on what we discussed before
--Mostalah is an Arabic word meaning the notion that people have agreed
--to give one thing a name
--e.g. if we say this is a hadith we mean it’s a saying of the rasul (saw)

The sahabah never bothered on Hassan or Daeef
--they just accepted the sayings of the rasul (saw)
--shaikh is hoping we memorize the Arabic words used in this class
--because if we do we can always explain to people and they will understand

So take the Arabic word for its value and say it like that
--It is difficult but we need to practice
--For example, when we say sahih hadith, its highest degree is muttafaqun alaihi
--and it means hadeeth narrated by both imam Bukhari and Muslim
--the next degree is when it is narrated by only Imam Bukhari
--and following that is if it is only narrated by Imam Muslim
--the next degree is when hadeeth is implied in both of their books.
--and they put conditions to the hadeeth

1. Imam Bukhari puts a condition that the hadeeth has to be narrated by
-- Someone who met the person he heard it from
--e.g. it has to be shaikh Ahmad told me that
--and not on the authority of

2. Imam Muslim's condition is that the 2 people have to live during the same period
--e.g. someone in Egypt and the other in a different place
-- But both live in the same century
--Imam Bukhari does not accept this condition
-- And added that the hadeeth has to be narrated in Arabic

3. Another condition from our imams regards a person who is an innovator
--For example the Shiites- we don’t take their hadeeth
--Ali's army was very big and stayed in kuufa
--the people around the army were not all sahabah
--and some of them used to be very bad people
--because they were saying Ali is Allah just like the Christians
--but Ali was against this just like Jesus
--so Ali actually burnt them alive

Some of them were the founders of the Shia movement

--and after the time of Hussein Allah tested the ummah
--they were very big liars
--and imam Bukhari never liked the hadeeth of the people of kuufa
--but what can we do. Because they were the only people that met Ali
--some ulama say we take the hadeeth because if not who will tell us

Some of their hadeeth were acceptable

--e.g. a hadeeth telling us about jannah
--if the hadeeth is not supporting their bid'ah we accept it
--if a Shia comes and say the rasul (saw) prayed 4 rakat for Asr we accept
--but if he comes and say the rasul (saw) said that Ali is better than all the people then we don’t
--this is because this statement supports his aqeeda which is bid’ah
--and when a Shia says Omar al- Khattab is a good man we accept
--this is because it does not support his bid'ah ideology

Shaytan tested many people and if he had not said a saying Adam would not have been on earth
--therefore shaytan actually did what Allah ordered him to do
--this is the bid'ah of the Qadariyya
--they said that Abu Lahab was destined to go to hellfire because of what Allah said in Qur’an
--so if Abu Lahab wants to make us not believe in Qur’an he will just say
--I believe in Allah and Muhammad (saw)
--these are the Qadariyya people
--they blame everything on Allah
--saying that it was Allah's Will that they don’t believe

Many people were accused of being Qadariyya
--e.g. imam Qatadah ibn Doaamah
--he is one of the imams of hadeeth
--and is one of the men in the heart of sahih Bukhari
--but ulama say we will take his hadeeth because they do not support his aqeeda
-- Emra ibn Hattan wrote a poem to glorify the man that killed Ali Ibn Abu Talib
--but his hadeeth is in Bukhari
--we accept it because his hadeeth is not in support of his bid'ah

4. Another condition is when the condition is not supported by the conditions of the 2 imams
--why do we say a hadeeth is top sahih or not
--we use an example from our homes
-- say you have 5 knives
--1 is very sharp and can be used to slaughter
-- the other can be used only to cut bread
--they are both knives but they have different degrees of sharpness

Therefore all 5 types of sahih hadeeth are sahih
--but there is one hadeeth you can use for divorce
--another you can use to chop off a man's head
--because it is in sahih Bukhari
--if a hadeeth is in another little book we cannot just go and build aqeeda on it
--there is a hadeeth in sunan ibn Maajar about Al Mahdi
--he is from the lineage of Fatima and will come towards the end of time
--okay we believe in Mahdi

Umm Salamah said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah (SAW) say: ‘The Mahdi is of my lineage and family, from the descendants of Fatimah." (Sunan Abu Dawud 11/373, Sunan Ibn Maajah 2/1368)

But the Qaadi in Qatar higher than Bin Baz said he does not believe in Mahdi
--but we can’t take him out of the fold of Islam because of this
--we can just say he is lost
--so we take someone out of Islam because of a muttafaqun alaihi hadeeth
--this is because of the consequences that may occur as a result of using hadeeth from other books
--we have these classifications agreed upon by scholars of the past

We said before that one of the problems of hadeeth is one without a sahabi

--e.g. in sunan Ibn Maajar he heard his shaikh Saed saying that ‘the prophet (saw) said’
--this hadeeth has no sahabi in its chain of transmission
--this type of hadeeth is called a Mursal
--the hadeeth would have been accepted by us if it had said;
--One of the Muhajiroon, or a man of the Ansar, or
--One of the sahabah even without telling us any detail of the person
--all these indicate a sahabi is involved so we will accept the hadeeth
--some ulama say maybe we accept some of them but others say NO

This problem came from Saed Ibn Al Mosayyeb
--born 2yrs into the khilafah of Omar (ra) and he lived through it
--and then through that of Uthman and Ali (ra)
--so by the time he died he met many sahabah
--and we know he is a good man so atleast we can accept his hadeeth
--but some ulama say no we don’t use it

A man called shoabi is one of the seven imams of madina
--he met Ali (ra) and maybe met 70 other sahabah
--he narrated a hadeeth about Ali saying Fatima had forgiven Abu Bakr and Omar
-- We accept his hadeeth not because it is true
--there is no reason why it can’t be true
-- But Fatima's forgiveness does not make a major difference to Muslims
--her problem with Abu Bakr was over a piece of land owned by rasul (saw)
--we know Ali was poor and they had 3 children so she thought it was hers and claimed for it
--AbuBakr gave her the hujjah that prophets don’t leave behind inheritance
-- but she thought it was hers and so got angry

Thereupon Abu Bakr said, "The Apostle of God said, "We leave no inheritance, what we leave behind us is sadaqah." [Sahih Muslim, 19:4354]

--Abu Bakr thought he did what was right so whether she forgave or not does not affect us
--so we can accept the hadeeth

Imam Al Zuhari is a big imam of hadeeth
--he narrated hadeeth through Anas or Hassan (ra)
--sometimes he makes mursalat, i.e.
--he does not say the name of the sahabi
--if he does this then we do what imam ad- Dhahabi said
--that any Mursal by this man should not be accepted
--this is because he was known to be a good memorizer

If someone has a good memory why would he forget names?
--this is because he was too ashamed to mention the name and it’s not a sahabi
--but if Zuhari gives a name we accept his hadeeth

Hassan Al Basri’s mother was working in the home of Anas ibn Malik
--And he was brought up by him
--so if he narrates a hadeeth with the name of a sahabi we accept but if not we don’t
--but maybe we accept the Mursal of Saed
--majority of ulama say we don’t accept Mursal
--others say maybe the Mursal is not going to make any difference so we can
--e.g. a hadeeth saying after salah say so and so, we can accept this
--because it’s not going to get a hand cut

The next type of defect is those from the chain of transmission
--there are 4 categories:
--1. The rasul (saw)
--2. The sahabi
--3 The Tabiee
--4. The one who put it on paper

We agree books of hadeeth were written 200- 250years after rasul (saw) died

--this means the hadeeth was uttered by the honorable man before the year 10 AH
--but was written 250 years, 5-6 generations later
--the sahabah must have uttered the hadeeth before the year 110 AH
--this is because Rasul (saw) was sitting with the sahabah one day and said
--all those present on the earth at that time will die before the year 110 AH
--and the last sahabi actually died before this year

Narrated By 'Abdullah bin 'Umar: Once the Prophet led us in the 'Isha prayer during the last days of his life and after finishing it (the prayer) (with Taslim) he said: "Do you realize (the importance of) this night?" Nobody present on the surface of the earth tonight will be living after the completion of one hundred years from this night." [Sahih Bukhari, Vol 1, Book 3, Hadith #116]

--the Tabiee must have said it before 170 years AH, 60 years later
--and number 4 must have said it before the year 240 AH

A (10 AH) - B (110 AH) - C (170 AH) - D (240 AH)

We always have A
--but there can be a problem of no B
--e.g. you go to a library and see shaikh Faisal written on the front cover of a book
--and you love this man so much
--so you take it home and read it
--but how can you trust that it was actually written by him
--some people can call him to confirm but how many people have his contact
--maybe somebody forged the book or is trying to frame him

Some ulama in the time of Bukhari made this mistake
--so if the narrator did not heard it for himself then it is not accepted
--he did not hear it so it is a big defect
--even shaikh Bukhari's book have this defect
--the people of hadeeth call it Moallaq
--meaning the hadeeth is hanged
--it means the alim didn’t hear it from his shaikh

Sometimes Bukhari will say ‘also we know Aisha said so’

--this hadeeth is hung
--he left all the chain of transmission off
--it’s hanging because the name of the shaikh is not given
--maybe he read it from a book
--and he is not certain that person actually wrote it

Takhliq At taaliq is a book written by Ibn Hajjar
--he took out every hadeeth in Bukhari that has no sanad
--the ulama ask why imam Bukhari included hadeeth without sanad
--this is because he was very meticulous
--he was very correct
--he was like a walking library
--more accurate than a computer

So when imam Bukhari found a hadeeth he knew was authentic
--but he knows it does not meet his requirement
--so he wrote the hadeeth without the sanad
--this is because he was not satisfied with the hadeeth
--he did this to tell you the reader that the hadeeth is authentic but he does not like the chain
--e.g. i heard a good news but i heard it from CNN
--so i just come and tell you the news but i don’t mention where i got it from
--this is what imam Bukhari did

A hadith that does not have rasul said or sahabi said
--e.g. we when it is written imam Awzae said
--this does not have rasul (saw) said or sahabi said
--this hadeeth is called Maaqtooa

When Omar Al khattab tells us what is in jannah
--or if Aisha said the rasul used to kiss his wives in Ramadan during the daytime
--they did not say it was from the prophet (saw)
--but we know they are actually from the prophet (saw)
--Aisha and Omar (ra) are just the messenger
--these ahadeeth are called MARFOOA
--meaning the prophet gave it the seal of acceptance by doing it
--it merits ALLOWED as long as there is no refusal by the rasul (saw)
--if a sahabi said we used to do so and so we accept

Does hadeeth Marfooa have to be sahih?
--this is another classification
--does it mean it actually happened
--we say Marfooa because the sahabah must have heard it from the rasul (saw)
--and if it is authentic it is sahih
--but is it hujjah? We have to go back to the books of fiqh to know if its hujjah or not
--e.g. the hadeeth of kufr duuno kufr
--used by the murjia and Saudi Salafi

Was this hadeeth actually by ibn Abbas?
--if there is another sahabi who said it is wrong e.g. ibn Masud
--we take what the latter said
--the hadeeth kufr duuno kufr is not authentic
--but even if it is, we take the stronger one from ibn Masud

Another e.g. is the issue of mut'a
--we pray 5 times a day and not 3 as was mentioned by Ibn Abbas
--so why do you the murjia take one of his hadeeth and refuse the other
--this hadeeth about mut’a is not in any Sunnah book
--it was only mentioned in al mustadraq
--Ibn Abbas heard the hadeeth was abrogated i.e. mut'a
--he heard it from Omar and Ali and from Abdullah ibn Zubair
--but ibn Abbas still believed in it for people who have to do it
--e.g. the issue of dead animal maita
--it is haram to eat it but if u have to out of necessity then you can

So Ibn Abbas said he believed in the hadeeth of mut’a for this reason

--if you are in jihad in another country and you need to get married you have to
--this was the opinion of ibn Abbas
--there are instances we have to accept the opinion of the sahabah

Omar said a dead person is punished by the weeping of his family

--when this news got to Aisha
--she said may Allah have mercy on him

Narrated By Abu Burda: That his father said, "When Umar was stabbed, Suhaib started crying: O my brother! 'Umar said, 'Don't you know that the Prophet said: The deceased is tortured for the weeping of the living?'" [Sahih Bukhari, Vol 2, Book 23, Hadith #377]

--Allah said a person pays for the sins that he himself committed
--not the sins of others
--so the sahabah had their own differences
--who we take is where the question lies
--books were written on this matter
--the ulama have agreed that we take from the person what he is best at
- For example Ibn Abbas for tafseer
--Ali for judging
--Khalid ibn Walid for war
--you need to be able to judge who is more informed from the books


Question: Can you tell us about the hadith of korasan?

--some ulama say this hadeeth is not sahih

--but it can be used as hujjah

Question: with regards to the authenticity of a hadith how do u no if a hadith is authentic and how u can tell it’s fabricated
--for you to say a hadeeth is authentic it has to be in Bukhari and Muslim
--or find an alim in the early centuries e.g. imam Ahmad in its sanad
--or you will find the ulama put a condition to it
--if it is in the book of Albani
-- if he says a hadeeth is daeef we accept
--but if he says a hadeeth is authentic we have to verify it

Question: what does Mostalah and morsala mean? Jzk
--Mostalah comes from the word Istilah
--which means a code
--we agree that a hadeeth said by the prophet is authentic
--Mursal means something sent
--it was agreed that a hadeeth without a sahabi is called a Mursal
--it’s an agreement
--munkar means a denied hadeeth
--if someone said the rasul (saw) said hashish is haram
--this saying is true because hashish is haram
--but the prophet didn’t know it existed then
--so it is a denied hadeeth

--another hadeeth in musnad Ahmad said that Ali slept in the place of the prophet (saw) and
-- Abu Bakr did not go out with him on the night of hijra
--this hadeeth is munkar because we all know Abu Bakr went out with the prophet
--munkar hadeeth is a daeef hadeeth

A hadeeth mentioned by imam Zuhari
--imam Zuhari had 100s of students
-so if this man’s hadeeth is narrated by one person we don’t take it
--it is not enough
--because normally many people narrate hadeeth from him
--so this hadeeth becomes weak

If we should say to Omar there is a hadeeth that’s weak he will not understand
--because this was agreed upon long time after him
--no sahabi will understand what Mursal is
--it was agreed upon long time after them
--Hassan or sahih all will not be understood by the sahabah
--for them it was he said or he did not say
--if the rasul (saw) did not say it, it means it’s a lie
--if he said it, then he did say it
--we did not attend those blessed times
--people started to lie so we have ask where did you get that from
--we trusted Ali in Qur’an so we have to trust him in any other thing
--same as all the sahabah
--if we distrust a sahabi in hadeeth we might as well distrust him in Qur’an

Question Can you talk about the hadith that mentioned about the age of Aisha in Bukhari?
--the hadeeth is authentic
--my mother in law married when she was 9
--people in Morocco marry early too
--she lived with rasul and there are things that only she can tell us
--she was chosen to carry the message after him

Question: is there a hadith that goes ''a man said to Ali (ra) i made an oath that if a son is born to me i will eat with the dogs, and then a son was born to me. Should i keep to this oath? Ali said go find a man that has not prayed for 3 days and eat with him. Jzk
--this hadeeth is munkar
--because Allah gives children not the dogs
--Ali will never listen to someone who will even say this
--because this act is haram
--and Omar will take the devil out of this person's head with his stick
--a hadeeth in sunan ibn Majar said a man said to a friend come with me to the door
--because the rasul said its Sunnah to do so
--the ulama said this is munkar because the rasul (saw) can never say it is sunnah
--he was the founder of sunnah

Another hadeeth said Asma bint Abu Bakr went into the house of rasul
-- wearing transparent clothes
--this hadeeth is daeef because,
--Asma would not do that in the 1st place
--this hadeeth is unaccepted because Asma will never do this
--she was a graduate of the school of Abu Bakr
--the school of ghaar

--it produced the mother of the believers
--it does not produce women who show their body
--it produces shuhada, siddiqoon etc.
--Asma at that time was even in Ethiopia

The next class we will talk about ahadeeth MOADAL and MUNQATTIA