Tuesday, October 18, 2011

-4- Mostalah (Hadeeth) class by Abu Abdullah

-4- MOSTALAH (HADEETH) CLASS BY ABU ABDULLAH
16TH OCTOBER, 2011


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Bismillah

--there is a typed version of the dars on the blog
--but it is not complete
--hadeeth Hassan means acceptable and it is hujjah
--it’s an authentic hadeeth like sahih
--in itself its hujjah
--but we define it in other ways
--for us to say it is Hassan, it has to pass conditions of sahih

1. The chain of narration has to be continuous
--the 1st part of the chain is rasul (saw)
--the 2nd part of the chain is a sahabi or sahabah e.g. one of the muhajiroon etc.
--before the year 110AH all the sahabah were dead as narrated by rasul (saw) in a hadeeth
--the last one died in this year

If we don’t have the 2nd part in a hadeeth, the hadeeth becomes Mursal
--we can’t depend on it because we don’t know who heard it from the rasul (saw)
--some scholars accept this type of hadeeth based on factors known to them
--e.g. Saed was born in the time of Omar al- Khattab and lived through Uthman and Ali (RA)
--so by the time he was 30 he had met many sahabah
--but if he tells us the rasul (saw) said we can’t accept it
--we cannot take his words until he tells us who told him the hadeeth
--he was a Tabiee not a sahabi
--maybe he heard it from the market or from a sahabi who lived with him
--therefore this hadeeth is very weak
--Shoabi lived with Ali (RA) for a long time and Ammar ibn Yaasir
--and he met about 73 sahabah
--but we have to be very careful
--if he tells us something on loving the rasul (saw) for example
--we can maybe accept this kind of hadeeth
--but if he is telling us halal and haram we can’t accept
--Allah said in the Qur’an speculation can’t replace the truth

2nd type is hadeeth Moallaq
--it means a hung hadeeth
--e.g. if u go to a library and see a book with Shaikh Faisal written on it
--you take the book home and read it but
--you can’t use it as hujjah because you cannot verify it is actually written by Faisal
--imam Bukhari did this in some of his hadeeth
--he will say Anas (RA) said
--how did he get this because he did not meet Anas
--we do not say they are the same as other hadeeth of sahih Bukhari
--because he did not meet the person who said this hadeeth
--we can’t jump the sanad
--this happens because sometimes imam Bukhari will be sure the hadeeth is sahih
--but it did not agree with his conditions
--his condition is that you can narrate a hadeeth from Dr. Omar for example
--because you were in Egypt and met him in person
--and you were given ijaza by him
--ijaza is a certificate given to a student by a teacher to give him authority

--Dr. Omar will sit with his students in a circle and he will say read hadeeth so and so
--then I start recounting hadeeth as I heard it
--if I said it right he will give me a small stone but if I didn’t I won’t get it
--at the end of the dars he will say I give ijaza to this person for recounting hadeeth as I said it
--so I was given authority to narrate hadeeth by my teacher
--so imam Bukhari put this as his condition
--i heard Dr. Omar said
--this is because Dr. Omar can’t be sure you will recount hadeeth as he said it after him
--so imam Bukhari made this a strong condition

Imam Muslim was more lenient
--he said if 2 people lived in the same era then we can accept the hadeeth
--for example I can narrate hadeeth of Dr. Azzam because he lived in the 80s and I lived in that time too
--he had other conditions to detect liars that were not as open as this one
--but the main condition was that the 2 people have to live in the same era

Hadeeth Moallaq is when the mukharij - the book writer did not meet
--the person he narrated it from
--that is why the hadeeth is hung
--maybe he heard it from the market or read it from a book
--Imam Bukhari did not tell us where he found such hadeeth
--he did not bother about this, he just put the hadeeth as Aisha said for example
--ibn Hajar collected all these hadeeth and brought there sanad to prove to us
--but imam Bukhari did not put the sanad
--the name of the book by Ibn Hajar is called Taghleeq Al Taaleeq
--Taaleeq means closing down the holes
--closing all the hadeeth in Bukhari
--imam Bukhari did not make these hadeeth hujjah
--he just told us the hadeeth to convince us

3rd on the chain is a Tabiee- a student of a sahabi
--we said the last sahabi died in the year 110 AH
--and the person that wrote the hadeeth did so in the year 250 AH
--so there is a span of about 140- 150 years
--the period between 110- 250 has many generations
--this group of people comprised the Tabiee
--we have the Tabiee and Tabiee- Tabiee (student of the Tabiee)
--and the students of those people and so on and so on
--e.g. Saed was a Tabiee
--it is a chain

If someone was living in the year 200 and says a hadeeth and we ask him where he heard it from
--if he said he heard it from a sahabi then we are careful
--because it is impossible for him to narrate from a sahabi
--so there must be a man btw him and the sahabi

In this case we call the hadeeth Monqate'a
--it means the hadeeth has been cut
--there is one man in the chain of transmission missing
--we don’t know who the man is
--maybe he is a good man or maybe he is bad
--please brothers and sisters memorize the word as Monqate'a
--because it is similar to the word Maqtoo’a

Maqtoo’a means 2 people have been cut from the chain of transmission
--e.g. if you go to the book of ibn Kathir
--and he said ‘and this ayat means so and so and was said by Mujaahid ibn Jabr’
--this man was not a sahabi he was a Tabiee
--so the hadeeth has both the prophet and a sahabi missing
--Al Soddee Matoo’a was also a Tabiee
--so in this case we call the hadeeth Maqtoo’a
--meaning it is cut because the rasul and sahabah have been cut from it
--but it's not cut because of a defect
--sometimes it can be authentic
--but this does not make the hadeeth Monqate’a
--Maqtoo'a and Monqate’a are different
--the former is when 2 people have been cut from the chain
--and the latter means only one person, the sahabi have been cut from the chain

There are many hadeeth of Monqate’a
--a hadeeth of Hudhaifa ibn Yaman
--in which he said listen and obey even if the ruler takes your money and whips your back
--Imam Darul Qatnee said this hadeeth is not from rasul (saw)
So this is the 3rd type of defect- Monqate’a hadeeth

The 4th type of hadeeth is when there are 2 or more drops in the chain that are not in sequence
This type of hadeeth is called MOADAL
--it is a messed up hadeeth
--e.g. ibn Majar said his shaikh said
--so we accept because we know ibn Majar
--but his shaikh is telling us something from a man who is 150 years above him
--initially it is Monqate’a
--the man is telling us something from a sahabi and he did not meet the sahabi

--someone in the year 350 telling you someone in the year 300 told him something
--the person in year 300 is telling us something from a man in year 210
--another person in the year 210 AH is telling us from someone who lived in the year 110
--so there are 3 drops that are not in sequence

350-300-(x)-210-(x)-110

To recap, we have mentioned 4 types of defects of hadeeth


1. Mursal meaning a sahabi is missing from the chain
2. Moallaq meaning a hung hadeeth
3. Monqate’a which means there is one person missing in the chain and the hadeeth has been cut
4. Moadal meaning 2 or more drops that are not in sequence

The next thing we will talk about is the concept of Ada’a Tahammol
--Tahammol means to carry
--so the concept is talking about carrying hadeeth from others and the rules to it
--e.g. how many of us can remember the names of our teachers in primary school
--how many can narrate exactly what they heard when they were 16 years old
--the latter is better because the person is older
--so there is an age we say you can carry the hadeeth and there is one you cannot
--a person who heard the hadeeth when he was 15 is different from one who heard it when he was 5
--e.g. a sahabi died and left a child 5years old. Can this child remember the hadeeth from him?
--Al Qama’a ibn Wael ibn Hejr narrated a hadeeth in Muslim
--his father is a sahabi and he was a good and trustworthy man
--he met his father fine but how did he get the hadeeth from his father
--he made a mistake by saying in this hadeeth that
--his father told him rasul (saw) prayed putting his left hand on the right hand
--so Ibn Qama'a told him then your father never saw rasul pray
--he said he is not sure the hadeeth is authentic
--sometimes someone says I heard so and so from my father
--but not all the people saw or heard from their fathers
--and not all were given ijaza by their father even though they are their sons
--so we cannot be sure
--we have to read the books to know if the chain is continuous or not

Tahammol: how old was the person when he heard the hadeeth

Ada’a: how old was the person when he left the hadeeth to his successor

--the former is different from the latter
--when did he leave the hadeeth to his successor
--there is a hadeeth in sahih Muslim where a sahabi was asked ‘what did you hear the prophet saying?’
--the man said don’t tire me son
--we are very old and the things we heard have gone past this era
--and we are not as young as we used to be then
--meaning they are old to remember everything and exactly
--this is Ada’a

If I say I heard a hadeeth in 1960, you will not believe me because I was only 5-6 years old

--so if someone is telling me I heard a hadeeth from a sahabi in the year 110
--I will be very doubtful because the last sahabi died then
--and this man was only 3 years old at that time
--this is Tahammol

Imam Dhahabi said this is acceptable from a sahabi and not from any other person
--Mosawwar ibn Makhramah a sahabi narrated a hadeeth
--about Ali marrying the daughter of Abu Jahl
--but he told us himself that he was just entering into puberty when he heard the hadeeth
--if this man said something that happened 20years before his birth we don’t mind
--he is a sahabi and Allah gave them the stamp- radiyallahu 3anhu
--so all the sahabah we accept from them
--even if he was a kaafir at the time the incident happened
--there is a hadeeth in sahih Muslim by a sahabi who narrated an incident
--that happened before he embraced Islam
--but we accept the hadeeth

If a sahabi tells us something in the future we accept because he can’t venture
--e.g. if Omar (ra) said something about jannah we accept
--if it was wrong another sahabi would have corrected it
--but after the sahabah whoever it is we have to be careful
--if Imam Ahmad or Bukhari is telling us Mursal hadeeth we account them for it
--we are not Christians, we don’t worship man or personality
--the sahabah were trusted by Allah to carry Qur'an so we accept everything from them

Next we will talk about the concept of ILMUL RIJAAL
--it means the knowledge of Man
--this doesn’t mean knowledge of only men
--the term is used because most narrators are men but there are women narrators too
--Aisha, Asma, Fatima, Umm Salama and others
--but we call it the knowledge of Man

WHY DO WE NEED TO TALK ABOUT THIS?
--initially we talked about the chain of the hadeeth
--that the people in the chain met each other and it has to be continuous
--if they did not, there is a defect
--and if the chain is correct we are sure the prophet (saw) said it

One of the concepts of Ilmul Rijaal is the issue of Tadlees
--Tadlees means when a person hides behind something
--we call the person a Mudallis
--e.g. if I want Ali Hussein to believe something I will tell him
--and I heard the news from brother Abdullah, a friend of mine from Jamaica
--so I tell Ali that shaikh Abdullah Jamaica said so and so
--Ali will think that shaikh Faisal said so because he is Abdullah from Jamaica
--so I did Tadlees;
--to make people believe another person said so by using the same name and country

If I say Sufyan al Kuufee, I am not talking about Sufyan at Thawri
--but I used the word kuufa to make you believe Sufyan at Thawri said it
--Mudallis doesn’t mean a liar
--Imam Shoabi said it is easier for me to commit zina than commit Tadlees
--Mohammad Al Masloob is a man who gave himself all kinds of names
--and he used them at the right time to make people believe what he said
--Aatia Al Awfi was also a Mudallis
--and he was found in all the books of sunan
--he was living in Iraq
--Abo Saeed El Khedri was a good sahabi and lived in the same city as
--Mohammad Ibn Al Saed Al Kalbi
--he used to do Tadlees using the sahabi’s name
--Aatia Abi Saeed was another Mudallis also found in the sunans
--if this man is found in a chain in any hadeeth
--blind both of your eyes and don’t take the hadeeth
--because he used to go to people and say Abu Saed said and people thought it was the good sahabi
--when he was referring to the liar Ibn Saeed Al Kalbi

Sabaa’i was a man whom the ulama said they testify to Allah he was a liar
--he believed Ali (ra) was Allah
--he was a kafir not just a liar
--he once said Gibril (as) was giving the inspiration to rasul (saw)
--and rasul wanted to answer to the call of nature
--so Gibril completed the wahyi to Ali
--another man Jabir ibn Yazid Al Jafee
--imam shaafi said he was visiting this man with his friend
--and the friend said lets go because this man is saying so much lies the house can fall

The Mudallis is not called a liar
--he lies with people's names and hides the faults
--all the hadeeth of ahlul bayt had Abu saed in the chain of transmission
--e.g. the hadeeth of Amr ibn Al 3as where he asked the rasul (saw)
--who is the most beloved to you and he replied Aisha
--and he asked and of the men rasul (saw) replied his father
--Abu Saed changed this hadeeth and said the rasul (saw) said
--It is Fatima and her husband (Ali)
--Tadlees has different layers and they are worse than each other

Tadlees wal Mudallisoon is a book with their names
--imam Bukhari was put in the name of this book
--but his is a mild degree
--imam Bukhari had hadeeth that did not comply with his conditions
--so he put the hadeeth without the sanad
--because it does not agree with his conditions
--he didn’t lie he just left out the sanad because he wanted his books to have the credentials

Mawaleed and Wafiyaat
--it means births and deaths
--the book mentions the date of birth of all the ulama
--this was a time when there were no registrars
--so this book helped to give the dates
--a book by imam Dhahabi gave a year 110AH for example
--and gave the names of all the ulama that were born in that year
--we have to worry about this because there can be geographical Tadlees

Out of the prophet’s wives only 2 were known to have left madina
--Umm Habiba sister of Muawiya
--she went to live with him then later came back to madina
--Aisha went to Basra and came back after the war
--otherwise there is no evidence that another left their homes
--Allah ordered them and Talked to them openly in surah Ahzab

Shahr Ibn Hawshab was a man from Iraq
--if this man should narrate a hadeeth from Umm Salama we have to question him
--how did Umm Salama give you this hadeeth?
--some ulama don’t mind this
--but for Aisha they are extra careful
--if someone said he heard from Aisha and not in madina or Iraq we won’t take it
--she was in her home during the time of her father, Omar and Uthman
--it was not easy to get to her because she is the honour of the nation
--and she suffered slander before
--so sahabah didn’t allow everybody to just come and meet her

Most of the hadeeth of Aisha were narrated by the women that stayed with her
--they were called her aids not servants
--also her sister Asma's son Abdullah ibn Zubair narrated from her
--and so did his brother Urwa
--they were her nephews and mahram
--these are the people that narrated from Aisha
--mostly her aids that dedicated their lives to serve the rasul (saw)
--she did not own them and they were not slaves or servants
--Sonan ibn Abi Shaiba was a famous one
--also Shoaba ibn Hajjaj

How do we know Ahmad ibn Hambal is trustworthy?
--who says Ahmad is good?
--we have to read the books to know
--insha Allah we will look into this in our next class