Wednesday, November 2, 2011

-5- Mostalah (Hadeeth) Class by Abu Abdullah

30TH OCTOBER, 2011



Before we start i want to talk about current events
--we as Muslims cannot be isolated from current events
--i want to congratulate the ummah on the departure of the tyrant Ghadafi
--even though we do not condone the way they treated his death
--His head should have been separated from his body -- this is the Sunnah
--Abdullah ibn Mas’ood separated the head of Abu Jahl on the day of badr
--the prophet did not mind the act of ibn Mas’ood when he chopped off his head
--and so we know this is Sunnah
--the putting of the body for 4days until it stinks, this is not part of the Sunnah
--the Sunnah is to put the body in the grave and you can also talk to them
--the rasul (saw) after badr talked to the kuffar and asked them whether
--they have seen the promise of their Gods
--for we have seen what our Lord has promised us to be true

Narrated By Ibn 'Umar: The Prophet looked at the people of the well (the well in which the bodies of the pagans killed in the Battle of Badr were thrown) and said, "Have you found true what your Lord promised you?" Somebody said to him, "You are addressing dead people." He replied, "You do not hear better than they but they cannot reply." [Sahih Bukhari, Vol 2, Book 23, Hadith #452]

We did not condone what they did to him- sodomising him
--but we don’t feel sorry about it
--the best way would have been to be sentenced by a Muslim imam (judge)
--and the sentence would have been to be killed

The second issue is to talk about a request made by shaikh Faisal
--to talk about Ulumul Qur'an
--which means the sciences of Qur’an—we have a book undisputed from Allah
--this is the only undisputed book and it is in our hands
--it is a beacon to light the way and it should be our guidance
--Qur'an is the only thing that can give us this
--so how do we go about this? How do we study this science?

Scholars have divided the Qur’an into several ulum

--and each one of them is a science of one of the sciences of the Quran
--e.g. memorizing the Qur'an properly
--also reading it properly
--if you can do these properly then that is knowledge in itself
--and they call it qara’at
--another science is Nahwi
--which means the grammar of the Qur'an

We will now explain what Nahwi is
--Allah said in the Qur'an inna ma yaqshallaha min ibaadihi ulama in surah 35:28

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ وَالدَّوَابِّ وَالأَنعَام مُخْتَلِفٌ أَلْوَانُه ُُ كَذَلِكَ إِنَّمَا يَخْشَى اللَّهَ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ الْعُلَمَاءُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ غَفُور
[سُورَة فَاطِر : 28]

It is only those who have knowledge among His slaves that fear Allah. Verily, Allah is All-Mighty, Oft¬Forgiving. (Fatir 35:28)

--the word here is Allaha and not Allahu
--we say this because the word Allah is an object not a subject
--Allah is feared by His worshippers
--but if we say Hu and make it a subject then we are saying Allah is doing the fearing
--this is wrong because it’s the ulama that do the fearing not Allah
--if we say innama yaqshallahu min ibaadihi ulama we are saying that
--verily Allah is afraid of those who have knowledge
--so it’s the grammar and if you change it, you actually become a kafir

Also in surah 9:1

Freedom from (all) obligations (is declared) from Allah and His Messenger (SAW) to those of the Mushrikûn (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah), with whom you made a treaty. (9:1)

--the word messengers come after Mushrikûn if you read the Arabic text
--but in English you do the reverse
--if in Arabic you read it wrongly, it’s incorrect because of its superiority
--if we do the reverse in Arabic you will put the two words in the same kettle which is haram
--the right way is to put the word messenger before Mushrikûn
--but because of the balaga of the Quran you say warasulluh not warasulah
--if you say warasulah you are putting the messenger and Mushrikûn in the same level
--so Allah is first subject, messenger the second subject then the Mushrikûn
--Allah and the messenger are both subjects and
--if you make rasul an object it becomes haram because
--it means Allah has made baraa from his messenger also
--so this is one science of the grammar of the Qur’an

O you who believe! When you intend to offer As-Salāt (the prayer), wash your faces and your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to ankles. If you are in a state of Janāba (i.e. had a sexual discharge), purify yourself (bathe your whole body). But if you are ill or on a journey or any of you comes from answering the call of nature, or you have been in contact with women (i.e. sexual intercourse) and you find no water, then perform Tayammum with clean earth and rub therewith your faces and hands. Allāh does not want to place you in difficulty, but He wants to purify you, and to complete His Favour on you that you may be thankful. (Al-Ma'idah 5:6)

When you washing the feet in the Qur’an during wudu
--if you read the Quranic verse wrongly, the feet are not washed
--if you read it right they are washed
--so we have to know the grammar of the Qur’an
--however for us if we don’t understand what do we do?
--this is what we will talk about insha Allah
--we talk about interpretation or "exegesis"
--it means tafseer of Qur’an (critical explanation)
--this is available to the average person
--so we read the tafseer

If you go to a library anywhere, there is a program called ashamila and it has about 40 tafseer

--so which tafseer do we read?
--some say read tafseer ibn Kathir ad- Damashqe
--others say read Dhulal al Qur’an by shaikh Saed Qutub
--others say they prefer Adwa ul Bayan by shaikh shankiti- the Mauritanian shaikh
--Al Qurtubi, zamakshari etc. there are more than 50 I came into contact with

Which one to read? This is the huge question

--copies are found in many places ranging from internet to library
--in Arabic or English
--but even for an Arab it is a huge problem
--if you ask me to read saed Qutub i will ask why?
--why him and not by Imam Al Suyuti which is a wonderful book
--so what makes you take one book and not the other
--to answer this I studied a book by a shaikh called Al Fawdhani
--Titled Manahaj al Muffasirin – the methodology of the Muffasirin
--this means e.g. you go to ibn Kathir. How did he give his interpretation?
--also imam shankiti, how did he do his book- what methodology?

For example Allah told us the story of prophet Musa's mother
--to put him in the sea if she fears losing him and Allah will bring him back to her
--however what was the name of this lady?
--Imrat Fir'aun also what was her name? How old was she?
--this is a big story but we don't even think about these
--Allah did not tell us because it is not important to us as Muslims
--what we need to learn is to take lessons of the strong faith of this woman
--we don’t care about her name or even where it happened
--also the people of the cave, the names of the people,
--the color of the dog, the ants that spoke to Suleiman (as)
--were they female or male ants?
--these things are not important to us and they don’t matter
--we take proper lessons

But there are people who really want to know these things like name of Musa's mother
--Allah said in the Qur’an surah 28:7’’ we inspired the mother of Musa’’

And We inspired the mother of Mûsa (Moses), (saying): "Suckle him [Mûsa (Moses)], but when you fear for him, then cast him into the river and fear not, nor grieve. Verily! We shall bring him back to you, and shall make him one of (Our) Messengers." (Al-Qasas 28:7)

--so where do you get the information from?
--the only available source is the Israelites in their Old Testament or Talmud
--this is because they were related to Musa (as) and were his family and descendants

The rasul (saw) taught us the law to follow

--that if their information is in harmony with our aqeeda like stoning the adulterer, we accept
--if it is something that will not harm our religion and we have no other source for it
--e.g. how old was Maryam when she had Essa (as)?
--as long as they don’t say she committed adultery we can accept
--we accept anything good about her because we know she is good
--the rasul said don’t say it is a lie and don’t say it is true
--we don’t really care as Muslims
--but if it is against our religion then we don’t accept
--like they slander the prophets in their books prophet Nuh, Lot, Dawud etc.
--this is called Al Israelites

You cannot have tafseer of Quran without Israelites

--but the Israelites have to agree with the law given
--Law of the prophet- if it agrees with your religion, accept.

If you read the beginning of ibn kathir's book he gave us his methodology
--he said there are places when he can’t find any information
--so he starts by searching the hadith first whether the rasul talked about this particular ayat
--e.g. in surah 80 there is an ayat with wa faakihatan wa abba (80:31)

And fruits and Abba (herbage, etc.), ('Abasa 80:31)

--we know the former means fruits but we don’t know wa abba
--so people asked ibn Abbas and said to him what is abba
--he said the next verse explains it and that is 80:32

(To be) a provision and benefit for you and your cattle. ('Abasa 80:32)

--that abba is food for the animals if faakihatan is food for you
--so ibn Kathir said I started looking for where the rasul said this in the hadith

There are many places where the prophet gave us indications
--Like when Allah said wa Maryamab nata Imran in surah 66:12

And Maryam (Mary), the daughter of 'Imrān who guarded her chastity (At-Tahrim 66:12)

--people say Imran was very far from Maryam so how can she be her daughter
--the prophet answered and said it’s like saying ‘you daughter of Tripoli or of Bin Laden’
--her father does not have to be called Bin Laden but it’s his family
--so she is given the honour of being named after a very important person
--so ibn Kathir gives the interpretation of why she was called the daughter of Imran

He also said sometimes you find an ayat in one place and you don’t understand it
--but if you read further you find the same ayat repeated again but with more elaboration
--so this is Quran interpreting Quran
--this, ibn Kathir calls the best way
--2nd best is if the prophet (saw) spoke about it
--3rd is if a sahabi did like ibn Abbas- sahabah interpretation
--then the eimma (scholars) of tafseer like Mujaheed the student of ibn Abbas
--if not he said he does his ijtihad to explain to the best
--ibn Kathir said if i use Israelites I tell you this is Israelites and
--I warn you not to take it at face value

The method of Shankiti is to use Quran to interpret Quran
--he leaves all the rest out
--he takes a verse and then looks at how many times this verse appears in the Quran
--and then he compares
--he did this in his book Adwa ul Bayan
--the methodology of imam Suyuti and Tabari
--the latter uses only hadeeth to interpret the verses
--Imam Qurtubi goes for the ahkam and
--he was influenced by ibn Arabi, a Maliki scholar who
--wrote a book called ahkaamul Quran (rulings of the Quran)
--imam Qurtubi will say if a person who is kafir comes to your home like in surah 9:6
--the ayat is talking about a mushrik seeking protection from you
--Allah says protect him and hide him until he hears the word of Allah
--and then let him go to his destination in safety

And if anyone of the Mushrikun (polytheists, idolaters, pagans, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah) seeks your protection, then grant him protection so that he may hear the Word of Allah (the Qur'an), and then escort him to where he can be secure, that is because they are men who know not. 9:6

--this is not a target in itself
--because maybe there is a kafir who wants to come to my home to spy on me

‘So that he may hear the Word of Allah’
--what does this phrase mean?
--maybe he just wants to come and see how my home looks like
--this is not open because i can’t let such to come to my home

Hearing the word of Allah, what does this mean?
--do you give him Quran to listen to for days?
--this will make him get bored
--how much of Quran does he have to hear?
--This is expensive because you have to feed him
--maybe he will see our women at home and take part of your rizq
--Imam Qurtubi explained the meaning of this in detail

Also if a man divorces his wife twice

--in the third time the Qur’an says bring a man from each party to arbitrate (surah 4:35)

If you fear a breach between them twain (the man and his wife), appoint (two) arbitrators, one from his family and the other from her's (An-Nisa 4:35)

--how does this court get help?
--i married a woman who was a new revert and can’t speak the language
--and if her family is not Muslim
--how can you bring a man who is not Muslim to rule on Islamic issue
--imam Qurtubi comes here to explain this

Tafseer jalalain does not bother with hadith to interpret Quran
--he deals with explaining words like alameen using another word
--One word for one word

If you want to read hukum we go to ibn Qurtubi
--because he concerned himself with ahkaamul Quran
--if you want to know the meaning of a word you go to book of jalalain
-- written by 2 men (Suyuti and muhhallil)
--if you want to take a portrait, a literature like Shakespeare
--then you go to saed Qutub
--he was very good at drawing pictures in words

He takes you on a visit if you reading his tafseer
--like his tafseer of surah Tauba you feel like he is booking for you a hotel in medina
--and taking you into the hearts of events to sit there and watch what the sahabah are doing
--like he booked you to see Omar Al Khattab
--when the sahabah were afraid in the streets and the rasul was giving them courage
--that the ladies of the Roman Empire will be your slaves
--at that time someone knocked on the door of Omar and his heart fell
--because the first thing he asked was did rasul (saw) divorce my daughter
--he was not worried about the Romans
--This is tafseer of saed Qutub-like attending the event in a theatre

But he can be misleading sometimes because he was not a scholar
--he may say one wrong word here and there
--but he does not mean the bad thing, it’s the word that means bad
--and if you have a weak heart you will misinterpret it as he hates the sahabah
--the devil deceived the Saudi Salafi into thinking Saed Qutub hated the sahabah
--so be very careful, he was not a scholar and he did not mean the words literally
--also he spoke about Muawiya and if you are not aware it is a theatre you will misinterpret

There is another tafseer by the Mutakallimeen

--these people are philosophers
--like the mu’tazilites and Asha'ira
--they one time did a great job for Islam but this became fruitless
--because we should always go back to the book- the Quran
--they use their brains instead of Quran
--but you can’t deny they did an effort

Imam Baqillani, was an Asha’ira
--he was having a debate with a Christian at one time
--who said to him your prophet's wife was accused of committing zina
--and this is not appropriate for a prophet
--Imam replied that the mother of your god was accused of zina
--but Aisha did not have a child but Maryam had a child and so she is more blameworthy
--he used his brain to explain and did not use the Quran
--he didn’t bother with that, he just used logic like philosophers

If you read the book of Imam Ar Razi you will be very baffled
--he will ask about Adam (as), where was he before- on earth or in heaven?
--and he will start answering like this;
--if he was on earth its either a place we know about or that we don’t
--and if we know about it its either we have been there or not
--this is how he keeps branching and it’s the method of the Asha’ira
--this is not good for talking to the layman
--the Soofi have no brains because of this
--they don’t understand so they give up
--they don’t understand. So anything to them can become a law
--they accept anything and will tell you i have my own ways of knowing it
--we Muslims have brains because we take our deen from Quran and Sunnah

So how do we read those books? ‘Manhaj of Mufassirin’
--insha Allah we will talk about this when shaikh assigns for us a slot
--we will go and meet the Mufassirin, where they lived, what time they lived etc.
--e.g. ibn Kathir will say ‘wa qala ibn jaafar’, who was a Tabari
--so if you read his book you are learning his book and what was said before him from Tabari
--this saves you from reading Tabari

The Muffasirin sometimes are open and are keen to give everything
--this is apparent in the Shia books
--there is a Shia tafseer but don’t ever bother reading them because they are bad
--they take Quran out of the context
--e.g. an ayat in surah Nisa they misinterpret it 4:59

O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger (Muhammad SAW), and those of you (Muslims) who are in authority. (And) if you differ in anything amongst yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger (SAW), if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day. That is better and more suitable for final determination. (An-Nisa 4:59)

It says obey Allah and obey the messengers and these are well known
--and then it says ‘and those in authority from among you’
--and if you differ in a matter refer it to Allah and his rasul
--according to them this does not exist
--for them it’s Allah, the messenger and then Ali and his children
--there is nothing like differ to them
--for them you go back to Ali if you differ
--you don’t go to Allah and the rasul
--obedience is not on ‘those from among you’
--but they put obey on it
--their books are rubbish with horrible ideas

There is also the tafseer of the Soofi
--tafseer Tustori who is a big liar
--he said alif lam mim means Allah, Gibril and Muhammad
--they make up things and when asked for the source they will say
--Allah guided their hearts and spoke to them like Allah did to Maryam and mother of Musa
--they make up a ruling and worship according to it

There were many tafseer influenced by political situations
--like saed Qutub’s book in the 50 and 60s
--Egypt was very corrupt during this time and so influenced this man by prosecution
--so if he had lived in free times he would have written better
--we will talk about how to read Quran, grammar of Quran etc.
--but for now we will talk about how to study tafseer of Quran
--we will take an ayat from a surah and look at how the ulama looked at it


--with regards to definition we talked about what sahih, daeef Hassan means
--there is a book written by Al Baani called Al silsila assaheeha- the authenticated chain
--which has hadeeth he investigated from several books
--he did a great job for the ummah in terms of hadeeth and we can’t deny this
--however, no book was intended to be perfect but Qur'an
--Al Baani's book had mistakes and was not perfect
--i studied with the medina school and those people said
--Al Baani used a methodology which they don’t condone

During the time of imam Ahmad if someone comes to you and say there was an earthquake in London
--you will just say yes and accept it
--but later it turned out that the person who told you is not trustworthy
--so if a second person comes who is trustworthy and says the same story
--there will remain a doubt in your mind
--so the ulama in the beginning were very adamant about preserving the Sunnah
--they didn’t bother about their opinion and if true it was true and if false it was false

There are men who do things to get famous
--like contradicting an alim or urinating in the well of Zam Zam
--so some people use their opinion to get famous
--there were people around Al Baani who were using this methodology
--of authenticating a weak hadeeth with a weak hadeeth

Imam Al Baani says this ‘Sahih Bemajmou Toroqeh’
--he said it is authentic because it came through many sources even if weak
--how can this be true when the sources are all weak
--so he authenticated hadeeth that were never before authentic
--so if he says a hadith is authentic I will have many doubts about it
--alot of people accepted hadeeth because it was narrated through many sources
--if you use this criteria it means the crucifixion of Jesus was true because many people said it
--however in his book al silsila daeefa, when he said a hadeeth is weak then i accept
--because it means he tried to find ways to save the hadeeth but couldn’t save it
--he was affected by politics around him and so put some hadeeth weak which are not

So where do we find the sources of hadeeth?
--there are the 9 books of hadeeth
2 sahih by Bukhari and Muslim
1 musnad of Imam Ahmad,
1 Muatta of Imam Malik and
5 sunans;
Sunan Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, an Nassai, ibn Maajar and Darimi

--these are the backbones of Sunnah
--the books of sunan had the Sunnah of rasul (saw) but the others may have other entries
--like something from 2 sahabah and not from the prophet
--and if you read these books of sunan you have to be on your feet
--this is because there is manhaj in hadeeth and it varies

E.g. there was a message sent by Abu Dawud for his sunan to the people of mecca
--he said if you see any hadeeth not authentic in my sunan i will tell you it is not
--meaning i know very well it is not authentic
--then he said a very strange word ‘whatever I haven't commented on, then it is……..
--in Arabic it said SALEH but what does that mean
--saleh means good and also means valid until!
--valid until what?

The ulama said if someone like Abu zora’a alrazi says about a man that he is saleh
--then that person is not trustworthy
--because he does not want to tell you frankly that he is bad on hadeeth
--so he uses a polite word shaikh saleh
--if he gives a hadeeth i don’t take it because he sits with everybody and takes from them

Some ulama say one way to describe an alim is to say his hadeeth can be narrated
--but can’t be used as hujjah
--e.g. if brother AT12 tells me to go out because there is something outside
--i will take his word but will not go out
--but if shaikh Faisal said it then i will accept and go because it is hujjah
--there is a saying ‘take his hadeeth just to make people laugh’
--so what is saleh for?
--maybe for education
--e.g. if someone says to me if you stay at home and not go out you will get reward from Allah
--this is not hadeeth but SALEH; it’s good advice.
--the ulama wrote many books on this saleh and there is a lot of debate about it

Imam Bukhari liked this word ‘feehi nadhar’
--it means ‘in it, look at’ or this needs to be looked at
--if imam Bukhari said a man should be looked at throw him in the toilet
--because he was extremely polite so instead of saying he is lying he will say feehi nadhar
--meaning throw him out