Thursday, November 17, 2011

-8- Mostalah (Hadeeth) Class

MOSTALAH (HADEETH) CLASS BY ABU ABDULLAH
15th November, 2011

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Bismillah

-you probably know my PhD was in History and my Masters was in Hadeeth

-there’s not much difference between history and Hadeeth
-except that the balancing scale we use to measure Hadeeth is not the same as history
-in history it’s open, whereas in Hadeeth it is strict because we take hujjah from it
-e.g. marriage, divorce and many other things with Hadeeth
-but with history it’s history, it’s not going to change anything, but Hadeeth does
-that’s why we are very strict and careful with Hadeeth
-please refer to the previous lessons

TODAY WE WILL TALK ABOUT:

THE HISTORY OF THE UMMAH AND HOW IT AFFECTED HADEETH


-my PhD in History was on ‘the year between 40AH to 65AH and its effects on the Ummah politically’
-this was the period we lost our Khalifah Uthman (RA) and Ali ibn Abi Talib (RA)
-and Hussain ibn Ali (RA); they were all killed
-groups started to develop, the people started fighting each other, for the first time ever
-a Muslim carried a sword against another Muslim during this period
-and to give victory to their own conviction and belief, people lied
-Subhan’Allah many people have lied, Alhamdulillah it was not the Ahlus Sunnah that lied, it was the Shia
-with the presence of the Shia, you can expect all sorts of troubles

The worst thing happened after Ali was killed; the Muslims were in a dilemma
-because Ali (RA) inherited the same army which was fighting with Uthman (RA)
-Uthman (RA) inherited the army that was with Umar ibn Al-Khattab (RA)
-Umar inherited from Abu Bakr (RA) and Abu Bakr inherited from the Prophet (SAW)
-so it was the main Muslim army that was with the Prophet (SAW) and passed on from:

Prophet > Abu Bakr > Umar > Uthman > Ali


-this big army was with Hassan ibn Ali
-there were some Sahabah with Muawiya (RA), but they were not the majority
-the majority were with Ali (RA)
-they were all geographically dispersed, they were originally from Madina and Makkah
-some of them were living in Iraq, and many Sahabah were buried in Iraq
-i.e. Ali, Mugheera ibn Shu’bah, Ammar ibn Yaasir, Talha bin Ubaidullah,
-Zubayr ibn al-Awwaam (RA) were all buried in Iraq
-and one in Jordan, Abu Ubaidah Amir bin Abdullah bin al-Jarrah (RA)
-that’s 40% of the Asharatul Mubashsharaa (10 guaranteed paradise)

Narrated By Sa'id ibn Zayd: AbdurRahman ibn al-Akhnas said that when he was in the mosque, a man mentioned Ali (RA). So Sa'id ibn Zayd got up and said: ‘I bear witness that I heard the Messenger of Allah (SAW) say: ‘Ten persons will go to Paradise: The Prophet (SAW) will go to Paradise, Abu Bakr (RA) will go to Paradise, Umar (RA) will go to Paradise, Uthman (RA) will go to Paradise, Ali (RA) will go to Paradise, Talhah (RA) will go to Paradise: Az-Zubayr ibn al-Awwam (RA) will go to paradise, Saad ibn Abi Waqqas (RA) will go to Paradise, Abu Ubaydah ibn Jarrah (RA), and Abdur Rahman ibn Awf (RA) will go to Paradise. If you wish, I can mention the tenth.’ The people asked: ‘Who is he?’ but he kept silence. They again asked: ‘Who is he?’ He replied: ‘He is Sa'id ibn Zayd (RA).’” [Abu Dawud, Book 35, Hadeeth #4632]

-many of the Sahabah were dispersed and many of them never returned
-i.e. Anas ibn Malik never returned to Madina, he stayed in Iraq
-Khalid ibn Waleed was buried in Syria

PROBLEM 1: MANY OF THE SAHABAH WERE DISPERSED

-this was a huge problem
-this meant the people who collected the ilm (knowledge) from the Sahabah were not Sahabah
-and they were not even from Makkah or Madina, so they didn’t know the language

PROBLEM 2: THE LANGUAGE OF QURAISH IS DIFFERENT FROM THE LANGUAGE OF OTHER PEOPLE

-so in Hadeeth this becomes a big problem
-you would expect Iraq to bring out the best, unfortunately this didn’t happen
-the worst things happened starting from Iraq, the land of Fitan (tests)
-started by the arrival of the Shia, these people are very bad liars
-as a means to Allah, you pray to Allah, as for the Shia they lie to please Allah, for them lying is worship
-also the Khawarij came from Iraq

PROBLEM 3: BECAUSE OF THE WAY HADEETH WAS DOCUMENTED

-it was first documented in the year 99 AH, by orders from Ameer Al-Mu’mineen, Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (RH)
-he was the first to say start recording Hadeeth, and it went on after that
-all the Khulafa were giving money to people who find Hadeeth, so people would go looking for it everywhere
-i.e. in Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Iraq, Bahrain, Oman, Yemen etc.
-they were collecting Hadeeth from all over the place
-this collection process was going on for a long time, before it went into books
-the first book was produced by Imam Malik (RH)
-this is why when Imam Malik wrote his book and made his Madhab, he was Malik ibn Anas
-and this was in the beginning of the first century
-with time passing it became more and more difficult


PROBLEM 4: AFTER EARLY IMAMS (i.e. Imam Shafi’i and Abu Hanifa) PEOPLE STARTED TO MAKE OPINIONS

-Imam Abu Hanifa (RH); he was from the house working for Anas Ibn Malik (RA) who was a Sahabi
-the Sahabah had the courage to give opinion, why? Because the Prophet (SAW) told them to
-Imam Abu Hanifa was an opinion man, he learned this from the Sahabah, he met Sahabah
-he’s very early unlike Imam Ahmad Ibn Hambal, who came along time after Abu Hanifa, both from Iraq
-but when Imam Ahmad Ibn Hambal came, there was no point for making opinion
-e.g. you say it’s enough to do this; wash your hands, mouth and feet
-another person wants to become the boss so he gives his own opinion and say
- it’s enough to put water on feet without washing them

At the time of Abu Hanifa he was able to this, at the time of Ahmad he was unable to this
-all that was available and what’s available until now, today, is to read the books
-the Prophet said so, so you follow the Prophet, finished, you don’t give your opinion because you’re not qualified

E.g. if I was there in person at the time when they were building, I can give an opinion
-because I saw how it was built, I’m entitled to do that
-but if I was never there and I came 100 years later, I don’t know how it was built so I can’t give an opinion
-I have to read the maps of what was left by the original architects

For Imam Abu Hanifa he was able to give his opinions, whereas other Imams weren’t able to
-Imam Shafi’i had this opportunity too, better than those after him, he was very early
-when Imam Shafi’i wrote his books, at that time there was no problems
-so we cannot have a problem with the authenticity of those books by Imam Shafi’i or Imam Abu Hanifa
-it’s definitely from Imam Shafi’i and Abu Hanifa, we haven’t got a problem with that
–the problem started afterwards, when the people i.e. students of Abu Hanifa started to make opinions

PROBLEM 5: DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MADHHABS

-the people of Iraq had Hanafi only, until Imam Ahmad came
-who is totally different from Imam Abu Hanifa in his approach
-Imam Abu Hanifa as mentioned earlier was Imam Ahl al Ra’i (Imam of People of Opinion)
-in the time of Imam Ahmad it was not possible to give opinions, and would better stick with Hadeeth
-Imam Ahmad said I would prefer to use a daeef Hadeeth (weak, not authentic), than give my opinion
-it was right for him at his time, but for us, things are totally different
-we have to view our religion like Imam Ahmad, because we are very late, we never had this strength

PROBLEM 6: WITH THE BOOKS


-one of the problems; if we have a book, it may be attributed to one Imam without even considering its authenticity
-e.g. Imam Bukhari, it’s definitely written by him, but how do we know it’s from Imam Bukhari?
-it’s all by Ijaza, 10 people had recited this in front of Imam Bukhari, they had his signature and stamp
-you can’t argue with this, it’s the same for Imam Tirmidhi, Imam Abu Dawood,
-those books have been authenticated, you don’t need sanad for them
-but there are other books that have problems e.g. Sharh-us-Sunnah by Imam Al-Barbahari (d. 329 H)
-Imam Al-Barbahari was Hanbali and came a long time after Imam Ahmad
-the book has problems, why? because he was calling for things in that book
-which may make you think
-wallahi I don’t believe this could be said by the Prophet (SAW) or this could be Islam
-e.g. not naming Ali ibn Abi Talib
-i.e. it was good at the time of Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman, but when it’s the 4th, he says, who was the 4th?
-that’s someone who doesn’t like Ali ibn Abi Talib, who calls him the 4th

Brother Abu Abdullah’s Opinion RE: Sharh-us-Sunnah by Imam Al-Barbahari
-there are Shaikhs who have made efforts, to say this book (Sharh-us-Sunnah) is authentic
-but I don’t believe so, I have a problem with that
-the book by Barbahari (Sharh-us-Sunnah) is the backbone for the neo-salafis, they quote him so heavily
-but in the end it turns out the book was not even authentic, it was written by someone else
-to know and be sure this is the case, you go and read the sanad of the book
-it ends up at a man, named Ghulam Ahmad
-Ghulam Ahmad had nothing to do Barbahari, he is actually a weak person


PROBLEM 7: THE MU’TAZILA

-we know that the Asha’ira have come from and offshoot from Mu’tazila, but how did Mu’tazila come about?
-during the time of Hasan Al-Basri in the first century in Iraq while he was teaching in his own halaqah
-a Christian came and said: you say Quran is Kalamullah (Word of Allah), he said yes
-the Christian said: you know that Eesa ibn Maryam is Kalamullah, he said yes
-the Christian said: is the Quran created? He said no
-the Christian said: if Eesa ibn Maryam is Kalamullah and Quran is Kalamullah, then Eesa ibn Maryam is not created
-the Christian said: if he is not created then he is the creator
-this is stupid logic, but he used it, which is what the Christians want to hear
-so in order to deprive them of this, the Mu’tazila said the Quran is created
-this created a huge problem which caused thousands of people to get killed
-because of this; is the Quran created or not?
-Imam Ahmad went to prison because of this
-the people who chose to say the Quran is created, said we will abandon Imam Hasan Al-Basri
-they are called the abandoners (Mu’tazila)

They left and started to put things within the context of their own brain
-so if the Quran says something and their brain says different, they make the Quran obey their brain
-e.g. we know Allah is the High
-if I’m in London, high for me is not the same as for someone in South Africa
-because that’s the other side of earth
-so what is high when you say Allah is the All-High, what does that mean?
-this is a question that came to their minds and they started to have problems
-we are talking with limited human brains
-so if Allah is High in one direction and He can be High in all directions because it’s Allah (SWT)
-the dimensions of x y z apply only to our little brains
-because of Allah’s Power and Might, x y z does not apply to Him
-so those Mu’tazila were so stupid, they said Allah in not High, so if He is not High, where is He?
-they said Allah is everywhere, where is everywhere? They say everywhere
-does that mean in my stomach? they say yes, He is everywhere like the air
-this Aqeeda is haram

it is narrated that the companion Mu`awiyah ibn al-Hakam, (RA) slapped his servant girl who used to tend his sheep, and as a result went to the Prophet (SAWS) and asked what should be done as an atonement for having slapped her. The Prophet replied, "Bring her to me" so Mu`awiyah brought her to the Prophet. The Prophet then asked her, "Where is Allah?" and she replied "Above the Sky" then the Prophet asked her, "Who am I?" and she replied, "You are Allah’s Messenger", so the Prophet said, "Free her, for verily she is a true believer." (Saheeh Muslim, Hadith #1094)

The Height of Allah is something that is clearly in the Quran, and you can’t deny it

سَبِّحِ اسْمَ رَبِّكَ الأَعْلَى
[سُورَة الأعلَى : 1]
Glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most High, (Al-A'la 87:1)

-don’t go using your stupid little brain to judge that
-because your brain can only understand x y, 2 dimensions
-if you could understand 3 dimensions, you’d be happy
-now they are talking about 4 dimensions as if it is something new
-Allah (SWT) creates your eyes that help you see in all the dimensions, which works perfectly!

NEXT PROBLEM THE MU’TAZILA HAD: FACE OF ALLAH

وَيَبْقَى وَجْهُ رَبِّكَ ذُو الْجَلاَلِ وَالإِكْرَامِ
[سُورَة الرَّحمَان : 27]
And the Face of your Lord full of Majesty and Honour will abide forever. (Ar-Rahman 55:27)


The Face of Allah is clearly there
-they say Wajh (face) here, cannot mean the same Wajh (face) like mine, yes we agree it can’t be like yours
-they say Wajh here means direction! Why can’t you say Wajh here is Wajh? Because Allah said so
-they just don’t accept it, they don’t want to accept Allah’s Words in the Quran
-so they try to interpret Allah’s Words into different meanings

NEXT PROBLEM THE MU’TAZILA HAD: ALLAH HAS HANDS

يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ ...
[سُورَة الفَتح : 10]
...The Hand of Allāh is over their hands... (Al-Fath 48:10)

- YAD means hand, so it is obvious
-it does not mean hand like my hand, or the watches hand, or arm of a chair or statue, not a hand like that
-but Allah says He has a Hand, so we say, yes it’s a hand, how is the hand? We say we don’t know
-we don’t talk about how, we leave out the how, but you have to say yes there is a hand.
-you don’t imagine hand like you see 5 fingers, it’s not a measurable thing, you don’t quantify it
-Hand is Hand you accept it, Face is Face, you accept it, you don’t go any further

YOU READ IT, YOU BELIEVE IT AND YOU ACCEPT IT

-the Asha’ira started making problems for themselves by saying, Hand here means Force
-but Allah (SWT) says in the same Quran:

... وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ يَدُ اللَّهِ مَغْلُولَةٌ غُلَّتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَلُعِنُوا بِمَا قَالُوا بَلْ يَدَاه ُُ مَبْسُوطَتَانِ
[سُورَة المَائِدَه : 64]
The Jews say: "Allāh's Hand is tied up (i.e. He does not give and spend of His Bounty)." Be their hands tied up and be they accursed for what they uttered. Nay, both His Hands are widely outstretched... (Al-Ma'idah 5:64)


-Allah says Two Hands here, what about that?
-If one hand is forces, does that mean two hands means two forces?
-so they started having problems, with verbal, literal and language
-you can easily fall between people and each other

PROBLEM 8: THE ASHAA’IRA

-the Asha’ira was started by Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (d. 324 H)
-deviated from the main original Mu’tazila way
-the Mu’tazila have so many problems, not just the ones stated earlier
-they tried to work their minds, but when you work your mind, you will get to a stage
-where you will fall on your face, because you are using it beyond logic

e.g. someone could say my bag is better than nothing and nothing is better than my wife
-therefore my bag is better than my wife
-that’s logic for you!
-that is what the Asha’ira and Mu’tazila have done
-they don’t accept Allah put in the Quran, He has Hand and Face, and is High, they don’t accept it
-they came to a point when things started to become murky
-we as Muslims accept that they have deviated
-they’re not Kaafirs, you don’t put Takfeer on these people
-because of their own interpretation, they started to have problems amongst themselves


Within Asha’ira they themselves have put deviation on each other

-they call each other deviated
-Asha’ira Maturidi, they are good people, most famous of them, in Afghanistan, the Taliban
-the differences come in so many forms and so many ways
-it has now become quite difficult to consider bringing people together now, its next to impossible
-Goofy Sufis have called themselves Asha’ira, but they are not Asha’ira in the first place
-they have nothing in common with the real Asha’ira from the early centuries

We have many good Ulama who are from Asha’ira
e.g. Imam An-Nawawi (d. 676 H), Imam Ibn Hajar al-Ashqalani (d. 852 H), Imam Al-Baqillani (d. 402 H)
-Imam Al-Bayhaqi (d. 458 H), Imam Al-Suyuti (d. 849 H), so many are from Asha’ira
-so we can’t call Asha’ira bad things, don’t ever do that
-but you can say the original Asha’ira, were on better terms with Islam than the later ones i.e. Goofy Sufis
-the Goofy Sufis have horribly deviated to grave worshipping etc., the first Asha’ira were nothing like that
-the differences have become so huge, the people started to put takfeer on each other

E.g. in the early days when Hanabila came, they used to say bad things about Ahnaaf, why?

-because they were co-living together in the same country, Iraq
-there was a man calling Abu Hanifa, Abu Jifa (circus man) calling him very bad names
-until one day he went to the toilet and he died, Allah disgraced him
-toilets in those days were not like now
-they were far away from the mosque and you go do your thing
-where the man died, the smell came out and the people said who is that?
-he became the circus man himself not Imam Abu Hanifa
-so it’s bad to call the Ulama bad names; the real Ulama, not the current ones who are shambles

TO CONCLUDE ON THE BOOKS
-the books are mostly authentic, but Hadeeth is totally different
-DIWAN is a book in which they collect all the poems of one man e.g. Imam Shaafi
-this book doesn’t need sanad because it is too famous
-it was written by hundreds of students and they all agreeing to the letter
-all Diwans are mostly right, the reason is because you can’t cheat in poetry

Stay chaste and your women will be chaste, and save yourself from that which is unfit for a Muslim. Verily, adultery is a debt, if you have taken this debt, know that its payment will be taken from the people of your household. One who commits adultery, inreturn adultery will be commited with him, even though it will be commited against the wall of your house. O man! If you are wise then you should know it (Diwan Ash-Shafi'i)

-we accept because they are encouraging people to do good things i.e. keep chaste
-so we don’t need sanad for that, we just accept it for what it is

PROBLEM 9: THE SHIA

-one of the groups that came out at that time were the Shia
-I would like to give you an understanding of the Shia, because that was one part of my studies
-the Shia that we have today (who worship the 12 Imams) are not the Shia at the time of Ali (RA)
-these people today are nothing, they are creation of the Majoos (Fire Worshippers of Persia)
-I would never call them Shia, it would be an honour for them to be called Shia
-so don’t call them Shia, don’t even call them Rawafid
-the Rawafid are better than those statue worshippers
-these people today were made by Majoos, they are not Shia
-Ali ibn Abi Talib would never accept them as Shia, or even one of his sons
-the first ones that fought with Ali, that’s the Shia of Ali
-then the ones who stood with Hasan were the Shia of Ali
-but the ones who were with Hussain were not the Shia of Ali
-they were the traitors of Iraq (the Majoos) so don’t mix them together

THE ORIGINAL SHIA WERE OF TWO FORMS

FIRST FORM: The normal form, who used to say Ali (RA) should have taken Khilafah before Uthman (RA)
-they did not have a problem with Abu Bakr taking Khilafah
-after the death of Umar (RA) there were 6 people chosen
-they wanted Ali (RA) to take over after Umar (RA), that was their opinion
-these people are not Kaafir, the problem started afterwards

SECOND FORM: when people said Ali was divine
-and will come back at end of times and do things like Jesus
-this is where things started to become bad and those people worshipped Ali
-these are the ones similar to the ones we have now
-but even they were not as bad as the ones we have now
-Abdullah ibn Saba said bad things, but he wasn’t as bad as the ones we have today

Insha’Allah next time we shall read how hadith can come from these people
-because they are available in our books
-we need to understand what they were like