Monday, December 5, 2011

-11- Mostalah (Hadeeth) Class by Abu Abdullah

Mostalah (Hadeeth) Class by Abu Abdullah
29th November, 2011


-the topic of ilal is a huge topic
-please do your best to learn
-because we will all die and will be asked 3 questions in the grave
1. Who is your Lord?
2. What is your religion?
3. What do you know about the man that was sent?

Bara (RA) reported from the Prophet (SAW) about this verse: "Allah keeps the believers firm with the stable word in the worldly life and in the Hereafter." (14:27) He explained that this has reference to the grave when it is asked, “Who is your Lord? What is your religion and who was your Prophet?” [Bukhari 1369, Muslim 2871, Abu Dawud 4750, Tirmidhi 3131, Nisai 2056, Ibn e Majah 4269]

-and you can’t answer by saying my shaikh said so
-you can’t answer my shaikh said the prophet told us not to do this
-because you will be alone with no help from anyone
-so please be careful

In order to judge a hadith, it will have 2 main parts like any news
-if I tell you we heard a British soldier was killed in Afghanistan
-the news is the body and there was a person who reported it
-so the hadith has 2 parts:
1. who said it, the person
2. the body of the hadith; the news itself

These 2 parts together form what is called a hadith
-I may also give you one piece of extra information
-e.g. in Imam Tirmidhi’s book I might say Aisha told us so and so
-so now we have 3 pieces of information:
1. The hadith itself
2. Imam Tirmidhi has told us this hadith
3. Imam Tirmidhi gave us the hadith from the mouth of Aisha

-or maybe the situation requires you to give more than that
-so I will say Aisha told us by way of Safiyya bint Abi Shaybah
-or even Mus’ab ibn Abi Shaybah said Safiyya said, Aisha said
-so I give 3 names
-or one step further and say Shoabi heard from Mus’ab
-or we can add Ma’mar said
-and then the name of Imam Muslim himself

-then i tell you what the prophet said
-then you take the 5 names and go to the book Tahdheed at Tahdheed
-but we don’t have a problem with the prophet (saw) and Aisha
-because Allah judged Aisha
-but you have the right to judge the rest from the books
-like Imam Hajar said Mus'ab was not a good narrator
-so when you read that you start to doubt
-maybe the hadith was authentic or not

1. BODY, THE MATN (the news itself)
2. THE PEOPLE THAT SAID IT e.g. Imam Bukhari said it etc.

-you make your opinion based on these two points
-if this is the structure of the hadith it may have illness
-those illnesses are pitfalls like any human body
-the body of the hadith may also have its illnesses
-because the whole structure has 2 parts; so there may be ilal;
-in the body or in the narrators of the hadith
-there is no other place apart from these two

The types of ilal can be:
1. Illa dhaheera (apparent illness)
2. Illa khafiyaa (in apparent illness)

-an apparent illness is maybe imam Abu Dawood goes out to the library
-and he sees a man narrating a hadith
-and asked the man where did you hear this hadith?
-the man said from Imam Ahmad
-so Abu Dawood will say the hadith is from Imam Ahmad
-but he did not meet the person who said it
-maybe in this case he did meet Imam Ahmad
-but how about if the person was dead
-like e.g. your mother tells you about your granddad who died before you were born
-you taking the information from a 3rd party
-Abu Dawood met Ahmad and he can verify
-but you cannot verify from your grand dad

So how do you verify?
-this hadith is called hadith Moallaq
-they give you information but not the source of it
-imam Bukhari sometimes will say and Aisha said so but he did not meet her
-if the source of the hadith is not mention then the hadith is Moallaq

A hadith needs to be heard by a sahabi
-if not heard by him then who heard it
-so if he is absent then it’s a Mursal hadith
-this is another type of apparent illness

Sometimes a shaikh will go to his mosque and hear a hadith
-from someone trustworthy
-and then he writes it in his book
-but his shaikh did not meet the person above him
-so there is a cut in the chain
-so the hadith is Munqatee
-this is another apparent illness

Sometimes there are more than 2 cuts that are not continuous in the chain
-this is hadith Moadal

You bring out a book with the names of births and deaths of people
-it’s like a dictionary
-e.g. that of Imam Ahmad, his year of birth and death
-so we use this to calculate
-we check whether the people in the chain met or not
-if not then we know there is a cut and an apparent illness
-in the sanad

-this is where things are most difficult; to spot it
-e.g. you have a person who wants to pass his hadith for one reason or another
-he wants to have authority and says he learnt from shaikh Abdullah
-but we know our shaikh is called Abdullah Faisal
-but he wants to convince you so he says i heard from the Jamaican shaikh
-so we interpret it as Shaikh Abdullah Faisal
-he gave the nationality and we misinterpreted his words
-but he did not mean shaikh Abdullah Faisal
-this is an illness in the chain
-but it is in apparent
-he lied, yes but it is not apparent
-he heard it from an Abdullah
-meaning a slave of Allah
-and he is from Jamaica but he is not Abdullah Faisal
-he just used a generalized form to pass his authority
-this is happening in Tadlees
-it is called Tadlees of countries
-he is using the name of a country to cheat

A man called Bakiyya ibn Al Waleed used this
-he is a very bad man
-there is another form where the person says qala Abu Muhammad
-who is Abu Muhammad?
-normally it is ibn Haazim we are talking about
-but there are many people called Abu Muhammad
-but he used that name to convince you that it’s from shaikh Abu Muhammad al Maqdisi
-but he was referring to his friend not al Maqdisi
-this is called Tadlees al Kunaa

There is one form in which they hide the name in the middle
-e.g. i come and ask what shaikh Faisal said during dars
-so AT7 tells me shaikh Faisal said so and so
-so later when somebody asks me I say shaikh Faisal said so and so
-but the ulama know that AT4 was not present on that day
-so how did he get it, there must be a name in the middle
-so i dropped the name of AT7 that was in the middle
-because I don’t want people to doubt me
-this is very bad and there are people who do this often
-they drop the name because they don’t want to lose people's trust
-i expect people to believe me
-but if i should mention the middle name people will doubt me so i drop it

Imam Zuhari was known to do this
-imam Dhahabi said if Al Zuhari give you a hadith and
-did not tell you who gave him the hadith, don’t take it
-because he was known to be a good memorizer
-so how can he forget to tell us who told him
-he was not a sahabi so he did not meet the prophet

Imam Hassan Al Basri also, if he tells you the prophet said, don’t take it
-who told you Mr. Basri, where did you learn it
-so we don’t take it, especially there is a hadith in Bukhari
-it came as a report not a hadith
-Imam Bukhari said and Al- Zuhari said when the revelation came
-the rasul wanted to throw himself because he was so afraid
-but Zuhari never met the prophet so how did he get it
-this is a balagh
-even though it is in sahih Bukhari we don’t take it
-these are in apparent illnesses

There is a man called Ateiya ibn Saad al Awfee
-he is a narrator and then you read his hadith
-he said an Abi Saed qala…
-but who is Abu Saed?
-you will expect he is talking about Abu Saed al Khedri who was a sahabi
-but if he is actually using the name Abu Saed only we have to stop. Why?
-because there is another Abu Saed called Abu Saed al Kalbi
-who is a kaafir and a bad liar
-he used to worship Ali

One of the things he said is that when the rasul (saw) was given the inspiration
-he wanted to go to answer to the call of nature
-so Gibril completed the inspiration with Ali
-this is kufr because the Qur’an was revealed to only the prophet
-we are also always in doubt when he said an Abi Saed
-to know whether he was talking about the sahabi or the liar
-there are 1000s that come in this form
-an Ateiya, an Abi Saed

What do we do about this person?
-i personally don’t accept hadith from him
-because he lied once and
-there is nothing to prevent him from lying again
-the ulama differ about him
-but personally I will accept his hadith,
-if the hadith is not about Ali,
-or he tells me Al Khedri said so clearly
-but i believe Al Baani passed some hadith from this man
-but for me i don’t take from him
-why? Because he is fooling us and cheating
-and if he cheats once i have to be careful

There may be apparent illness in the wording of the hadith
-how? You may get a hadith that is an obvious lie
-like the hadith of Asma in which they said she went
-to rasul’s house and was not wearing covered clothes
-so the rasul (saw) told her you are not allowed but the palms and face

Narrated By 'Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin: Asma, daughter of Abu Bakr, entered upon the Apostle of Allah (pbuh) wearing thin clothes. The Apostle of Allah (pbuh) turned his attention from her. He said: O Asma', when a woman reaches the age of menstruation, it does not suit her that she displays her parts of body except this and this, and he pointed to her face and hands. [Abu Dawud, Book 27, Hadith #4092]

Meaning women should be covered except the face and palms
-this hadith is an apparent lie, why?
-because Asma is a graduate of Abu Bakr’s school
-she is his daughter
-and his school don’t have graduates who do that
-whether the rasul said so or not is a rule for them
-and no woman will never go into the rasul’s house without being covered
-whether being from the school of Abu Bakr or not

You may find another hadith called TISATU RAHT
-in musnad of Imam Ahmad
-in which ibn Abbas came to a mosque and met 9 people
-at the time when people were fighting about Ali ibn Abi Talib
-whether he is deserving to be Khalifah or not
-someone said ibn Abbas said there are things about Ali which are good
-that you cannot doubt
-that he slept in the place of the prophet (saw) on the night of hijra
-in another bit it said Abu Bakr did not go with rasul on the night
-and referred to Abu Bakr as fulaan
-this is a word used to refer to a person you don’t like
-and are embarrassed to show your hatred for the person

From Umar ibn Maymun: "I was sitting once in the company of Ibn `Abbas when nine men came to him and said `O Ibn `Abbas! Either come to debate with us, or tell these folks that you prefer a private debate.' He had not lost his eye-sight yet. He said: `I rather debate with you.' So they started talking, but I was not sure exactly what they were talking about. Then he stood up and angrily said: `They are debating about a man who has ten merits nobody else ever had. They are arguing about a man whom the holy Prophet has said, `I shall dispatch a man whom Allah shall never humiliate, one who loves Allah and His Messenger and who is loved by both,' so each one of them thought to him such an honour belonged. The holy Prophet inquired about `Ali. When the latter came unto him, with his eyes swelling in ailment, he blew in his eyes, shook the standard thrice and gave it to him. `Ali came back victorious with Safiyya bint Huyay [al-Akhtab] among his captives.'" Ibn `Abbas proceeded to say, "Then the Messenger of Allah sent someone with surat al-Tawbah, but he had to send `Ali after him to discharge the responsibility, saying: `Nobody can discharge it except a man who is of me, and I am of him.'" Ibn `Abbas also said, "The Messenger of Allah, with `Ali sitting beside him, asked his cousins once: `Who among you elects to be my wali in this life and the life hereafter?' They all declined, but `Ali said: `I would like to be your wali in this life and the life to come,' whereupon he responded by saying: `You are, indeed, my wali in this life and the life hereafter.'" Ibn `Abbas continues to say that `Ali was the first person to accept Islam after Khadija, and that the Messenger of Allah took his own robe and put it over `Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husayn, then recited the verse saying: "Allah wishes to remove all abomination from you, O Ahl al-Bayt [people of my household] and purify you with a perfect purification (Qur'an, 33:33)." He has also said: "`Ali bought his own soul. He put on the Prophet's garment and slept in his bed when the infidels sought to murder him," till he says: "The Messenger of Allah went on Tabuk expedition accompanied by many people. `Ali asked him: `May I join you?' The Messenger of Allah refused, whereupon `Ali wept. The Prophet then asked him: `Does it not please you that your status to me is similar to that of Aaron's to Moses, except there is no Prophet after me? It is not proper for me to leave this place before assigning you as my vicegerent.' The Messenger of Allah has also said the following to him: `You are the wali of every believing man and woman.'" Ibn `Abbas has said: "The Messenger of Allah closed down all doors leading to his mosque except that of `Ali who used to enter the mosque on his way out even while in the state of janaba. The Messenger of Allah has also said: `Whoever accepts me as the wali, let him/her take `Ali as the wali, too.'". [Musnad Ahmad, Vol. 1, p331]

It is in sahih Muslim that Aisha referred to Ali as fulaan
-but if you say it’s ibn Abbas that said so it’s a lie
-because ibn Abbas was a follower and gave his bay’a to Abu Bakr
-it must have been a Shia that referred to Abu Bakr as fulaan
-people who see these are those that have the insight
-the heart to find out little speck in the wording
-ibn Taymiyya found this out and said ibn Abbas will never say this

Narrated By Az-Zuhari: Ubaidullah bin 'Abdullah told me that 'Aisha had said, "When the Prophet became sick and his condition became serious, he requested his wives to allow him to be treated in my house, and they allowed him. He came out leaning on two men while his feet were dragging on the ground. He was walking between Al-'Abbas and another man." 'Ubaidullah said, "When I informed Ibn 'Abbas of what 'Aisha had said, he asked me whether I knew who was the second man whom 'Aisha had not named. I replied in the negative. He said, 'He was 'Ali bin Abi Talib." [Sahih Bukhari, Vol 3, Book 47, Hadith #761]

There is another bit that people in Arabic countries take for granted

-this decision is incorporated by ulama called Al Allamaa Sulayman Al Ulwaan
-it is about Ali sleeping in place of the prophet (saw)
-it is an obvious lie but people accept it
-Allah said in surah 36: 9

وَجَعَلْنَا مِنْ بَيْنِ أَيْدِيهِمْ سَدّا ً وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ سَدّا ً فَأَغْشَيْنَاهُمْ فَهُمْ لاَ يُبْصِرُونَ
[سُورَة يَا-سِين : 9]
And We have put a barrier before them, and a barrier behind them, and We have covered them up, so that they cannot see. (Ya-Sin 36:9)

-Allah has made them blind and they can’t see
-firstly, the kuffar on that night could not see the rasul (saw)
-so why will someone sleep in his place
-secondly, the story also goes that Ali slept in his place
-so that the kuffar will think the rasul is sleeping there
-and they stayed until he came out
-I will now ask, if Ali was sleeping in his place and people could see him
-from the outside, then it means the rasul was sleeping outside

If they can’t see and Allah is protecting the rasul, Ali’s protection is not needed
-thirdly, the body of Ali was different from the body of rasul (saw)
-so if he wanted that, he could have just put stones in his place
-and even if they can see how could they see inside the house
-rasul was more than 40years old and Ali was just 16
-how can you put a 16 year old man and expect people to think they the same
-the prophet will never risk the life of Ali like that
-and if they wanted to kill they would have killed without removing the cover
-so this is an in apparent illness
-Imam Tirmidhi has a book on ilal

Another illa which is not apparent is if you find a hadith
-in which it said Ali said and the prophet said; it is hadith Marfooa
-but if you find a hadith in which it said Ali said without rasul said
-it is a hadith mawqoof
-this is an in apparent illness
-it needs an alim to be able to detect it

You may also find a hadith which was narrated MAQLUUBAN
-how? The sequence of events happen as 1, 2 and 3
-and then you read it somewhere but the sequence has changed
-why is it in apparent illness
-I as a student am reading what is in front of me and I see the names as trustworthy
-so I give the hadith to my teacher and say hadith sahih
-he will tell me no, it is not
-because the same hadith appears in majma zawaij and it does not say Anas and then the prophet
-it just said Anas said
-so now we have to stop and ask, is it true or not
-so the alim has the ability to do that by checking the narrators

This is why sometimes the ulama refer to someone as al hafidh
-meaning a memorizer
-it was given to people who could recount 100,000 hadith by memory
-like al hafidh ibn Hajar
-Imam Bukhari has a higher degree than that, he memorized a million hadith
-he is called Amir al Mu’mineen in hadith
-there is also something called Al Haakim, a person who memorizes 500, 000 hadith
-like An Naishaburi

They are better than me because they have all these in their memory
-if you tell them one hadith they find out how many times and where the hadith occurred
-sometimes you find 7 men in the chain
-and you find the same hadith in another place but with a cut in the chain
-or one person in the chain did not say who told him the hadith

There is a man from kuufa who is Shia
-he was imam in hadith
-but sometimes he gives the name of his shaikh
-or the name of the shaikh of his shaikh and not the name of his shaikh
-and we want to know what is happening
-so the ulama have what is called AL ESTEQRAA
-it means to bring out all the evidences and compare their occurrence
-to read and further read all the works and start comparing
-sometimes you find out that he drops the name of his shaikh,
-if it is hadith of Fada’il, the one on Ali
-when it’s on salah or saum he does not drop
-this person was good but he is Shia
-and he knows if we read we will definitely reject the hadith

-if we don’t like them, why do we have them in our books
-the answer is very simple
-Ali went to live in kuufa in Iraq
-and he made it the capital of the khilafah
-he was killed and buried there
-and some sahabah never went back to medina
-so we have to expect Shia there
-we have to accept it, what can we do?
-the people that were with him were Shia
-but there were good Shia and bad Shia at that time
-for now a good Shia is a dead Shia
-the good ones are people who preferred Ali to Uthman
-but they don’t make takfeer on him
-they did not make takfeer on all the sahabah

The bad types are those that worship Ali
-they are Kaafirs
-and there is consensus on that
-like ibn Al Kalbi
-Ma’mar was also Shia and Abdur Razzaq but they were the good ones
-but the latter had a nephew who wrote hadith about Ali in his books
-but he did not write them
-he himself as an imam had no problem
-Al A’mash also was a Shia
-he used to say hadith for fun
-to show how people can be stupid
-he will say we narrated them as jokes and some people made them a religion

Today we talked about ilal in sanad and Matn
-apparent and in apparent illnesses
-and the latter need ulama to detect
-like ilal of country, shuyukh, single name etc.
-there are hadith you may expect to come from Sufyan ibn Uyaynah
-and not Sufyan at Thawri
-these are in apparent illness
-and in the wording we have the hadith of ibn Abbas
-where they claimed he called Abu Bakr fulaan
-but the hadith may escape you if you are not careful and knowledgeable
-but it did not pass ibn Taymiyya
-and also me when we talked about the hadith of Ali sleeping in rasul’s house

How can someone sleep in the prophet’s room?
-it is impossible near hijrah because the prophet was married
-where was his wife or his daughters?
-if his wife Khadija was dead, where was his daughters?
-we know the daughters got married in medina
-this is kufr and an attack on the prophet’s honour
-the Shia in order to pass the religion makes kufr
-they can attack the honour of rasul (saw) without knowing