Wednesday, January 4, 2012

-14- Mostalah (Hadeeth) Class

Mostalah (Hadeeth) Class by Abu Abdullah
24th December, 2011



Monotheism is the freedom and that is Authentic Tauheed
-I have receive many questions with regards to certain ahadith and how a person may approach them

So I think we will make that out topic today
-the limitation of the human mind is a limiting factor,
-when you judge anything in life
-and because hadith was in the words of rasul (saw)
-who was given the blessing of eloquent speech

Abu Huraira reported that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: I have been given superiority over the other prophets in six respects: I have been given words which are concise but comprehensive in meaning; I have been helped by terror (in the hearts of enemies): spoils have been made lawful to me: the earth has been made for me clean and a place of worship; I have been sent to all mankind and the line of prophets is closed with me. [Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Hadith #1062]

He lived at a time that was different from our time
-and that makes things difficult for us
-e.g. when you listen to an Englishman of the middle ages
-his English is different from that of ours

And this is the same as in Arabic
-the Arabic of the prophet’s era is the true Arabic
-Allah said the Qur’an in Arabic

We verily, have made it a Qur'ān in Arabic, that you may be able to understand (its meanings and its admonitions). (Az-Zukhruf 43:3)

-therefore you have to be perfect in Arabic in order to understand the wording
-I come from Arabic background and studied it in school
-however when I speak Arabic it is not the same as someone from Libya, Morocco etc.

But Arabic is Arabic, the way we pronounce words and the sounds is what is different
-sometimes I listen to ulama and they don’t speak Arabic properly
-if you can’t speak Arabic you are not trusted with knowledge
-and you can make mistakes which can be deadly.

Allah said in surah 35 innama yaKhshaAllaha min ibaadihi al-ulama

...إِنَّمَا يَخْشَى اللَّهَ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ الْعُلَمَاءُ...
[ 20 : سُورَة فَاطِر ]

…It is only those who have knowledge among His slaves that fear Allāh… (Fatir 35:28)

-in this place Allah is an object, He is feared by the ulama
-but if you change it to yaKhshaAllahu
-you have changed the meaning
-instead of saying Allah is feared you change it to Allah fears the ulama
-see how big the difference is and it’s the same in the writing
-it is written the same, as it is pronounced, but if you can’t read you will change it
-the problem now is our Arabic is extremely weak

Some Imams recite surah Fatihah wrongly
-how can they be Imams?
-if you make mistakes with Quran how can you be trusted with hadith
-that is why with hadith you have to be knowledgeable in Arabic language
-and in this context you are limited

You can’t go and say i don’t like this hadith
-How can you like it when you don’t have the tool- the Arabic language?
-we are not talking about street Arabic
-So speak Arabic properly first

Then next go and read the hadith
-e.g. if we have Saad Ibn Ubada who lives somewhere in Central Europe
-and has 5 companions or colleagues
-if we want to have information about him we have to ask one of those companions

-if we want to know about him we have to take it from the sahabah
-any hadith he said must be through a sahabi, no sahabi no hadith
-so any hadith you give me before you say the rasul (saw) said,
-you have to say sahabi said
-and then in another circle will be a Tabiee, the students of the sahabah
-and the students of those, the Tabiee Tabiee and it goes on

When you have read many hadith
-you have a feeling
-e.g. if you hear a hadith from Aisha
-the wording feels like Aisha, it’s feminine
-you can feel it is from a woman

Naturally she will give you an introduction
-e.g. ‘one day the rasul went out and was wearing so and so’
-this you can tell is from a female
-because women care about such things
-before telling you the wording she will give an introduction
-which is her own words not the rasul’s

And in another hadith in Muslim, she said one afternoon,
-here she gave the timing
-men will not care about this
-and then she said he was wearing a coat and gave its color
-if i hear this hadith i can tell it’s from Aisha, she was very definite with words
-she is only giving you her version of events

You hear another hadith, actions are by intentions
-from Omar in Bukhari
-he did not tell us what prayer it was
-he just said the rasul (saw) was on the mimbar
-this is the style of Omar
-he goes to the topic straight away

It is narrated on the authority of Amirul Mu’mineen, Abu Hafs 'Umar bin al-Khattab, radiyallahu 'anhu, who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, say: "Actions are (judged) by motives (niyyah), so each man will have what he intended. Thus, he whose migration (hijrah) was to Allah and His Messenger, his migration is to Allah and His Messenger; but he whose migration was for some worldly thing he might gain, or for a wife he might marry, his migration is to that for which he migrated." [Al-Bukhari & Muslim]

You may hear a hadith by Abdullah ibn Amr about his father
-he will say while we were in a battle called zatil salasi, so and so happened
-so i can tell it’s from a man and this man in particular
-so the character of the person speaking kind of colors the wording

Jabir ibn Abdullah al Ansari, ibn Abbaas, Abu Huraira,
-all of them have their own wording
-sometimes you get a hadith and 3 sahabah are narrating it
-they are within the limit and did not change the wording of rasul
-but they said it by memory in their own way

E.g. he is telling you about salah
-he will not tell you do sajdah before ruku'u
-but he will say it in his own words

Sometimes they say it in their own wording
-and it becomes difficult to tell which one is right
-we will talk about this in another class insha Allah
-on what to do when the wording is different

You have to be able to differentiate the hadith of Aisha, Ali or ibn Abbaas
-this comes with practice, it does not develop overnight
-you have to read for a long time and make decisions
-until the day comes when you become perfect in it
-you hear a hadith and make a decision straightaway

Let’s say you make a decision that a hadith is from Aisha
-but Aisha was not subjected to a lot travelling
-she only went to Basra at one time and then came back
-so only few people heard from Aisha, maybe 20 or 30

So you have to study thoroughly those hadiths from Aisha
-There was one Shia who said Abu Huraira spent only 2-3 years with rasul (saw)
-and yet he has recounted more than 10, 000 hadith
-so how can he do that in such a short time
-that’s like 210 hadith per month, 7 hadith per day

This fool can easily be answered
-we will say you have Zurara who heard 80, 000 hadith from a man he never met
-but this is not the answer, not by using example from his fake religion
-we can make a good answer

If we read the hadith of Abu Huraira, only 10 or 12 were narrated by only him
-so most of the time you will hear the same hadith from someone else
-and the ones that were narrated by only him are very few
-so it is natural for Abu Huraira because he is telling us hadith that we heard from other sahabah

So you learn to feel how Abu Huraira reports hadith
-how he spoke and what kind of man he was
-and know the people that carried hadith from him
-then learn about the scholars in the 2nd century (100- 200)
-like imam Zuhari, know how many students he had

You will also learn about other Imams and the language of the different cities
-language of Medina was not the same as Basra, Cairo and Sham
-e.g. if someone should write the word ‘favourite’ without U I will tell he is American
-also if someone writes ‘merci’ i will say he is Francophone
-or ‘recognize’ with a Z, i can tell he is from America
-so you can judge some by the language and this is the same in Arabic
-there are words used which tells you this person is from Basra etc.
-There is a course where you can learn the language of the different places

And finally you have to read the books, Bukhari and Muslim
-that is a must but not like someone reading poetry
-you take your time and read the hadith and the chain
-e.g. when you read about Sufyan, you go and read about this man and know him
-also Ma’mar, Abu Razzaq, who are they and where do they come from
-Abdur- Razzaq is a Shia from Yemen and Ma'mar too

And you will also learn about the GOLDEN CHAIN
-who is the closest person to Omar in terms of hadith?
-it is his son, he gave his hadith mainly to him
-and Abdullah ibn Omar had Na'fi as the closest person to him
-and Naf’i’s closest person was Imam Malik

So if e.g. Bukhari said hadathana Malik
-and then Na’fi> ibn Omar> Omar (r.a)
-we can say this is the golden chain

There is also a golden chain to Abu Huraira involving Al A’raj
-also to ibn Mas’ood etc. until you reach Aisha
-Urwa ibn Zubair is the best route to Aisha
-Urwa> Aisha > rasul (saw)

So if you learn all these chains
-and someone brings you a chain he made up, you can stop and say NO
-this person never heard from this person
-because I know who has heard from Aisha
-Dr. Abdullah ibn Gibril (RH) was an expert on this

It is said that when Imam Bukhari went to Iraq, they gave him a test
-they gave him 1000 hadith with inter mingled chains
-he put them back together in the right way and gave them
-this is because he was an expert in this and knows the chains that can happen

And the same way you can, if you learn
-you can know all the chains that lead to Aisha, Ali, and Abu Huraira
-and in some cases you can tell which chains have been manufactured
-and especially that of Ali because many lies came through him

Also the chain from Ateiya and Abi Saeed
-if you read this you will stop
-and know that it is Abu Saeed al Kalbi they are referring to
-who used to worship Ali and was a kaafir

So you need to learn to be able to know all these chains
-e.g. all the people that were in my class in university (30) i know them
-because we met afterwards
-so if you take this as a profession, you can tell
-and you can memorize who was in which class because it is your job
-if you know that, you can tell how the hadith spread
-and can also tell if the hadith is famous or not

Example if someone tells you in the 90s, shaikh Hassan Awda did so and so
-you will ask who this man is?
-but if someone should say Bin Baz or Al Baani, these are famous people
-if in the 70s you talk about Saeed Qutub, he will be known
-so the famous people of each generation are known
-if someone should say Ahmad said in the year 210, I will say yes I know him
-but if a person should say Hassan said, you will stop
-because it can’t be Hassan Al Basri in that period

So you can do all these if you are a good memorizer and know the names
-e.g. if an unknown nick comes to this room
-and says i heard this from Shaikh Faisal
-years later people will say wait a moment
-shaikh Faisal had famous students (7 or 8) who should give us the hadith normally
-so how comes this person heard it alone

-and an odd hadith becomes daeef
-So if you know all the companions of Az- Zuhari
-and then one man says he heard from him then you will question,
-if he is not from those famous companions
-also you need to know the wording of the hadith, not just the names
-if you hear from several sources but with different wording
-and you can tell which is the right one
-then you have become a good knowledge seeker in the ulum of hadith
-by knowing the times, men, degree of trustworthiness and their students
And if you do this you become an alim in hadith

-the trade is a profit making business, a commercial process
-And its industry is non- profit making process

Imam Ahmad wanted a hadith from an imam in Yemen
-so he travelled to Yemen to hear it
-there was no mailing system etc.
-and if there was i believe Imam Ahmad won’t take it
-because he would have wanted to hear it from the horse's mouth

Also before the ulama used to have a certain system
-Imam Ahmad after hearing a hadith would recite to the person he heard from
-and that person will give him ijaza if he did it well
-and then he will be able to recount from that person

So imam Ahmad asked for Abdur- Razzaq and was told he travelled and will be back in 4 days
-so Imam Ahmad went to the market
-and asked to work for one trader
-when the man found out he was the famous Ahmad
-he called all the people to come and see him
-and they told him not to work and they will provide for him
-but he refused and said he will work for his living
-this is the industry of hadith

There were traders in hadith like Ali Halaby
-who used to make money in hadith
-and there is a huge difference between Ahmad who was the industry
-and the man who trades hadith
-and you have to be careful about these people
-you can judge them in what they say and do

May Allah make us people who are in the industry of hadith and not in its trade.

Ahlul hadith were badly talked about
-Imam Ahmad went through a lot, he was imprisoned
-and he stood up during the fitna
-he was asked if Quran was created and he refused
-so he was taken to prison and everybody deserted him
-but he stood by his principles and Allah helped him
-he saved Islam during this time just like Abu Bakr did during his time
-we are talking about real imams like ibn Taymiyya
-not imam Al Madkhali and the likes
-who just jump in the band wagon
-and go where the ruler takes them
-These should not be followed and are not Imams

By learning hadith you become independent from rulers
-you will learn e.g. at one time about Saeed Al Mosayyeb
-he had a daughter very beautiful in akhlaaq
-and the Khalifah asked to marry her but he refused
-but married her to a very poor man who was good
-these become your role models

So if you learn hadith you become independent
-not like the man who becomes a minister of a country
-and says pictures and music are haram
-but he has a picture on the Saudi note with a statue in his pocket and the national anthem is ok
-these are Munāfiqûn.

You will see the braveness of the ahlul hadith and follow them as examples
-Imam Ahmad never carried a weapon but he defended Islam
-and became revered

Urwa ibn Zubair was also an example
-he had gangrene on his leg and they had to cut it
-so he told them to do so while he is praying
-because at that time he is with Allah

He lost 4 children but never cursed his luck
-these are the people of hadith
-they are very steadfast and patient
-if you are ahlul hadith you become revered and respected

If not you can be as knowledgeable as Al Baani but still be nothing
-insha Allah next class will be on ULUMUL QUR'AN
-so if you have questions please keep them for the dars
-and i will answer them insha Allah


1. Assalamu alaikum, how do you combine prayers, e.g. like dhur and asr do you pray 2 rakat each or do you pray 4 rakat each?

It is better to ask Shaikh Faisal the question because I am not a Faqii
-but I can answer with regards to the validity of the hadith, this is my field
-the hadith is sahih by way of ibn Abbaas and Ekrema
-the rasul joined prayer without fear of rain or war
-and when he was asked why? He replied to make it easy for my ummah

Ibn 'Abbas reported: The Messenger of Allah (SAW) observed the noon and afternoon prayers together in Medina without being in a state of fear or in a state of journey. (Abu Zubair said: I asked Sa'id [one of the narrators] why he did that. He said: I asked Ibn 'Abbas as you have asked me, and he replied that he [the Holy Prophet] wanted that no one among his Ummah should be put to [unnecessary] hardship.) [Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Hadith #1516]

The ulama have taken the hadith and interpreted it
-some say you can only do when you are travelling, sick, on hajj etc.
-but if you are travelling 1st 2 days naturally you have to do that
-if you travelling by plane for many hours you may miss salah, so you can join the salah

2. Can you please talk about the hadith of ibn Abbaas, kufr duna kufr?

This is not hadith but a saying
-it occurred in 3 different books, Mustadraq, Tafseer ibn Haatim, Tabari etc.
-it came from ibn Abbaas not the prophet.
-the one that heard from ibn Abbaas was Ta’woos
-and the one that heard from him are different in different books

The other route is different with different wordings
-ibn Abbaas never said this word but Ta’woos did
-he is an Imam but not hujjah
-so it is weak on one side and on another it cannot be trusted
-in one place it said it is kufr and in another it is not kufr

Ulama say this is not from ibn Abbaas
-but let’s assume it is from him
-we just heard ibn Abbaas saying you can join salah
-but do they follow him? No they don’t
-why do you reject this hadith which is mutawaatir hadith,
-and accept his saying

Also in sahih Muslim ibn Abbaas said mut’a is allowed
-and I challenge those neo salafis to bring otherwise
-during the time of Ali, he said to ibn Abbaas mut’a is haram
-why will Ali tell him that unless he is opposing him
-we know during the time of Omar it was made haram
-but ibn Abbaas insisted
-during the time of Abdullah ibn Zubair he got very mad with him and went on the mimbar
-and threatened to stone ibn Abbaas if he insist on saying mut’a is allowed
-but still ibn Abbaas insisted

'Urwa b. Zabair reported that 'Abdullah b. Zubair (RA) stood up (and delivered an address) in Mecca saying: Allah has made blind the hearts of some people as He has deprived them of eyesight that they give religious verdict in favour of temporary marriage, while he was alluding to a person (Ibn 'Abbas). Ibn Abbas called him and said: You are an uncouth person, devoid of sense. By my life, Mut'a was practised during the lifetime of the leader of the pious (he meant Allah's Messenger (SAW), and Ibn Zubair said to him: just do it yourselves, and by Allah, if you do that I will stone you with your stones. Ibn Shihab said, Khalid b. Muhajir b. Saifullah informed me: While I was sitting in the company of a person, a person came to him and he asked for a religious verdict about Mut'a and he permitted him to do it. Ibn Abu 'Amrah al-Ansari (RA) said to him: Be gentle. It was permitted in the early days of Islam, (for one) who was driven to it under the stress of necessity just as (the eating of) carrion and the blood and flesh of swine and then Allah intensified (the commands of) His religion and prohibited it (altogether). Ibn Shihab reported: Rabi' b. Sabra told me that his father (Sabra) said: I contracted temporary marriage with a woman of Banu 'Amir for two cloaks during the lifetime of Allah's Messenger (SAW); then he forbade us to do Mut'a. Ibn Shihab said: I heard Rabi' b. Sabra narrating it to Umar b. 'Abd al-'Aziz and I was sitting there. [Sahih Muslim, Book 8, Hadith #3261]

Ali ibn Abu Talib reported that the Prophet (SAW) forbade Mutah (temporary marriage) of women, and the consuming of the flesh of domestic asses. This was during the Battle of Khaybar. [Bukhari 5115, Muslim 1406, Tirmidhi 1124, Nisai 2262, Ibn e Majah 1961]

Why do they not follow ibn Abbaas on mut’a and follow his other saying
-better sahabi went against mut’a but in the book of Tahawi he still insisted
-this hadith of kufr duna kufr is just an opinion
-why don’t you follow ibn Mas’ood’s words who is a stronger sahabi
-and he made it clear that it is kufr to say kufr duns kufr

The enemies of this ummah are trying to waste our time
-by spending all out time on is this Imam Kaafir or not
-the army kaafir or kaafir
-ok let’s say he is kaafir, what do they do to him? Nothing.
-there was a man Bin Baaz made takfeer on but what did they do to him?
-he was made a minister instead in the kingdom.
-they say Saddam is kaafir but they allowed him to make hajj
-they say Ghadafi is kaafir but do they say go and kill him?
-they allow him to enter Makkah and madina and do nothing.

3. What are the different classifications of hadith and how are they classified e.g. like sahih, Hassan, daeef etc.

Initially we had 2 classifications only
-if we go back to the time after the rasul
-if someone says a hadith they will ask did he say so
-and if yes then it is accepted and it is sahih

But then they found there are some hadith that came from other sources
-but we don’t have a reason to discredit the source
-e.g. I believe my best friend and second best friend
-if it is from the former I say sahih
-and if from the second I say Hassan it is hujjah
-you don’t leave a hadith just because it did not come from a famous source

You also have other classifications like Mutawaatir
-which is from Bukhari and Muslim
-or from Bukhari alone or Muslim alone
-and then from sunan, Musnad, Muwa’ta
-they are still authentic but it’s like mango and apple
-one is sweeter than the other

What is the best way to memorize hadith?
-I believe it is by loving the rasul
-if you love him you will memorize his hadith
-people that love singers memorize their songs
-if you love Allah you memorize Qur’an
-just keep listening you will memorize it

Hadith is more flexible than Qur’an
-you cannot say Allah said in the Qur’an do what is right
-you have to say it in Arabic
-but you can say hadith in English
-also with hadith you can always refer people to books
-but with Qur’an you can’t
-so hadith is much easier

Another thing is by learning it in categories
-ladies love Aisha because she is a woman like them
-and they like memorizing her hadith
-this is easier with ladies
-maybe another person likes to memorize the hadith of Abu Huraira
-if you like the hadith of Fitan, you read the hadith of Hudhaifa ibn Yamaam
-or you read all the hadith on saum if Ramadan is coming
-and it is very easy learning this way

4. What is the difference between Ulum, Usool and Mostalah hadith?

There is nothing called usool hadith
-but ulum of hadith is the study of the actual hadith
-Mostalah is the study of the wording in hadith e.g. Mursal
-in normal Arabic, Mursal means sent but in hadith it is totally different
-just like Moallaq is different when used in Arabic and in hadithLink

So Mostalah is translation of Arabic into Arabic
-because the people that made those technical terms were in a different era
-e.g. Hassan means good, but is sahih not good? Yes it is
-but we are not talking about Hassan in terminology
-we are using it differently went it comes to Mostalah the hadith is hujjah

Notes on blog from previous lessons: