Saturday, March 24, 2012

-19-Mostalah (hadeeth) Class by Abu Abdullah

Mostalah Hadeeth Class By Abdullah

Bismillah
Today we will examine the word Hassan
-what is Hassan?
-the word Hassan was referred to as hujjah in one class
-but I want to bring to your attention what it really means
-Hassan apart from being a name, means it is well
-it’s rather an adverb more than an adjective

At one time they used to call a rare hadith Hassan
-in the era of collecting hadeeth, year 98H
-they were collecting hadith in paper work
-and so they called it Hassan
-meaning it’s good that we found it
-because it was rare

With this kind of rarity, you should assume it is a bad hadith
-because if the number of people that memorized this hadith are few
-then the hadith is not famous
-so at that time they meant Hassan to mean a rare hadith

Sometimes it can be used, but it does not necessarily mean hujjah at that time
-the prove of this is when they spoke to Shoaba ibn Hajjaj
-they said to him the hadith of one man is Hassan
-his answer was, ‘we have escaped from its Husnu’
-it has escaped us because it is Hassan

Now when we read the word Hassan, it is different

-it is not the way they used to take it
-e.g. we have a hadeeth that is authentic
-and then we get another hadeeth by people who are not famous
-but they are not liars, they are just not famous
-therefore we call their hadeeth Hassan
-because it is a good hadeeth

They have changed the use of the word Hassan from describing a verb to describing a noun
-if I say I am a good boy, am describing a noun
-in the past they were describing a verb, but now a noun
-it describes a hadeeth as a noun meaning the hadeeth is good

How do we treat Hassan nowadays?
-the ulama give you the notion that a good hadeeth is one that can be used as hujjah
-e.g. the hadeeth of Hudhaifa

52 - ( 1847 )
وحدثني محمد بن سهل بن عسكر التميمي حدثنا يحيى بن حسان ح وحدثنا عبدالله بن عبدالرحمن الدارمي أخبرنا يحيى ( وهو ابن حسان ) حدثنا معاوية ( يعني ابن سلام ) حدثنا زيد بن سلام عن أبي سلام قال
Y قال حذيفة بن اليمان قلت يا رسول الله إنا كنا بشر فجاء الله بخير فنحن فيه فهل من وراء هذا الخير شر ؟ قال ( نعم ) قلت هل من وراء ذلك الشر خير ؟ قال ( نعم ) قلت فهل من وراء ذلك الخير شر ؟ قال ( نعم ) قلت كيف ؟ قال ( يكون بعدي أئمة لا يهتدون بهداي ولا يستنون بسنتي وسيقوم فيهم رجال قلوبهم قلوب الشياطين في جثمان إنس ) قال قلت كيف أصنع ؟ يا رسول الله إن أدركت ذلك ؟ قال ( تسمع وتطيع للأمير وإن ضرب ظهرك وأخذ مالك فاسمع وأطع )
[ ش ( عن أبي سلام قال قال حذيفة ) قال الدارقطني هذا عندي مرسل لأن أبا سلام لم يسمع حذيفة وهو كما قال الدارقطني لكن المتن صحيح متصل بالطريق الأول وإنما أتى مسلم بهذا متابعة كما ترى وقد قدمنا أن الحديث المرسل إذا روي من طريق آخر متصلا تبينا به صحة المرسل وجاز الاحتجاج به ويصير في المسئلة حديثان صحيحان
( في جثمان إنس ) أي في جسم بشر ]
(3/1475)


"...You will listen to the Amir and carry out his orders; even if your back is flogged and your wealth is snatched, you should listen and obey." [Sahih Muslim, Book 20, Hadith #4554]

-there is a bit added to the end of it
-this part you can call it Hassan
-Abu Salaam has not heard from Hudhaifa
-but the rest of the hadeeth is fine
-because it came by way of Waddaharil Ashkuri in Bukhari

This extra bit in the hadeeth is like,
-today if I said to you Assalamu Alaikum and then left
-and then someone tried to tell you what I said
-and told you that I said Assalamu Alaikum wa Rahmatullah
-I did not say the last part, wa Rahmatullah
-and this extra part we have to be careful with
-this ziyada in this instance is Hassana
-because it is good to say that extra bit
-you can accept the ziyada but with limitations

The limitations are that you do not base a ruling on it
-this means you accept it but you don’t go telling me
-to bend my back so that the ruler hits it
-and these are the rules of hadeeth

The Rules are if you accept the hadeeth, like sometimes we have the ziyada of fiqh
-e.g. we have 10 people who are trustworthy
-9 of them agree on one sentence and the 10th person comes with an extra bit
-this part is accepted but with limitations
-and that is you don’t base a hukum (ruling) on it

By the way all of the Shi’a religion is based on such
-not only is there an extra bit, it is baseless hadeeth (daeef)
-but they base hukum on them
-so the amount of ahkam you base on hadeeth Hassan are very limited

There are other examples of hadeeth Hassan that people have abused
-and Albaani made it worse by creating the chain of Silsila Sahiha
-in which he put all the hadeeth that are Hassan and sahih together
-and they are all used as hujjah equally
-and even hadeeth that are daeef but are made sahih because it came by multiple ways

So this issue is extremely important
-and we should not just give in to people who say,
-Albaani or Madkhali said so and base hukum on it
-unless it is in Bukhari and in that case you refer it to the
-people of fiqh before you make a ruling

There is a phenomenon that you notice from Salafi Publications
-and when I saw it the first time I laughed so much
-because they come to you and say Ibn Ali said so and so
-who is that so and so? I don’t know

By the way you should be aware of the book, aqeeda Tahawiyya by Imam Tahawi
-At Tahawiyya, At Tadhmuriyya, Al Wasitiyya, all these names are given as a compilation
-Shaikh ibn Taymiyya had written a book for the people of Tadhmur
-about the beliefs of Islam
-and so the ulama collected the book and gave it this name just like
-the book named after Imam Tahawi

What is aqeeda Tahawiyya in relation to Islam? Allahu A3lam
-they tell you do this because Imam Tahawi said so
-what if he went against his own Shaikh
-because there are instances he went against his shaikh Abu Hanifa
-what do we do about it

So you have to be aware what Hassan is initially
-and what is not hujjah
-these books are not hujjah
-even the book of Shaikh ibn Abdul Wahhab
-it is a wonderful book but you don’t use it as hujjah
-the ulama are beacons to show you light but they are not lights themselves
-we don’t say because Shaikh so then it is so
-the origin has to come from the text and Sunnah
-and in Sunnah if a hadeeth is Hassan, then there are rules we follow

So what is Hadeeth Hassan?
1. The hadeeth Hassan is a degree lesser than Sahih hadeeth
2. It is a higher degree than daeef hadeeth
-it is placed in the middle

How do we come up to hadeeth that is Hassan?
-there is what we call multiplicity of routes
-initially the hadeeth is daeef
-but it came through many ways that we can’t ignore

When we say it is Hassan because many people narrated it, it has been abused
-especially by Albaani
-if I say maybe the shaikh said something
-and this statement is heard by 6 people
-and each of them said it in a different way
-so if every route is not strong to stand on its own
-I accept it but I don’t say it is high enough to stand on its feet without help

Therefore the idea that the shaikh talked about is available
-but has he said what the 3rd, 2nd and 4th person said? No
-what he said is in the middle of what these 3 people said
-in that case Al Baani will call it hujjah
-but that is the best thing you can say in this example

But the abuse came from much worse ways
-it came from, if the 1st person is a liar, the 2nd lost his memory and the 3rd a crook
-they still call it Hassan because of multiplicity
-this is wrong because 6 liars don’t make a truth
-if it is, then why not we open a route for the crucifixion of Jesus
-because it came by many routes, Luke, Mark, John, Matthew
-so why don’t we accept it?

So the way Albaani opened hadeeth Hassan can open the way for many bad things
-it can open the way for animosity against the sahabah like what Shi’tes do
-so one liar does not support another liar
-if one person in the route is a liar it is as if the route did not happen

We don’t know who Mark is
-he is unknown and that’s what the scholars said
-the 4 of them are not accepted
-but some ulama try to make a living by adopting a position
-which is not really right

There were times in Islam when the sahabah sought supporting evidence
-and one of this instance was when there was a problem in the home of ibn Abbaas
-his home was close to the mosque of the prophet (SAW)
-and when Umar wanted to increase the mosque, this home was in the way
-and Umar asked him to give 4 witnesses that the rasul (SAW) gave it to him
-the same with the fadak when Abu Bakr asked Fatima for witnesses
-so asking for witnesses has nothing wrong with it

And if the sahabah asked for witnesses how can we accept people who are known to be liars
-and then we create a religion out of it
-we ask people to do things based on weak people

For example if 5 people attended yesterday’s dars and I was absent

-today I ask people what shaikh said
-but all 5 gave me different wordings
-I can probably write the core of what shaikh talked about
-but I can’t say this is what the shaikh said exactly
-and by comparison I can’t say this is what the rasul said
-in order for me to say so I have to get it from memorizers
-or from people who wrote it down

So maybe there was somebody sitting down who wrote everything that was said
-these are the people you depend on e.g. the sahabah
-and they have been entrusted by Allah because they will never lie
-so I will accept sahabah but not what Albaani and others do
-they accept people who are well- known liars
-like I have seen a lot of hadeeth in his silsila which ended with
-Ateiya Al Awfi and Abu Saed who are Shi’a and kaafir respectively
-they could never be trusted and so is their chain

So how can you say this is sahih?
-because it happened in many ways
-this in itself is daeef unless it is a rare case
-therefore if you go to Bukhari and Muslim
-these Imams had this same information available at that time
-but they stayed away from such hadeeth and did not put them in their sahih
-yet we come towards the end of time and say no it is authentic
-you should never do this

We will now talk about Daeef
-the trouble with Mostalah hadeeth is, it’s Mostalah
-in English it is like a code
-if somebody wrote brb on screen, it means be right back
-or afk meaning away from keyboard
-these are codes agreed upon by us together as a community to mean something
-the trouble with hadeeth is that the people that have agreed have died centuries back
-and the next big problem is the language they used have differed with that of ours

For example Aisha and Umm Salama are sitting together making food for dinner
-Aisha said shall we make onions
-and Umm Salama said the prophet said don’t eat it unless cooked properly
-and that is true because the prophet liked it and garlic to be cooked
-because they give bad smell to the mouth when eaten raw

Aisha would say did the prophet said so
-if Umm Salama answers she will just say yes or no
-but not it is a hadeeth Hassan, Sahih or daeef
-that is how hadeeth was considered by the people in the 1st century
-there was no hadeeth Mursal, Munqatee, Munkar etc.

This answer, Yes or No changed with time
-and this is because the people that wrote the hadeeth did so after the death of the prophet (SAW)
-at least 80 years from the prophet’s death
-and there is a hadeeth in sahih Muslim in which
-the people asked a sahabi what did the prophet say?
-he replied frankly that he could not remember
-and said whatever I tell you accept it
-but if I can’t remember don’t bother me
-and some sahabah remembered vaguely
-and this introduced hadeeth Hassan or deaf

Daeef in Arabic means weak hadeeth
-and it is a hadeeth that has to be considered
-because in all honesty we can’t say it never happened
-but we have to be very careful how to talk about it
-are we going to make a ruling about it?

A man said to his wife if you do this, you will get a divorce
-and so you go to a shaikh and he will decide if the woman is divorced or not
-this decision will be based on a hadeeth
-but if the hadeeth is weak how can the shaikh make up his mind
-if it is weak never will you use it
-but if it is Hassan, you go to the jurisprudence people
-because they memorize all the hadeeth and know how to create a formula to make it work
-so it is fine to have the hadeeth
-but at the same time we don’t use it as iron proof on this or that

Insha Allah next time we will talk about classification of weakness
-because weakness can attack hadeeth from different angles
-one angle is the hadeeth was mentioned by only one man
-if you say only one sahabi knew a hadeeth that’s fine
-but the sahabi told the hadeeth to only one of his students
-and this student is in Iraq, we will start to wonder
-and all of a sudden another person from a different location
-narrated the same hadeeth
-how did it move from different geographical locations?
-this makes it difficult to accept
-and then a 100 years later only one person knew about the same hadeeth in Egypt?

This hadeeth is Ghareeb. How did it move from one place to the other?

-and nobody else knew about it?
-one alim is saying Sufyan told us and only him heard from Sufyan
-so this weakness is propagating
-and in that case we say we need to be careful how we tackle that weakness

HOW WEAKNESSES GET INTO HADEETH?

1. From numbers
2. From characters
3. From memorizing

-we will see whether there are hadeeth that are daeef but can still be hujjah