Saturday, March 24, 2012

-20-Mostalah (hadeeth) Class by Abu Abdullah

Mostalah Hadeeth Class by Abu Abdullah



Today we will have a fruitful day insha Allah
-I will introduce you to someone you need to know personally
-he is a wonderful man
-I will introduce you to him but not everything though

This person has a very long name
-it is in short, Emadu deen Abul Fidaa, this was his kunya
-Emad was an adjective meaning a pillar
-his real name is Ismael ibn Umar ibn Kathir ibn Daub ibn Kathir ibn Daub ibn Dir’a3
-because of this the ulama have agreed to call him ibn Kathir

His tribe is from Quraish, so he is Quraishee
-and is Shafi’i by Madhab
-he was born outside Damascus and then went to live there
-but he came from many places
-from Indonesia, Malaysia, Morocco, Egypt

One of the things about him is that he is al Hafidh
-this means he memorized 100,000 hadith
-so he is also called Al Hafidh ibn Kathir

He was born at the end of the 7th century, year 700H
-he was born from a knowledgeable family
-his father and brother Abdul Wahhab were teachers

When you judge a man, you don’t judge him by his Kabila or his Madhab
-you judge him by his teachers or shaikhs
-who thought him?
-you have to know about this man
-you can’t ignore him, he is too grand for you not to know him
-because of the great work he did for this deen

So who are his shaikhs?

1. Shaikh ul Islam Ibn Taymiyya al Harraani
2. Al Hafidh Imam Mezzi
3. Imam Dhahabi

Ibn Taymiyya is a faqi’i

-Al Mezzi is a muhaddith
-so he took fiqh and hadeeth together
-he has many other shaikhs like Ibn Asaakir, Imam Samshideen al Maqdisi
-Imam Al Barzali, they are so many
-he was so near to these people he married the daughter of Al Mezzi
-he had so much intelligence and what you will hear now are his products

Ibn Kathir is so important he wrote the first tafseer of the Qur’an
-he also wrote Fada’il al Qur’an
-these 2 books can enrich a nation
-tafseer Qur’an alone is enough
-so he is one of the 5 grand pillars of tafseer Qur’an

1. Ibn Kathir
2. Imam Tabari
3. Imam Qurtubi
4. As Suyuti
5. Al Muhalla

Ibn Kathir wrote a quarter of these books
-so he is so heavy in terms of tafseer
-he wrote so many books of hadith
-you will wonder whether he had time for other things

He wrote a book called the basics of Islam
-he wrote the sharh of Bukhari
-he also wrote Iktisaar al ulumul hadith
-and this book you will learn in university
-he has the musnad of Abu Bakr, Umar al Khattab and many juz
-he wrote a book on ‘how to ask Allah for forgiveness before you leave a masjlis’
-he wrote about what you say when you leave people,
-about pictures and some other books

He wrote al Qubra in jurisprudence
-he also worked in the field of history
-and wrote al Bidaya wan Nihaya
-he wrote a book about Imam Shafi’i and ibn Taymiyya
-so he must have written from the age of 11
-and wrote more than 100 pages per day
-this is quite a lot

If you read Ibn Kathir’s book
-at the beginning, you will have the introduction of ibn Kathir
-this is about 20 pages
-when you read this you have to take his words seriously

He says in Al Bidaya wan Nihaya,
-sometimes I want to mention an incident that was witnessed by so many people,
-that the main characters do not always agree on the level of trustworthiness
-this means e.g. we come to the room and sit together
-and everybody in the room is good
-but sometimes you have people that are not good

So if ibn Kathir wants to write an incident
-he cannot ignore the fact that, a bad person was present
-and this person may have had another opinion
-that does not agree with Ahlus Sunnah wal jamaa3a
-so when he writes down he will say
-I heard from so and so and he has declared innocence in front of Allah
-so he will tell you I have heard from Lot Abu Yahya
-and he said so and so
-and he tells you how he is a liar
-so he gives you the version to make you know this person was present

So if it is mentioned in the book
-it does not mean it happened
-this same problem happened in Tabari
-he mentioned people not because they are dodgy
-he mentioned them because those people were present
-this is talking about history not hadeeth

The same goes for the tafseer of ibn Kathir
-and it is more in the tafseer
-this is because his tafseer is one of the pillars of Islam,
-upon which people rely to get the meaning of ayats
-it goes further than just meaning e.g.

Verily, your Walī (Protector or Helper) is Allāh, His Messenger, and the believers, - those who perform As-Salāt (Iqāmat-as-Salāt), and give Zakāt, and they bow down (submit themselves with obedience to Allāh in prayer). (Al-Ma'idah 5:55)

Why this ayah was revealed is another issue

-the issue is completely problematic because they said that
-Ali was praying and in ruku’u
-while in ruku’u Ali remove something from his pocket and gave a man
-so some people say the word ‘believers’ in the ayah means Ali
-so they try to change Allah’s book

Ibn Kathir mentions all these narrations
-this does not mean Ali said it
-and ibn Kathir says in one place the Shi’ites say this means Ali and so and so
-and actually one of Ali’s sons said it does not mean only Ali
-it means all the good Muslims
-so if one of the 12 says so, we have to accept his version

How did Ibn Kathir solve this problem?
-he said the best way to explain Qur’an is to use Qur’an
-so he translated the ayah as ‘those who bow down’
-it does not mean those who did it at that time but those that will
-and whenever Qur’an can’t explain Qur’an he uses hadeeth to explain it
-and he used the hadith ‘I have been given the Qur’an and what is like it’
-meaning the ability of the Sunnah

Miqdam ibn Mad ikarib (RA) reported that the Prophet (SAW) said: "Verily! I was given the Quran and its equal with it (the Sunnah)…" [Abu Dawood 4587, Tirmidhi 2673, Ibn Majah 12, Ahmed 17194]

This hadeeth means that the prophet (SAW) has power to explain to you an ayah

-and even more explanation
-if Qur’an and Sunnah are not sufficient to explain Qur’an he has a method
-he checks for sahabah
-then other eimma

Ibn Kathir is lucky to have come after Tabari
-so you will find ibn Kathir saying qala Abu Jaafar meaning Tabari
-so he gives you the view of those Imam that came before him
-and I want you to be aware of this
-to know that ibn Kathir mentioned names
-that their books are not available anymore

However if he is telling you this person says
-he is analyzing a book that was lost
-e.g. the book Musnad firdaws
-this book is not available now i think
-so if he quotes from that book
-we don’t have the means to judge

We were learning from people that learnt from people that learnt from the prophet - sahabah
-they were people that if they learnt 10 verses they won’t leave it until they understand it
-they mentioned how they learnt it
-he also mentions who from the sahabah he had taken from
-e.g. ibn Abbaas, ibn Mas’ood, Ali

So this gives us one important hint that we should be careful of
-One of the names in ibn Kathir’s book is Al Soddee al Kabir
-this man is such a disaster
-he was asked what you think of this man,
-does he have a lot of knowledge on Qur’an?
-he said no he has a lot of gahl- he should go and play the drum

The trouble is ibn Kathir knows that Soddee has most of the hadith
-of ibn Abbaas and ibn Mas’ood
-so ibn Kathir gives you the hadeeth because Soddee heard hadith from these 2 people
-and there will not be tafseer of Qur’an without these 2 sahabah
-therefore he happened to be the wrong man at the right time
-so he had to include him in his tafseer

If you read tafseer ibn Kathir and see the word Soddee
-don’t depend on it
-you have to go to other people
-check what other people wrote about the issue
-and ibn Kathir gave a hint of this in his book
-he said I took Soddee because most of what he has
-is hadeeth of ibn Mas’ood and ibn Abbaas
-so it does not mean he accepts him

So we have hadeeth of Soddee not because he is good
-but because he has hadeeth of the 2 sahabah and we love them
-so if you find his opinion throw it out the window

Also ibn Kathir is famous for quoting the Israelites
-this means information that can only be found with the Israelis
-this means for example I know very well Musa and Haroon
-but I don’t remember Musa’s sons’ names or his wife’s name
-they said that Yaqub was married to Rachael
-but the prophet never mentioned this and the Muslims too
-and you will never gain anything from knowing their names
-so why do I need to know Rachael’s name

This information will only be found with the Israelites because it is their people
-ibn Kathir said i put information that we know for sure happened
-for example Yusuf had brothers, is the son of Yaqub and he lived in Egypt
-this is correct so I take it and don’t bother
-because it is in Qur’an

There is information in their books that is naturally unacceptable
-like saying Sulayman worshipped the idols
-he is a nabi so it is not acceptable
-he puts this in his book and tells you it is not accepted
-or Allah covered up Dawood, He never told us what Dawood did
-we know that a nabi will never commit the Kabairs
-so if the Jews say that he slept with his son’s wife or something like that
-this is not accepted

There are things that may or may not be true in their books
-e.g. in surah 18:22

(Some) say they were three, the dog being the fourth among them; (others) say they were five, the dog being the sixth, guessing at the unseen; (yet others) say they were seven, the dog being the eighth. Say (O Muhammad SAW): "My Lord knows best their number; none knows them but a few." So debate not (about their number, etc.) except with the clear proof (which We have revealed to you). And consult not any of them (people of the Scripture, Jews and Christians) about (the affair of) the people of the Cave. (Al-Kahf 18:22)

-Allah did not tell us how many were in the cave
-in this case if they say they were 8 we say no problem
-we don’t care and take it without bothering

But if they say something like Allah was looking for Adam in heaven
-this statement is impolite
-Allah is All Knowing so why will He be looking for Adam
-so we don’t accept this

But if they say Allah talked to Adam
-we say it happened because Allah told us in surah 2
-that Allah spoke to Adam

And We said: "O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and eat both of you freely with pleasure and delight of things therein as wherever you will, but come not near this tree or you both will be of the Zālimûn (wrong-doers)." (Al-Baqarah 2:35)

-so here we know that Allah has spoken to Adam
-so if they say Allah spoke to Adam in a way acceptable to us we say no problem
-but if not suitable we throw it out the window

Certain people were more than others
-like the prophet (SAW) made dua for ibn Abbaas

Narrated By Ibn 'Abbas: Once the Prophet embraced me and said, "O Allah! Bestow on him the knowledge of the Book (Qur'an)." [Sahih Bukhari, Vol 1, Book 3, Hadith #075]

-and so he became very famous in tafseer
-and because of the dua he was given the opportunity
-to be raised in the house of light
-he was close to Ali, Umar, Ibn Umar, Ibn Mas’ood
-and Aisha was his cousin’s wife
-so he can easily use her servant to get help
-if he is stuck he can easily ask Aisha

Ibn Kathir said if the hadeeth comes to you by way of Saed ibn Jubair from ibn Abbaas
-take it blindly
-but if we have someone like Shoaba saying his own opinion
-those cannot be hujjah
-but if Mujaahid or Ta’woos said by way of ibn Abbaas then don’t follow blindly

So ibn Kathir said sometimes you have an ayah and you don’t have tafseer
-from the prophet, from sahabah, what do you do?
-in that case he said I included the eimma
-he said I know it is a problem but if I want to tell you what Shoaba said
-what can I do? I have no other way
-Sometimes he gave warning actually

There is a sahih hadeeth by way of many people

-he said do not give your opinion in the book of Allah
-I heard Abu Bakr saying who am I to give opinion?
-in the book of Allah
-if Abu Bakr said this so who can be
-in that case we say we believe even if we don’t know

This is ibn Kathir
-I am adamant you know about this man
-and I chose to start with him because his book is in English
-you have to read his opinion and know why he put some things in his book