Sunday, July 29, 2012

-21-Mostalah Hadeeth Class by Abu Abdullah




Our example today is very simple and in significant
-so that you will concentrate on how to do the sanad
-if there is a hadith to do with jihad, hijra, marriage, divorce
-there is good reason why you want it to be authentic
-internally you want it to be, to fill your purpose
-e.g. when your brother is killed you want him to die as a shaheed
-so you look for hadith talking about martyrs and you say I want this hadeeth to be like this
-so you will work on the hadeeth based on that

The hadeeth today is not very significant and you don’t have to worry
-whether it is authentic or not
-it does not make any difference

We will talk about a great Tabiee called Saed ibn Jubair
-he was born in the time of Umar al Khattab r.a
-and was a great worshipper of Allah
-his story said that this man went to the ka’ba and prayed
-reciting all the surahs in the Qur’an
-from Baqarah to Naas in one rakat
-this is very heroic, it takes a very long time to read the Qur’an
-especially their way of reading the Quran

Saeed ibn Jabeer entered the kaba and recited the Holy Qur'an in one rak'ah (Tabaqaat al Asfiya 4/273)

They used to meditate on the Qur’an
-not like we read the Qur’an today
-which is a very poor way, we don’t meditate on it

There is a hadeeth that said the rasul (saw) recited 3 surahs in one rakat
-surah Baqarah, Al Imran and Nisa
-and if he reached any verse talking about hellfire, he would seek refuge from it
-and if he reached any verse mentioning paradise he would ask Allah for it
-he did all these in one rakat only

On the authority of Hudhaifa ibn Yamaan who said: I prayed with the Holy prophet (saw) in Ramadan by the date palm tree. He stood up and made the opening takbeer for salah and said: Allah is the Owner of dominion and sovereignty, the owner of pride and glory. Then he read Surah baqarah fully. Then the crowd reached 100 then it reached 200. Then he read Surah Ali Imran then he read Surah Nisaa. He never passed by an ayah that invokes the fear of Allah's wrath without saying a'oothu billahi minash shaytan nirajeem, then he makes his rak’ah similar to his standing and said during his rak’ah Glory be to Allah the Most Great repeatedly. Then he raised up his head and say samia Allahu liman hamidahu, Allahumma Rabbanaa wa lakal hamd. His coming out of ruku’u was like his ruku’u with its duration before his sajdah. Then the rasul made a sajdah like his Qiyaam, standing and said during his sajdah Glory be to Allah the rak’ah of salah from the first part of the night till the last part of the night. Then Bilal (ra) would come and call the adhaan for salah for the following day. [Mustadrak al-Haakim (1/466) No. 1201]
This Hadith is sahih with the conditions of both Bukhari & Muslim.

So how do we go about the hadeeth?

-I will start by giving you the sanad
-its reference is in a book by Abu Naeem
-he said part of what Ahmad ibn Abu Khail has told us is
-‘Al Qaadi Abi Makarim Al Labban, by permission from Abu Ali al Haddad
-who said we heard from Ahmad ibn Abu Jaafar ibn Himdaan
-who said that Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Hambal said
-I heard from Saed ibn Abu Rabiee Abu Bakr As Sammaan
-who said we heard from Abu Awaana
-who said I heard from Ishaq, servant of Abdullah ibn Umar
-who heard from Hilal ibn Hishaaf
-who said Saed ibn Jubair has done so and so

The first thing we notice here is the first name down the sanad
-the name of the producer himself in this case is
-Al Hafidh Abu Naeem
-he is not an early shaikh and came later than Imam Ahmad and the other a ‘Emma
-that is why if you look at the sanad you will see very bright names

The first star is Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Hambal
-between him and Abu Naeem are 4 men
-we do trust the producer of the book
-and we also trust Abdullah ibn Ahmad

So if we can find this same hadith in a production by Abdullah ibn Ahmad
-we can put a cross on the names of the 4 men in the middle
-e.g. Abu Habib in the room says Abu Khadija said, AT12 said, AT18 said that AT5 said
-the first name and last are trusted
-so if AT5 and Abu Habib have other books and mentioned the same hadeeth
-then we don’t need to bother about the other men in the chain
-because they must be trusted for them to put their names

We have so many of these examples
-e.g. in the hadith books is Bayhaqi
-whose shaikh is Al Haakim
-they both have their books
-so if we have a hadeeth in Bayhaqi and we find it in Al Haakim’s book
-then you don’t need to worry

There is another star in the chain
-Abu Awaana has a book of his own, a musnad
-so if we have his book with the same hadeeth
-and we trust his book
-then we can say don’t worry about the names before
-now the hadeeth is much simpler
-we had 7 men before and now we have 3 men
-Abu Awaana, Ishaq and Hilal ibn Hishaaf

Now if we can be sure the 2 men above are not liars and are good memorizers
-then we can take the hadeeth and say it is sahih

The trouble is how we can go down time wise to monitor the men
-the first thing that comes to your mind is the famous alim Abu Naeem
-he had books produced after his death in year 430H
-that were available for reading to an alim who died in the year 499H
-in the hands of ibn Asaakir from Damascus
-we are going very close to the sahabah now

Who took from him?

-he left his book with the Imam al Hafidh al Maqdisi, 541H
-and al Mezzi in the year 654H
-this chain is extremely important for you to understand
-because for you to read about Abdullah ibn Ahmad
-you have to get information from someone as nearer to him as possible
-and in this instance it is Abu Naeem al Asbahani from Iraq
-who carried this information and gave it to ibn Asaakir>>>Al Maqdisi>>>Mezzi

Another example is hadith number 1 in book 1 of sahih Bukhari

Umar ibn al-Khattab said, 'I heard the Messenger of Allah (SAW), say, "Actions only go by intentions. Everyone gets what they intend..." [Al-Bukhari (1) and Muslim (4692)]

I heard the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam, say: "Actions are (judged) by motives (niyyah), so each man will have what he intended. Thus, he whose migration (hijrah) was to Allah and His Messenger, his migration is to Allah and His Messenger; but he whose migration was for some worldly thing he might gain, or for a wife he might marry, his migration is to that for which he migrated." [Al-Bukhari & Muslim]

-this hadeeth is very important and he wrote it first
-this book is talking about how the revelation started to the prophet (saw)
-when you are talking about the start of revelation,
-you are talking about something very specific
-perhaps there will be a hadeeth that will tell you how the sahabah saw the rasul

But if you open the book you find a strange hadith
-actions are by intentions and
-everyone gets what they intend
-if you read the heading of this hadeeth, it is very strange
-it says hadeeth of revelation
-but what does this hadith have to do with revelation
-revelation is talking about Angel Jibril revealing to him
-and he sweating a lot to receive the wahyi and other things

The ulama said this shows how Imam Bukhari is a genius
-he is telling you that you need to have good intentions
-in Arabic it means Nuqta, something you can keep to support your knowledge
-so he is telling us to clean our intentions

The 2nd bit is technical
-the imam said Haddathana
-meaning we have been given permission to narrate the following
-the ‘we’ here means plural not singular
-he and others were given permission by Hamidi Abdullah ibn Jubair, his shaikh
-so we ask Bukhari, you and others heard the hadeeth,
-meaning if I can’t find it with other people but you
-then I will disbelieve in the hadeeth

But he said we had been given permission
-and it is a big thing to be given ijaza
-the normal thing will be to go to a halaqah with other students
-and these people will stand up and start narrating hadeeth the shaikh told them
-they would repeat what he told them
-and if the likes what they narrated, he would give them a pebble
-this you will keep with you because it means you were given ijaza
-if the shaikh does not like what you narrated he won’t give you

So this means Imam Bukhari spent some days memorizing the hadeeth
-and he used to do ghusl and make 2 rakat before writing a hadeeth down
-this is how he used to treat the words of the prophet (saw)
-now we go back to the chain

Imam Bukhari’s shaikh said hadathana Sufyan ibn Uyaynah
-Sufyan has given us, him and others
-so we can say group including Bukhari heard from
-a group including Al Jubair
-so others also heard together with Hamidi from Sufyan

Sufyan said hadathana Yahya ibn Saed al Ansari
-when you say hadathana Yahya ibn Saed
-we have extended the chain to a 3rd collective narration
-group including Sufyan
-so it is group from group from group
-and we have 1 name trusted in each group

Now Yahya ibn Saed said akhbarani Muhammad
-he didn’t say akhbarana, they are different
-the former is saying he told me
-and the latter is saying he told us
-so from the chain here
-if nobody knows about this hadeeth but Yahya you won’t worry
-because he didn’t say akhbarana
-and he didn’t say he took it by ijaza
-he took it by telling
-and akhbarani and hadathana are not the same
-the latter is stronger
-but the former is not weak, it means heard from shaikh
-it is trusted
-it would have been weak if he had not told us from who

There are instances there is no ijaza given

-one of them is this case
-the ulama said because Yahya was alone
-between Yahya and Muhammad Taimi is akhbarani
-he told him alone and not by ijaza
-the ulama said because Yahya was alone he won’t give him ijaza alone
-he did not have a halaqah
-and because of this he said he told me
-but if there was halaqah he would have said he gave me ijaza
-and that is why it is stronger

It is possible not to get ijaza e.g. imam Shoabi was extremely cautious
-and used to take the hadeeth more expensive than pieces of emeralds
-therefore if he gave hadeeth by ijaza this is strong
-it was easier for him to give you his daughter in marriage than give you ijaza
-you would stay with him in his house for months
-and he would scrutinize you and if possible ask about your family

So we can get hadeeth by akhbarani, akhbarana and not hadathana

We have a new introduction which is different from hadathana
-and this is akhbarana
-singular form akhbarani (Muhammad Taimi)
-so a group including Yahya told a group including Sufyan
-Muhammad Taimi said same3, he heard Al Qama’a ibn Waqqas
-this is a different form of transportation

The hadeeth is transported in verbs or nouns
-it can be hadathana, akhbarana or same3
-Muhammad Taimi heard al Qama’a
-he was the only one that heard him

Al Qama’a heard from Umar
-him alone
-so we have now entered the green light area, the sahabah, Umar r.a
-now let us look at the hadeeth from top to bottom

Rasul (saw)>>>Umar>>>Al Qama’a>>>Muhammad Taimi>>>Yahya>>>Sufyan>>>Jubair>>>Bukhari

I will like you to take this as another Nuqta in your heart

-we don’t have to doubt this chain
-the first is rasul (saw) and the last is Bukhari
-but we have a lot to learn
-we have 5 other people then Umar

So you go to the ulama and ask them what do they think of the 5 men?
-they said, they are all good

Next we have to establish if the chain is continuous
-has Bukhari met al Hamidi?
-in this case definitely because he said hadathana
-and you will find this hadeeth in many books
-like musnad Shafi’i
-and the next bit is also hadathana
-so it is strong

The next one is he told me
-the next one is also hear and heard and heard
-all the forms of transportation are in this hadeeth
-so it is a very rich chain

Now we want to look from another side
-who else heard it from the prophet apart from Umar?
-but how dare you doubt Umar?
-now we ask who else heard Umar apart from al Qama’a
-this is a legal question

Another question is who else heard from Al Qama’a apart from Muhammad Taimi?
-another legal question

Who else heard from Muhammad other than Yahya?
-from the wording given to us, there is a ‘told me’
-Muhammad told Yahya, but did he tell another person?
-we don’t know

Bukhari is telling you that this hadeeth that came from medina
-from the most noble lips to the heart of Umar
-into the ears of Al Qama’a
-to those of Muhammad Taimi
-to the books of Yahya, because you can tell someone by writing
-so this hadeeth has been going 4 generations
-only one man to one man
-and then became common knowledge
-many people heard from Yahya and then down the chain

Did Bukhari say this hadeeth is weak?
-well you can see it is hadeeth number 1 in his book
-you can’t start your book with a weak hadeeth
-this hadeeth is called hadeeth Ghareeb
-if it was given by Tirmidhi in the same wording
-he would have said we never knew about this hadeeth except through other people
-but in this instance imam Bukhari accepted it
-and it is a very important hadeeth
-you need to have sincerity