By Shaikh Abdullah Faisal
THE WIVES OF THE PROPHET (saws) SERIES: MARIA, the Coptic
By Shaykh Abdullah Faisal
PalTalk Evening dars – May 05, 2013
[Notes typed live by AT-38]
(Edited and posted by Z & AT10)
– was a concubine of the Rasul (saws) not a wife
Maria al-Qibtiyya (Arabic: مارية القبطية)(alternatively, "Maria Qupthiya"), or Maria the Copt, (died 637) was an Egyptian Coptic Christian slave who was sent as a gift from Muqawqis, a Byzantine official, to the Holy prophet Muhammad in 628. Many sources, including Ibn QayyimAl-Jawziyya claim that she was only a concubine. She is also not mentioned in Ibn-Hisham's notes on Ibn-Ishaq's biography where he lists the wives of the Prophet Muhammad (saw). She was the mother of the Prophet Muhammad's son Ibrahim, who died in infancy age 18 months. Hersister, Sirin, was also sent to the Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw). The Prophet (saw) gave her to his follower and poet, Hassan ibn Thabit (ra). Maria never married after the Prophet Muhammad's death in 632, and died five years later. Her birth date is unknown. No primary source mentions her age.
Year of the deputations
In the Islamic year 6 AH (627 – 628 CE), the Prophet Muhammad (saw) is said to havehad letters written to the great rulers of the Middle East, proclaiming the new faith and inviting the rulers to join. What purports to be texts of some of the letters are found in Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari's History of the Prophets and Kings, which was written some 250 years after the events it chronicled. Tabari writes that a deputation was sent to an Egyptian governor named as al-Muqawqis.
Whoever goes right, then he goes right only for the benefit of his own self. And whoever goes astray, and then he goes astray to his own loss. No one laden with burdens can bear another's burden. And We never punish until We have sent a Messenger(to give warning). (Al-Isra 17:15)
Tabari recounts the story of Maria's arrival from Egypt:
In this year Hātib b. Abi Balta'ah came backfrom al-Muqawqis bringing Māriyah and her sister Sīrīn, his female mule Duldul, his donkey Ya'fūr, and sets of garments. With the two women al-Muqawqis had sent a eununch, and the latter stayed with them. Hātib had invited them to become Muslims before he arrived with them, and Māriyah and her sister did so.The Messenger of Allah lodged them with Umm Sulaym bt. Milhān. Māriyah was beautiful. The Holy Prophet sent her sister Sīrīn to Hassān b. Thābit and she bore him 'Abd al-Rahmān b. Hassān.
[Tabari, History of the Prophets and Kings.]
-when Ibrahim died there was an eclipse of the moon
-and the sahaba said that it was because of his death
-but the Rasul (saws) corrected them that it is one of the signs of Allah (swt) to warn the people
-so even though he was grief-stricken
-he didn't let superstition crop in their aqeedah
O you who believe! Take not My enemies and your enemies (i.e. disbelievers and polytheists, etc.) as friends, showing affection towards them, while they have disbelieved in what has come to you of the truth (i.e. Islāmic Monotheism, this Qur’an, and Muhammad SAW), and have driven out the Messenger (Muhammad SAW) and yourselves (from your homeland) because you believe in Allah your Lord! If you have come forth to strive in My Cause and to seek My Good Pleasure, (then take not these disbelievers and polytheists, etc., as your friends). You show friendship to them in secret, while I am All-Aware of what you conceal and what you reveal. And whosoever of you (Muslims) does that, then indeed he has gone (far) astray, (away) from the Straight Path.
Multiple Scholars and authors have mentioned Maria al Qibtiyya as one of the concubines of the Prophet Muhammad (saw).
The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not marry Mariyah al Qibtiyyah, rather she was a concubine who was given to him by al-Muqawqis, the ruler of Egypt. That took place after the treaty of al Hudaybiyah. Mariyah al-Qibtiyyah was a Christian,then she became Muslim (may Allaah be pleased with her).
[Ibn Saad, The Life of Prophet]
The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) lodged her –meaning Mariyah al Qibtiyyah and her sister – with Umm Sulaym bint Milhaan, andthe Messenger of Allaah entered upon them and told them about Islam. He took Mariyah as a concubine and moved her to some property of his in al-‘Awaali… and she became a good Muslim. AlTabaqaatal-Kubra, 1/134-135
Mariyah died during the caliphate of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab in Muharram of 16 AH. ‘Umar gathered the people himself to attend her funeral, and he led the funeral prayer for her.She was buried in al-Baqee’. Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr, Al-Isti’aab, 4/1912
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had four concubines, one of whom was Mariyah. Ibn al-Qayyim, biography. Abu ‘Ubaydah said: He had four (concubines): Mariyah, who was the mother of his son Ibraaheem; Rayhaanah; another beautiful slave woman whom he acquired as a prisoner of war; and a slave woman who was given to him by Zaynab bintJahsh. [Zaad al-Ma’aad]
Could you please clarify for me something that has been troubling me for a while. This concerns the right of a man to have sexual relations with slave girls. Is this so? If it is then is the man allowed to have relations with her as well his wife/wives. Also, is it true that a man can have sexual relations with any number of slave girls and with their own wife/wives also? I have read that Hazrat Ali had 17 slave girls and Hazrat Umar also had many. Surely if a man were allowed this freedom then this could lead to neglecting the wife's needs. Could you also tell clarify whether the wife has got any say in this matter.
Praise be to Allaah.
Our Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) also did that, as did the Sahaabah, the righteous and the scholars.
Islam allows a man to have intercourse with his slave woman, whether he has a wife or wives or he is not married. A slave woman with whom a man has intercourse is known as a sariyyah (concubine) from the word sirr, which means marriage. This is indicated by the Quraan and Sunnah, and this was done by the Prophets. Ibraaheem (peace be upon him) took Haajar as a concubine and she bore him Ismaaeel (may peace be upon them all).
Our Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) also did that, a sdid the Sahaabah, the righteous and the scholars. The scholars are unanimously agreed on that and it is not permissible for anyone to regard it as haraam or to forbid it. Whoever regards that as haraam is a sinner who is going against the consensus of the scholars.
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly with the orphan girls then marry (other) women of your choice, two or three, or four; but if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one or (slaves) that your right hands possess. That is nearer to prevent you from doing injustice” (al-Nisa’ 4:3)
What is meant by “or (slaves) that your right hands possess” is it a slave woman whom you own?
And Allaah say (interpretation of the meaning):
“O Prophet (Muhammad)! Verily, We have made lawful to you your wives, to whom you have paid their Mahr (bridal‑money given by the husband to his wife at the time of marriage), and those (slaves) whom your right hand possesses — whom Allaah has given to you, and the daughters of your ‘Amm (paternal uncles) and the daughters of your ‘Ammaat (paternal aunts) and the daughters of your Khaal (maternal uncles) and the daughters of your Khaalaat (maternal aunts) who migrated (from Makkah) with you, and a believing woman if she offers herself to the Prophet, and the Prophet wishes to marry her a privilege for you only, not for the (rest of) the believers. Indeed We know what We have enjoined upon them about their wives and those (slaves) whom their right hands possess, in order that there should be no difficulty on you. And Allaah is Ever Oft‑Forgiving, Most Merciful” (al-Ahzaab 33:50)
“And those who guard their chastity (i.e. private parts from illegal sexual acts).Except from their wives or the (women slaves) whom their right hands possess for (then) they are not blameworthy. But whosoever seeks beyond that, then it is those who are trespassers" (al-Ma’aarij 70:29-31)
Al-Tabari said: Allaah says, “And those who guard their chastity” i.e., protect their private parts from doing everything that Allaah has forbidden, but they are not to blame if they do not guard their chastity from their wives or from the female slaves whom their rights hands possess. Tafseer al-Tabari, 29/84
Ibn Katheer said: Taking a concubine as well as a wife is permissible according tothe law of Ibraaheem (peace be upon him). Ibraaheem did that with Haajar, whenhe took her as a concubine when he was married to Saarah. Tafseer Ibn Katheer,1/383
The phrase “and those (slaves) whom your right hand possesses — whom Allaah has given to you” [al-Ahzaab 33:50] means, it is permissible for you take concubines from among those whom you seized as war booty. He took possession of Safiyyah and Juwayriyah and he freed them and married them; he took possession of Rayhaanah bint Sham’oon al-Nadariyyah and Maariyah al-Qibtiyyah, the mother of his son Ibraaheem (peace be upon them both), and they were among his concubines, may Allaah be pleased with them both. Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 3/500
The scholars are unanimously agreed that it is permissible. Ibn Qudaamah said: There is no dispute (among the scholars) that it is permissible to take concubines and to have intercourse with one's slave woman, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And those who guard their chastity (i.e. private parts from illegal sexual acts). Except from their wives or the (women slaves) whom their right hands possess for (then) they are not blameworthy.” (al-Ma’aarij 70:29-30)
Maariyah al-Qibtiyyah was the Umm Walad (a slave woman who bore her master a child) of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and she was the mother of Ibraaheem, the son of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be uponhim), of whom he said, “Her son set her free.” Haajar, the mother of Isma’eel(peace be upon him), was the concubine of Ibraaheem the close friend (khaleel)of the Most Merciful (peace be upon him). ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (may Allaah be pleased with him) had a number of slave women who bore him children, to each of whom he left four hundred in his will. ‘Ali (may Allaah be pleased with him) had slave women who bore him children, as did many of the Sahaabah. ‘Ali ibnal-Husayn, al-Qaasim ibn Muhammad and Saalim ibn ‘Abd-Allaah were all born from slave mothers. Al-Mughni, 10/441
Al-Shaafa’i(may Allaah have mercy on him) said: Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And those who guard their chastity (i.e. private parts from illegal sexual acts).Except from their wives or the (women slaves) whom their right hands possess for (then) they are not blameworthy.” (al-Ma’aarij 70:29-30)
The Book of Allaah indicates that the sexual relationships that are permitted are onlyof two types, either marriage or those (women slaves) whom one’s right hand possesses. Al-Umm, 5/43.
The wife has no right to object to her husband owning female slaves or to his having intercourse with them. And Allah knows best.
LESSONS FROM THE STORY OF MARIA, the Coptic Christian
1. CHRISTIANITY was the religion of the Egyptians before the advent of Islam
2. COPTIC was the language of the Christians before they were conquered by the Arabs
-what makes you an Arab is the Arabic language
3. THE SUNNAH IS TO SEND LETTERS TO RULERS OF NATIONS BEFORE YOU CONQUER THE NATION
-it’s not fardh, only a sunnah
-because everyone in the world knows about Islam already
-as the Prophet (pbuh) conquered Banu Mustaliq and yet he didn’t send them any letter (Battle of Uhud)
-sending a letter is left up to the decision of the ameer; he might not want to tip them off
Narrated By Ibn Aun: “I wrote a letter to Nafi and Nafi wrote in reply to my letter that the Prophet had suddenly attacked Bani Mustaliq without warning while they were heedless and their cattle were being watered at the places of water. Their fighting men were killed and their women and children were taken as captives;the Prophet got Juwairiya on that day. Nafi said that Ibn 'Umar had told him the above narration and that Ibn 'Umar was in that army.” [al-Bukhari (2541)and Muslim (1730)]
4. THE RASUL (pbuh) TRUSTED AND RESPECTED HATIB IBN ABI BALTA’AH
-he carried the letter to the king of Egypt
Imaam Ibn Taymiya stated in ‘Majmoo’ il Fataawa’ Vol 3, 283-284: “If a Muslim is incorrect in his understanding about killing (a Muslim) or making takfir, then he does not become a disbeliever because of that, this is like when Umar Ibn alKhattaab said about Haatib ibn Abi Balta’, “O Rasoolullaah! Allow me to behead this hypocrite!” Rasoolullaah replied, “Indeed, he is one who witnessed Badr. And you do not know if Allaah has looked towards the people of Badr and said to them ” Do as you like, for you have been forgiven. “ And this [hadeeth] is found in the two Saheeh collections. [al-Bukhari (3007) and Muslim (2494)]
5. IT ISHALAL TO ACCEPT GIFTS FROM KUFFAAR
-the Prophet (pbuh) accepted concubines and gold as gifts
-when Sulaiman refused the gift of Bilqis,(queen of Sheba) that was his own decision
-because he knew he was going to conquer them
-so you’re allowed to accept an inheritance from a kaafir parent who leaves you money in a will
6. A EUNUCH IS NO DANGER TO A HOUSEHOLD
-a ‘eunuch’ is a man who has no testicles, which were removed by castration
7. A SLAVE GIRL CAN BE GIVEN AS GIFT TO A LEADER OF A NATION, TO AN ELITE OR EVEN A LAYMAN
8. THE LOVE THE RASUL [PBUH] HAD FOR HASSAN IBN THABIT, WHO WAS GIVEN SIRIN, (MARIA’S SISTER)
9. IT IS HARAAM TO COHABIT WITH 2 SISTERS SIMULTANEOUSLY
-so the Rasul (pbuh) gave Sirin to Hassan
10. THE PROPHET [PBUH] DID NOT MARRY MARIA
-she was not given the title of Mother of the Believers
-because it is not fardh to marry your right-hand possess
-it is unwise to take concubines in Europe or America because she can cry, “rape”
And those who guard their chastity (i.e. private parts, from illegal sexual acts)(Al-Mu'minun 23:5)
Exceptfrom their wives or (the captives and slaves) that their right hands possess,for then, they are free from blame; (Al-Mu'minun 23:6)
But whoever seeks beyond that, then those are the transgressors; (Al-Mu'minun 23:7)
-We’re not to take captives before we subdue the land:
It is not for a Prophet that he should have prisoners of war (and free them with ransom) until he had made a great slaughter (among his enemies) in the land. You desire the good of this world (i.e. the money of ransom for freeing the captives), but Allah desires (for you) the Hereafter. And Allah is All-Mighty,All-Wise. (Al-Anfal 8:67)
-STDs are rife in these countries, so you’d put the lives of your Muslim wives at risk
-because the kaafir women do not even know how to wash
-Qur’an says not to take kaafir girls as girl-friends
Made lawful to you this day are At Tayyibāt [all kinds of Halāl (lawful) foods,which Allah has made lawful (meat of slaughtered eatable animals, etc., milk products, fats, vegetables and fruits, etc.). The food (slaughtered cattle,eatable animals, etc.) of the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) is lawful to you and yours is lawful to them. (Lawful to you in marriage) are chaste women from the believers and chaste women from those who were given the Scripture (Jews and Christians) before your time, when you have given their due Mahr (bridal money given by the husband to his wife at the time of marriage),desiring chastity (i.e. taking them in legal wedlock) not committing illegal sexual intercourse, nor taking them as girl-friends. Mai’dah 5:5
11. LOVE FOR POWER, WEALTH AND STATUS CAUSE PEOPLE TO TURN AWAY FROM ISLAM
-the king of Egypt (al-Muqawqis) knew Muhammad (pbuh) was the Prophet
-but he didn’t embrace Islam because of power,wealth and status
-Brittney Spears (US singer) and Angelina Jolie (US actress) would like to take Shahadah
12. INTER-RACIAL MARRIAGES ARE VERY EXCITING
-opposites attract, the chemistry is high, easier to impregnate your wife
13. BOTH WOMEN (MARIA AND SIRIN) GOT PREGNANT AND GAVE BIRTH TO BOYS
14. BOTH WOMEN (MARIA AND SIRIN) TOOK THEIR SHAHADAH AND BECAME GOOD MUSLIMS
15. THE RASUL (SAWS) CRIED WHEN ABRAHAM DIED BECAUSE HE HAD NATURAL INSTINCTS, LIKE US
-Abraham (son of Maria and Muhammad pbuh) died when he was only eighteen months old
Say (O Muhammad SAW): "I am only a man like you. It has been inspired to me that your Ilāh (God) is One Ilāh (God i.e. Allah). So whoever hopes for the Meeting with his Lord, let him work righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord." (Al-Kahf 18:110)
16. THE RASUL (SAWS) TAUGHT SAHABAHS TAWHEED EVEN WHEN HE WAS STRICKEN WITH GRIEF
Narrated Abu Bakr: We were with Allah's Apostle when the sun eclipsed. Allah's Apostle stood up dragging his cloak till he entered the Mosque. He led us in a two-Rakat prayer till the sun (eclipse) had cleared. Then the Prophet (p.b.u.h)said, "The sun and the moon do not eclipse because of someone's death. So whenever you see these eclipses pray and invoke (Allah) till the eclipse is over." [Bukhari: 18/150]
Imaam al-Bukhaari and Muslim narrated that Ibn Mas’ood al-Ansaari said: “the sun was eclipsed the day Ibraaheem the son of the Messenger of Allaah SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) died, and the people said, ‘The sun is eclipsed because of the death of Ibraaheem.’ The Messenger of Allaah SAWS(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘The sun and the moon are two signs from Allaah, and they do not become eclipsed for the death or the birthof anyone. If you see that, hasten to remember Allaah and to pray.’” According to another hadeeth in al-Saheehayn: “Call on Allaah and pray until [the eclipse] is over.”
17. UMAR PRAYED OVER MARIA WHEN SHE DIED
18. A REAL MAN GIVES HIS WIFE HER OWN SPACE
19. ITS EASY FOR A CHRISTIAN TO EMBRACE ISLAM
-the Rasul (saws) invited Maria and her sister,Sirin to Islam and they both embraced Islam
-Islam is the fastest growing religion in the world
-we worship the same God but they have misconceptions about Him
Verily, you will find the strongest among men in enmity to the believers (Muslims) the Jews and those who are Al-Mushrikûn (see V.2:105), and you will find the nearest in love to the believers (Muslims) those who say: "We are Christians." That is because amongst them are priests and monks, and they are not proud. (Al-Ma'idah 5:82)