Friday, May 3, 2013

THE WIVES OF THE PROPHET (SAW) - SAFIYYAH BINT HUYAYY (RA) - NOTES & AUDIO


By Shaikh Abdullah Faisal

THE WIVES OF THE PROPHET (SAW) SERIES: SAFIYYAH BINT HUYAYY

By Shaykh Abdullah El-Faisal
PalTalk Evening dars – May 02, 2013
(Notes typed live by AT38) 
(Edited and posted by Z & AT10.)

The Treachery of Banu Nadir

The Jews of Banu al Nadir continued to hate the Muslims; this hatred led them to incite the disbelievers of the Quraysh and other tribes to attack Madinah in the Battle of the Ditch. Several reports have been transmitted which are weak either because they are mursal or munqati or because one of the narrators in the isnad is majhul.

But when these reports are put together, they can be taken as evidence, and they strengthen one another. The reports go back to Urwah ibn al Zubayr, Asim ibn ?Umar ibn Qatadah, Abd Allah ibn Abu Bakr ibn Hazm, Sa’id ibn al Musayyab and Musa ibn Uqbah. Some of them gave the names of the inciters from Banu al Nadir and Ibn Ishaq mentioned some of them: Salam ibn Abu al Haqiq, Kinanah ibn Abu al Haqiq al Nadari and Huyayy ibn Akhtab al Nadari. Source (Seerah Ibn Hisham)

The report by Ibn Ishaq was followed by most of the other Sirah writers. The Prophet went to Banu al Nadir to ask them for help in paying the blood money for two men from a tribe which was party to the treaty, whom Amr ibn Umayyah al Damari had killed by mistake following the incident of al Raji. When he came to Banu al Nadir, he sat down against a wall.

They were about to drop a rock onto him and kill him, but he learnt of that through divine inspiration. He left them quickly and went back to Madinah, and he ordered that they should be besieged. They agreed to a peace treaty after a siege lasting six days, on the condition that they could take with them whatever their camels could carry.

-The prophet (saw) didn't allow them take with them any weapons

When they came upon you from above you and from below you, and when the eyes grew wild and the hearts reached to the throats, and you were harbouring doubts about Allah. (Al-Ahzab 33:10)

The Jews of Banu al Nadir continued to hate the Muslims; this hatred led them to incite the disbelievers of the Quraysh and other tribes to attack Madinah in the Battle of the Ditch. Several reports have been transmitted which are weak either because they are mursal or munqati or because one of the narrators in the isnad is majhul.

But when these reports are put together, they can be taken as evidence, and they strengthen one another. The reports go back to Urwah ibn al Zubayr, Asim ibn ?Umar ibn Qatadah, Abd Allah ibn Abu Bakr ibn Hazm, Sa’id ibn al Musayyab and Musa ibn Uqbah. Some of them gave the names of the inciters from Banu al Nadir and Ibn Ishaq mentioned some of them: Salam ibn Abu al Haqiq, Kinanah ibn Abu al Haqiq al Nadari and Huyayy ibn Akhtab al Nadari. Source (Seerah Ibn Hisham)


أخبرنا معن بن عيسى، حدثنا هشام بن سعد، عن زيد بن أسلم، أن نبي الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في الوجع الذي توفي فيه اجتمع إليه نساؤه فقالت صفية بنت حيي: أما والله يا نبي الله لوددت أن الذي بك بي فغمزنها أزواج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وأبصرهن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، فقال: «مضمضن» ، فيقلن: من أي شيء يا نبي الله؟، قال: «من تغامزكن بصاحبتكن، والله إنها لصادقة» .

When the Prophet (SAW) was suffering from the fatal sickness due to which he died, Safiyyah (RA) said, "O Messenger of Allah, by Allah, I wish I were the one suffering instead of you."

The other wives of the Prophet (SAW) looked at each other (as if they mocked what she said). The Prophet (SAW) saw them and said: "Wash your mouths." They said, "From what?" He said: "From ridiculing her with your looks to each other. By Allah, she is truthful." [related by Ibn Sa'd in al-Tabaqat al-Kubra (8/128)]

وعن ابن عمر قال : كان بعيني صفية خضرة فقال لها النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم : " ما هذه الخضرة بعينيك ؟ " . قالت : قلت لزوجي : إني رأيت فيما يرى النائم كأن قمرا وقع في حجري فلطمني وقال : أتريدين ملك يثرب ؟ قالت : وما كان أبغض إلي من رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قتل أبي وزوجي فما زال يعتذر إلي وقال : " يا صفية إن أباك ألب علي العرب وفعل وفعل " . حتى ذهب ذلك من نفسي. رواه الطبراني ورجاله رجال الصحيح

Ibn 'Umar narrated: It is said that Allah's Messenger (SAW), saw a green mark on Safiyyah's eye and he asked: "What is this green (mark) on you, Safiyyah?" She responded, "My head was on the lap of Ibn Abi al-Huqaiq while I was sleeping. Then I saw that the moon fell on my lap. So I informed him of my dream and he slapped me and said, "You desire the king of Yathrib."

She added, "The Messenger of Allah used to be the most hateful to me for he killed my husband and father and he never ceased to give me excuses saying, 'Your father incited the Arabs against me and did such and such' until the feeling of aversion dissipated from my heart." [related by al-Haythami in Majma al-Zawaid (9/404) No. 15373; al-Haythami said: it is related by at-Tabarani and its reporters are men of Saheeh.]

Safiyyah bint Huyayy
Safiyyah bint Huyayy, (may Allah be pleased with her) married the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in 7 AH, when the Prophet was sixty years old and she was seventeen years old. As in the case of Juwayriyya bint Harith, this marriage occurred after one of the Muslims' decisive battles, in this case, the battle of Khaybar.

After the battle of Khaybar in which the Muslims defeated the Jews, two women were brought before the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) by Bilal, the black mu'adhdhin of Medina whose beautifully piercing voice constantly called the Muslims to prayer right up until the Prophet's death- after which he could not bring himself to call the adhan anymore, until he was present at the surrender of Jerusalem to the khalif Umar in 17 AH.

They had passed by those who had been killed in the fighting. One of the two women was shrieking and screaming, and rubbing dust in her hair, while the other was mute with shock.

The silent one was Safiyyah, the daughter of Huyayy ibn Akhtab, the chief of the Banu Nadir who had all been expelled from Medina in 4 AH after plotting to kill the Messenger of Allah by dropping a stone on his head as he sat talking with their leaders. The noisy one was Safiyyah's cousin. Safiyyah could trace her lineage directly back to Harun, the brother of the Prophet Moses (peace be upon them). The Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) asked someone to look after the woman who was screaming and then took off his cloak and placed it over the shoulders of Safiyyah, whose husband had been killed in the battle. It was a gesture of pity, but from that moment she was to be honored and given great respect in the Muslim community.
Then the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) turned to Bilal and said, "Bilal, has Allah plucked mercy from your heart that you let these two women pass by those of their menfolk who have been killed?" This was considered a severe reprimand, for the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) rarely criticized the behavior of those who served him. Anas ibn Malik, for example once said, "I served the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) for eight years. He never once scolded me for something that I had done or for something that I had not done."

Like Umm Habiba, Safiyyah was the daughter of a great chief. The only person who could save her from becoming a slave after having enjoyed such a high position was the Prophet. Although her father had planned to assassinate Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) after the battle of Uhud, and had conspired with the Banu Qurayza to exterminate all the Muslims during the battle of al-Khandaq, it was characteristic of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) that he did not bear any grudges.

For those who did wrong, he felt pity rather than anger, and for those who had done no wrong, he had even greater compassion. The Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) invited Safiyyah to embrace Islam, which she did, and having given her, her freedom, he then married her. Some people may have wondered how it was that Safiyyah could accept Islam and marry the Prophet when her father had been his bitter enemy, and when bloody battles had taken place between the Jews and the Muslims. The answer may be found in what she has related of her early life as the daughter of the chief of the Banu Nadir.

She said, (may Allah be pleased with her): I was my father's favorite and also a favorite with my uncle Yasir. They could never see me with one of their children without picking me up. When the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came to Medina, my father and my uncle went to see him. It was very early in the morning and between dawn and sunrise.

They did not return until the sun was setting. They came back worn out and depressed, walking with slow, heavy steps. I smiled to them as I always did, but neither of them took any notice of me because they were so miserable. I head Abu Yasir ask my father, "Is it him?" "Yes, it is." "Can you recognize him? Can you verify it?" "Yes, I can recognize him too well." "What do you feel towards him?" "Enmity, enmity as long as I live."

The significance of this conversation is evident when we recall that in the Torah of the Jews, it was written that a Prophet would come who would lead those who followed him to victory. Indeed before the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came to Medina, the Jews used to threaten the idol worshippers of Yathrib, as it was then called, that when the next Prophet came to the believers were going to exterminate them, just as the Jews had exterminated other tribes who refused to worship God in the past.

As in any case, of the Prophet Jesus, (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) who had been clearly described in the Torah - but rejected by many of the Jews when he actually came - the next and last Prophet was accurately described in the Torah, which also contained signs by which the Jews could easily recognize him. Thus Ka'b al-Ahbar, one of the Jews of that time who embraced Islam, relates that this Prophet is described in the Torah as follows:

"My slave, Ahmad, the Chosen, born in Mecca, who will emigrate to Medina (or he said Tayyiba - another name given to Yathrib); his community will be those who praise Allah in every state."

And 'Amr ibn al-'As said that it also says in the Torah:
"O Prophet, We have sent you as a witness, a bringer of good news and a warner and a refuge for the illiterate. You are My slave and My messenger. I have called you the one on whom people rely, one who is neither coarse nor vulgar, and who neither shouts in the markets nor repays evil with evil, but rather pardons and forgives. Allah will not take him back to Himself until the crooked community has been straightened out by him and they say, 'There is no god but Allah.' Through him, blind eyes, deaf ears and covered hearts will be opened."

It was thanks to these descriptions in the Torah, that the most learned rabbi of the Jews, 'Abdullah ibn Salam, had embraced Islam on seeing Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and it was because of these descriptions that Huyayy ibn Akhtab was also able to recognize him. However Huyayy, like most of the other Jews, 

was deeply disappointed that the last Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was a descendant of Isma'il and not of Ishaq, (the two sons of the Prophet Ibrahim, peace be upon them), since the Jews of that time claimed exclusive descent from Ishaq, through the twelve sons of his son Ya'qub (who was also known as Israel), from whom the twelve tribes of Israel had originated. Not only did Huyayy resent the fact that the last Prophet had appeared amongst the Arabs, but also he did not want to lose his position of power and leadership over his people.

It was for these reasons that Huyayy secretly decided to oppose and fight the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) while in public he and the other leaders of the Jews made peace treaties with the Muslims and the Jews broke as soon as it seemed a favorable time to do so. Although Safiyyah was Huyayy's daughter, she had a pure heart and had always wanted to worship her Creator and Lord, the One who had sent Moses, to whom she was related, and Jesus, and finally Muhammad, may Allah be pleased with all of them. 

Thus as soon as the opportunity arose, not only to follow the last Prophet, but also to be married to him, she took it. Although Safiyyah had in Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) a most kind and considerate husband, she was not always favorably accepted by some of his other wives, especially when she had first joined the Prophet's household. It is related by Anas that on one occasion, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) found Safiyyah weeping. When he asked her what the matter was, she replied that she heard that Hafsah had disparagingly described her as 'the daughter of a Jew'.

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) responded by saying, "You are certainly the daughter of a Prophet (Harun), and certainly your uncle was a Prophet (Moses), and you are certainly the wife of a Prophet (Muhammad), so what is there in that to be scornful towards you?" Then he said to Hafsah, "O Hafsah, fear Allah!"

Once the Prophet was accompanied on a journey by Safiyyah and Zainab bint Jahsh when Safiyyah' s camel went lame. Zainab had an extra camel and the Prophet asked her if she would give it to Safiyyah. Zainab retorted, "Should I give to that Jewess!" The Prophet turned away from her in anger and would not have anything to do with her for two or three months to show his disapproval of what she had said.

Some three years later, when Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was in his final illness, Safiyyah felt for him deeply and sincerely. "O Messenger of Allah," she said, "I wish it was I who was suffering instead of you." Some of the wives winked at each other which made the Prophet cross and he exclaimed, "By Allah, she spoke the truth!"

She still underwent difficulties after the death of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Once a slave girl she owned went to the Amir al Muminin Umar and said, "Amir al Muminin! Safiyyah loves the Sabbath and maintains ties with the Jews!" Umar asked Safiyyah about that and she said, "I have not loved the Sabbath since Allah replaced it with Friday for me, and I only maintain ties with those Jews to whom I am related by kinship." She asked her slave girl what had possessed her to carry lies to Umar and the girl replied, "Shaytan!" Safiyyah said, "Go, you are free."

Safiyyah was with the Prophet for nearly four years, She was only twenty-one when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) died, and lived as a widow for the next thirty-nine years, dying in 50 AH, at the age of sixty (may Allah be pleased with her)
وروينا أن أن جارية لها أتت عمر بن الخطاب فقالت: إن صفية تحب السبت، وتصل اليهود. فبعث إليها عمر، فسألها، فقالت: أما السبت فإني لم أحبه منذ أبدلني الله به يوم الجمعة. وأما اليهود فإن لي فيهم رحما، وأنا أصلها. قال: ثم قالت للجارية: ما حملك على ما صنعت؟ قالت: الشيطان قالت: اذهبي فأنت حرة

Once a slave girl she owned went to the Umar Ibn al-Khattab and said, "Safiyyah loves the Sabbath and maintains ties with the Jews!" Umar asked Safiyyah about that and she said, "I have not loved the Sabbath since Allah replaced it with Friday for me, and I only maintain ties with those Jews to whom I am related by kinship." She asked her slave girl what had possessed her to carry lies to Umar and the girl replied, "Shaytan!" Safiyyah said, "Go, you are free." [related by Ibn Abd al-Barr in al-isti'ab fi ma'rifat al-ashab (4/1872)]

LESSONS FROM THE STORY

  • 1. JEWS WILL ALWAYS BREAK THEIR TREATY
Is it not (the case) that every time they make a covenant, some party among them throwing it aside? Nay! the truth is most of them believe not. (Al-Baqarah 2:100)

  • 2. THE MODUS-OPERANDI OF JEWS IS TO KILL THE PROPHETS

And indeed, We gave Musa (Moses) the Book and followed him up with a succession of Messengers. And We gave 'Iesa (Jesus), the son of Maryam (Mary), clear signs and supported him with Ruh-ul-Qudus [Jibrael (Gabriel)]. Is it that whenever there came to you a Messenger with what you yourselves desired not, you grew arrogant? Some, you disbelieved and some, you killed. (Al-Baqarah 2:87)

Ibn Abbas (RA) narrated the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: "Verily the most painful punishment on the Day of Judgment are those who kill the prophets or people murdered by the prophet or kill one of his parents, and making statues and knowledgeable people who do not benefit from his knowledge." [related by Bayhaqi in 'Shu'ab al-Iman' (10/288) No. 7504]

  • 3. ALLAH (SWT) PROTECTED THE PROPHET FROM ASSASSINATION

This proves that he is a real prophet

O Messenger (Muhammad SAW)! Proclaim (the Message) which has been sent down to you from your Lord. And if you do not, then you have not conveyed His Message. Allah will protect you from mankind. Verily, Allah guides not the people who disbelieve. (Al-Ma'idah 5:67)

  • 4. JEWS HAVE TOTAL CONTEMPT FOR NON-JEWISH LIFE

  • 5. THE MERCY OF THE RASUL - HE ALLOWED THEM TO LEAVE QUIETLY

And We have sent you (O Muhammad SAW) not but as a mercy for the 'Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists). (Al-Anbiya 21:107)

  • 6. JEWS WILL ALWAYS INCITE OTHER INFIDELS AGAINST MUSLIMS AND THEY WILL NEVER GIVE UP

  • 7. JEWS CHOSE HELL-FIRE OVER PARADISE IN THE NAME OF RACISM

  • 8. THE JEWS WERE ABLE TO RECOGNISE MUHAMMAD THE WAY THEY RECOGNISE THEIR OWN CHILDREN

Those to whom We gave the Scripture (Jews and Christians) recognise him (Muhammad or the Ka'bah at Makkah) as they recongise their sons. But verily, a party of them conceal the truth while they know it - [i.e. the qualities of Muhammad which are written in the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)]. (Al-Baqarah 2:146)

  • 9. A TRUE DREAM IS THE 46TH PART IF PROPHECY - SAFIYYAH HAD A DREAM THAT WAS INTERPRETED TO BE THAT SHE WILL MARRY THE RASUL

  • 10. HER HUSBAND WAS OPPRESSIVE, EVIL AND UNREASONABLE - HE PUNCHED HER FOR A DREAM

  • 11. ALLAH GUIDES WHOM HE WILLS -

  • 12. THE RASUL (SAW) CARRIED NO GRUDGES - HER FATHER TRIED TO KILL HIM YET HE CARRIED NO GRUDGES

Have We not opened your breast for you (O Muhammad (Peace be upon him))? (Ash-Sharh 94:1)
And removed from you your burden, (Ash-Sharh 94:2)
Which weighed down your back? (Ash-Sharh 94:3)
And raised high your fame? (Ash-Sharh 94:4)

  • 13. THE SINCERITY OF THE CHIEF RABI (ABDULLAH IBN SALAM) - HE TOOK HIS SHAHADAH

  • 14. YOU SHOULD PRESERVE THE STATUS OF A REVERT
The Rasul (saw) married her and maintained her status in the society

  • 15. WAR IS DECEPTION

Ka'ab Ibn Ashraf was killed through deception

  • 16. JEWS ARE THE DESCENDANTS OF YAQUB (A.S)

  • 17. IT IS HARAAM TO CONSUMMATE A MARRIAGE WHEN THE WOMAN IS ON MENSES
The Rasul consummated after she took her shower 
-if you do so you need to give away 4 1/4 grams of gold

  • 18. YOU CAN'T USE A PERSON'S PAST AGAINST THEM

'A'ishah said: The camel of Safiyyah bint Huyayy was fatigued, and Zainab had a surplus mount. The Messenger of Allah (SAW) said to Zainab: Give her the camel. She said: Should I give to that Jewess? Thereupon the Messenger of Allah (SAW) became angry and kept away from her during Dhu al-Hijjah, Muharram, and a part of Safar. [Sunan Abu Dawud (4/199) No. 4602] (Daeef)

  • 19. SAFIYYAH WAS OF NOBLE LINEAGE

حدثنا سليمان بن أحمد، ثنا إسحاق بن إبراهيم، أخبرنا عبد الرزاق، أخبرنا معمر، عن ثابت، عن أنس، قال: بلغ صفية أن حفصة، قالت لها: إنك بنت يهودي فبكت فدخل عليها النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وهي تبكي فقال: «ما شأنك؟» قالت: قالت لي حفصة: إني بنت يهودي فقال لها النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: «إنك لبنت نبي وإن عمك لنبي وإنك لتحت نبي فبم تفخر عليك؟» ثم قال: «اتق الله يا حفصة»

It is related by Anas that on one occasion, the Prophet (SAW) found Safiyyah weeping. When he asked her what the matter was, she replied that she heard that Hafsah had disparagingly described her as 'the daughter of a Jew'. The Prophet (SAW) responded by saying, "You are certainly the daughter of a Prophet (Harun), and certainly your uncle was a Prophet (Moses), and you are certai nly the wife of a Prophet (Muhammad), so what is there in that to be scornful towards you?" Then he said to Hafsah, "O Hafsah, fear Allah!" [related by Abu Naeem al-Asbahani in 'Hilyatul-Awliya' (2/55)]

  • 20. A MAN CAN EX-COMMUNICATE HIS WIFE TO DISCIPLINE HER
  • 21. SAFIYYAH PROVED HER SINCERITY BY BEING REMAINING LOYAL TO UTHMAN

  • 22. SHE MAINTAINED THE FAMILY TIES WITH HER KAAFIR RELATIVES BECAUSE IT IS HARAAM TO BREAK FAMILY TIES

Allah does not forbid you to deal justly and kindly with those who fought not against you on account of religion and did not drive you out of your homes. Verily, Allah loves those who deal with equity. (Al-Mumtahinah 60:8)

  • 23. WHEN THE PROPHET (SAWS) WAS DYING, SHE CRIED AND WISHED TO TRADE PLACES W/ HIM AND DIE IN HIS PLACE, SO THE RASUL (SAWS) HER LOVE IS REAL

أما والله يا نبي الله لوددت أن الذي بك بي فغمزنها أزواج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وأبصرهن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، فقال: «مضمضن» ، فيقلن: من أي شيء يا نبي الله؟، قال: «من تغامزكن بصاحبتكن، والله إنها لصادقة» 

When the Prophet (SAW) was suffering from the fatal sickness due to which he died, Safiyyah (RA) said, "O Messenger of Allah, by Allah, I wish I were the one suffering instead of you." The other wives of the Prophet (SAW) looked at each other (as if they mocked what she said). The Prophet (SAW) saw them and said: "Wash your mouths." They said, "From what?" He said: "From ridiculing her with your looks to each other. By Allah, she is truthful." [related by Ibn Sa'd in al-Tabaqat al-Kubra (8/128)]

  • 24. SHE WAS KIND-HEARTED
A girl slandered her yet she freed her

وروينا أن أن جارية لها أتت عمر بن الخطاب فقالت: إن صفية تحب السبت، وتصل اليهود. فبعث إليها عمر، فسألها، فقالت: أما السبت فإني لم أحبه منذ أبدلني الله به يوم الجمعة. وأما اليهود فإن لي فيهم رحما، وأنا أصلها. قال: ثم قالت للجارية: ما حملك على ما صنعت؟ قالت: الشيطان قالت: اذهبي فأنت حرة

Once a slave girl she owned went to the Umar Ibn al-Khattab and said, "Safiyyah loves the Sabbath and maintains ties with the Jews!" Umar asked Safiyyah about that and she said, "I have not loved the Sabbath since Allah replaced it with Friday for me, and I only maintain ties with those Jews to whom I am related by kinship." She asked her slave girl what had possessed her to carry lies to Umar and the girl replied, "Shaytan!" Safiyyah said, "Go, you are free." [related by Ibn Abd al-Barr in al-isti'ab fi ma'rifat al-ashab (4/1872)]

She died approx age 60 or 62, which was 50 years after the hijrah.