Sunday, July 7, 2013

THE RULES OF FASTING



THE RULES OF FASTING

By Shaikh Abdullah Al Faisal

July 06 2013 Saturday (Evening Dars)

Notes by AT 38 and AT 8
EDITED BY: Muminah_29

It is expected that Ramadan will start on the 8th of July 2013 InshAllah

Therefore if the moon is sighted, you have to perform Salatul Taraweeh and fast the following day
Taraweeh is performed the same day after Salatul Isha

WHAT IS THE DEFINITION OF FASTING

The literal meaning is 'Imsaak" meaning 'to abstain'

The technical meaning is 'to abstain from food, drink, smoking and intercourse with your wife
During the daylight hours of Ramadan from Fajr until Maghrib to gain Allah's pleasure
So those who fast to lose weight, or because of culture will not gain any reward from Allah because their intention was wrong and actions are by intention

Umar ibn al-Khattab said, 'I heard the Messenger of Allah (SAW), say, "Actions only go by intentions. Everyone gets what they intend..." 

[Al-Bukhari (1) and Muslim (1907)]

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SAWM AND SIYAM

Sawm is specific to Ramadan but Siyam is general fasting

Two Adhans are important in Ramadan: the Adhan of Fajr and the Adhan of Maghrib
The Adhan of Fajr tells you when to stop eating Suhoor and the Adhan of Maghrib tells you to rush to break the fast

Anas ibn Malik (RA) narrated the Prophet (SAW) said: “Eat sahoor, for in sahoor there is blessing.” 

[Al-Bukhari (1923) and Muslim (1095)]

The Suhoor is Sunnah mua'kadda and you should not fast without taking Suhoor

Salmaan (RA) narrated the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: "Blessings are found in three things, the Group (Al-Jama'ah), Ath-thareed (a type of food) and As-Suhoor (the Pre-dawn meal)."

[Al-Mu'jam al-Kabir al-Tabarani (6/251) No. 6127, Shu'ab al-Eman al-Bayhaqi (10/24) No. 7114, Akhbar Asbahan Abu Na'eem (1/82)]

It is Makrooh not to take it
You should hasten to break your fast because of the following hadith

Sahl ibn Sad reported that Allah's Messenger (SAW) said, "The people will remain on the right path as long as they hasten the breaking of the fast." 

[Al-Bukhari (1957) and Muslim (1098)]

WHO ARE EXEMPTED FROM FASTING

11 people are exempted from fasting

1. THE MAD MAN

Ali reported that Allah's Messenger (SAW) said, "The pen has been raised for three persons (meaning they are not held accountable for what they do): one who is sleeping until he gets up, a child until he reaches the age of puberty, and an insane person until he becomes sane."
 [Musnad Ahmad (1/154) No. 1327, Sunan Abu Dawud (4/140) No. 4402, Sunan Tirmidhi (4/32) No. 1423, Sunan Ibn Majah (3/198) No. 2041, al-Sunan al-Kubra al-Nasa'i (5/265) No. 5596, Mustadrak al-Haakim (2/67) No. 2350]

Because he can't make his niyah (intention) and the pen is lifted from him
Fasting without niyah is void (not accepted)

Hafsah (RA) reported the Prophet (SAW) as saying, “He, who has not formed an intention (to fast) before dawn, has not fasted”.

[Sunan Tirmidhi (3/108) No. 730, Sunan Abu Dawud (2/329) No. 2454, Sunan al-Nasa'i (4/196) No. 2331, Sunan Ibn Majah (2/598) No. 1700, Sunan al-Darime (2/12) No. 1698, Musnad Ahmad (6/287) No. 26500]

You have to make your intention before Fajr else your fasting is void

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said: “Whoever thinks in his heart that he will fast tomorrow has formed the intention.”

[Majmu' al-Fatawa al-Kubra (5/375)]

You need to make 30 different intentions for the 30 days of Ramadan
So you need to have an intention every day that you will fast the following day

2. CHILDREN BENEATH THE AGE OF PUBERTY (AGE OF 10 ACCORDING TO HANBALI FIQH)

Ibn Qudaamah (rh) said: "The age of ten is more likely, because the Prophet (SAW) enjoined smacking children for not praying at this age, and regarding fasting as being like prayer is better, because they are close to one another, and because they are both physical actions that are pillars of Islam. But fasting is harder, so attention should be paid to when the child becomes able for it, because some may be able to pray who are not yet able to fast." 

[Al-Mughni (3/161)]

3. THE ELDERLY

These do not fast but are obliged to give away in charity for each day, but if they are poor then they are exempted

[Observing Saum (fasts)] for a fixed number of days, but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days. And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g. an old man, etc.), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day). But whoever does good of his own accord, it is better for him. And that you fast, it is better for you if only you know. 

(Al-Baqarah 2:184)

Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope 

(Al-Baqarah 2:286)

What they give away is equivalent to $200US to cover to entire month of Ramadan

4. THE SICK PERSON

The Sharia law has divided the sick people into two categories: -

The temporarily sick and those permanently sick
The person who is permanently sick has to give away charity and feed a poor person every day
This is $200 in USA and its equivalent in the UK, but it may be a different amount in other countries
He doesn't make up the days he missed in Ramadan, because he is terminally ill
If you fast whilst you are ill, you are doing makrooh and it is unwise
 Allah wants for you ease and comfort


'Ata' said, "One should break the fast on account of illness, whatever it may be, as Allah has said (in Al-Baqarah 2:184)." And Hasan and Ibrahim said, "Concerning the woman who gives suck and the one with child, when they fear about themselves or their child, they should break the fast, then fast on other days. And as to the very old man when he cannot bear fasting. Anas, after he became old, fed one who was needy, for a year or two daily with bread and meat, and broke the fast." 

[Sahih Bukhari (6/25)]

And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allah is Most Merciful to you. 

(An-Nisa 4:29)
  
Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you... 

(Al-Baqarah 2:185)

Ta Ha. (Ta-Ha 20:1)

We have not sent down the Qur'an unto you (O Muhammad SAW) to cause you distress, 

(Ta-Ha 20:2)

But only as a Reminder to those who fear (Allah). 

(Ta-Ha 20:3)

All these are verses to prove to you that you should not be an extremist
So don't make the deen a burden on yourself by fasting when you are sick.

5. THE PREGNANT WOMAN

That they have to feed the poor only, and do not have to make up the fasts. Among the Sahabah, this was the view of Abdullah Ibn Abbas (RA). Ibn Qudamah also narrated this in al-Mughni (3/150) from Ibn 'Umar (RA). Abu Dawood (2318) narrated from Ibn Abbas (RA) and Ali (RA) that this phrase; 'those who can fast with difficulty [Surah al-Baqarah (2):184] was a concession granted to old men and old women who find it difficult to fast, allowing them not to fast and to feed one poor person for each day instead, and the same for pregnant and breastfeeding women if they are afraid.

Abu Dawood said, i.e., for their children they may not fast and may feed (the poor) instead.' Al-Nawawi said, 'its isnad is hasan.' This was also narrated by al-Bazzar who added at the end, 'Ibn Abbas used to say to a concubine of his who was pregnant: You are like one who cannot fast, so you have to pay the Fidya but you do not have to make up the fasts. 

[Al-Daraqutni classed its isnad as saheeh, as stated by al-Hafiz in al-Talkhees]

She falls into the category of those who are terminally ill
Therefore she is obliged to feed a poor person every day in Ramadan and she doesn't have to make it up
Ibn Abbas holds this view and says you should not make it up
This is the correct view
Ibn Qudama  and Ali (r )also held this view
So if you are a person who takes your deen from the internet you may take the wrong opinion and tell your wives to make up the days she missed
Islamqa is a good site but not everything there is correct. Islamqa tells pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers to make up the fast that they have missed, but it is not the correct view.

6. THE BREASTFEEDING MOTHER IF SHE FEARS FOR THE BABY

She is allowed if she fears for the baby

The breast-feeding woman has the same Hukm as the PREGNANT LADY

She should feed a fasting person every day in Ramadan, and she does not have to make it up herself
Among the Sahabah, this was the view of ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allah be pleased with him). Ibn Qudamah also narrated this in al-Mughni (3/37) from Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him).

 7. - THE TRAVELLER

'Aisha (RA) narrated: Hamza bin 'Amr Al-Aslami asked the Prophet (SAW), "Should I fast while traveling?" The Prophet replied, "You may fast if you wish, and you may not fast if you wish."
 [Al-Bukhari (1943) and Muslim (1121)]

Ubayd ibn Jabr narrated 'I travelled with Abu Basrah al-Ghifaari, the companion of the Messenger of Allah (SAW), in a ship from al-Fustaat in Ramadan. He set off then lunch was brought (according to a report narrated by Ahmad: when we sent off from Marsana he ordered that his food be brought). Then he said: 'Come and eat.' I said, 'Can't we still see the houses?' Abu Basrah said: 'don't you want to follow the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (SAW)?!'
 [Sunan Abu Dawud (2/318) No. 2412, Musnad Ahmad (6/398) No. 27276, al-Sunan al-Kubra al-Bayhaqi (4/414) No. 8178]

The traveller is exempted from fasting when the journey IS DIFFICULT
However, he is obliged to make up for the days he missed when RAMADAN IS OVER

8. THE MUJAHIDEEN

Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri (RA) said: 'We travelled with the Messenger of Allah (SAW) to Makkah (meaning at the Conquest of Makkah) and we were fasting. We stopped to camp and the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: “You are approaching your enemy and breaking the fast will make you stronger.” This was a concession, and some of us continued to fast and some of us broke our fast. Then we stopped to camp again, and he said, “You are going to meet your enemy in the morning, and breaking the fast will make you stronger, so break your fast.” So we had no choice but to break our fast' 

[Sahih Muslim (2/789) No. 1120]

Abu Bakr ibn Abd ar-Rahman narrated that one of the companions of the Prophet (SAW) said: 'I saw the Messenger of Allah (SAW) telling the people on a journey in the year of the Conquest (of Makkah) to break their fast. He said, “Gain strength to face your enemy.”'

[Sunan Abu Dawud (2/307) No. 2365, Muwatta Malik (1/307) No. 792, Musnad Ahmad (3/475) No. 15944]

The Mujahideen, have the same HUKM as the HUKM of the TRAVELLER
The Prophet (SAWS) broke his fast publicly when he went to conquer MAKKAH
 When Ramadan is over they must make up the days they missed
The Prophet (SAWS) told us to break the fast to gain strength to engage the enemy

9. THE WOMEN ON MENSES (HAID)

Mu'adha narrated: I asked 'A'isha: What is the reason that a menstruating woman completes the fasts (that she abandons during her monthly course). But she does not complete the prayers? She ('A'isha) said: Are you a Haruriya? I said: I am not a Haruriya, but I simply want to inquire. She said: We passed through this (period of menstruation), and we were ordered to complete the fasts, but were not ordered to complete the prayers. 

[Sahih Muslim (1/265) No. 335]

The women on menses are obliged to make up for the fasts they missed after the month of Ramadan is over
The Muslim woman who is not aware of the cycle of her menstruation period is not a PIOUS WOMAN
The Women who missed the fasts must make up for the fasts but are not supposed to make up the SALAH they missed
It is the KHAWAARIJ that have innovated this obligation of making up the Salah to show everyone how pious they are. The word Haruriya is another name for the Khawarij.

10. THE WOMAN WHO IS BLEEDING AFTER GIVING BIRTH

 These women have the same Hukm as the Menstruating woman
 She makes up the fast she missed but not the Salah

11. PEOPLE WHO ARE FASTING AND FIND IT UNBEARABLE

And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g. an old man, etc.), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskin (poor person) (for every day). But whoever does well of his own accord, it is better for him. And that you fast, it is better for you if only you know. 

(Al-Baqarah 2:184)

Therefore if you are fasting and you feel unusually sick, then you are allowed to break the fast and make up the day you missed

And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allah is Most Merciful to you.

(An-Nisa 4:29)

This is because Allah has commanded us in the above ayah not to kill ourselves and HE is ever merciful to us

>>> STARTING YOUR FAST IN A STATE OF JANAABA <<<

Aisha and Umm Salama (RA) narrated: "The Prophet (SAW) used to get up at dawn while in a state of Janaba (sexual impurity). Then, he would take a bath and fast."

[Al-Bukhari (1926) and Muslim (1109)]

JANAABA means post sexual impurity after intercourse with your wife
You are allowed to start your fast in a State of Janaaba

However, you are required to make GHUSL and pray FAJR in order for your fast to be valid

>>> THE DURATION OF THE FAST <<<

The Duration of the fast is from the AZAN of FAJR till the AZAN of MAGHRIB
If you are living in a country that has 6 MONTHS OF DAYLIGHT or 6 MONTHS of NIGHT, then you fast with the timetable of MAKKAH

This is because your timetable is ABNORMAL and the timetable of Makkah is NORMAL
You are obliged to PRACTISE ISLAM BY THE NORMAL and not by the abnormal

>>> KISSING WHILE FASTING IN RAMADAN <<<

'Aisha (RA) narrated the Prophet (SAW) used to kiss and embrace (his wives) while he was fasting, and he had more power to control his desires than any of you. Said Jabir, "The person who gets discharge after casting a look (on his wife) should complete his fast."

[Sahih Bukhari (3/30) No. 1927]

Abdullah Ibn 'Amr Ibn al-'Aas said: "We were with the Prophet when a youth came and said: 'May I kiss (my wife) while I am fasting?' He (the Prophet) said: "No". Then an old man came and said: 'May I kiss (my wife) while I am fasting?' He said: "Yes". So we began looking at one another, so Allah's Messenger said: "The old man is able to control himself".

[Musnad Ahmad (2/220) No. 7054, Sunan Abu Dawud (2/312) No. 2387]

It is permissible to kiss your wife in Ramadan, if you are able to control yourself
It is unadvisable if you are a young couple
The Prophet (SAWS) disallowed the young man and allowed the old man to kiss his wife when he is fasting.

Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin: The Prophet (SAW) used to kiss her and suck her tongue when he was fasting. 

[Abu Dawud]

A MUFTI should take every man on his own merit and pass a FATWA accordingly.
A Young man has raging Hormones
Whereas the old man can manage to control himself

>>> INTERCOURSE IN RAMADAN <<<

Intercourse in Ramadan is permissible only after MAGHRIB, with your wife

The person who had intercourse with his wife in RAMADAN before MAGHRIB has committed a GREAT SIN

This person is obliged to PAY AN ATTONEMENT

The Atonement is called KAFAARA

Narrated By Abu Huraira: While we were sitting with the Prophet, a man came and said, "O Allah's Apostle! I have been ruined." Allah's Apostle asked what the matter with him was. He replied "I had sexual intercourse with my wife while I was fasting." Allah's Apostle asked him, "Can you afford to manumit a slave?" He replied in the negative. Allah's Apostle asked him, "Can you fast for two successive months?"

He replied in the negative. The Prophet asked him, "Can you afford to feed sixty poor persons?" He replied in the negative. The Prophet kept silent and while we were in that state, a big basket full of dates was brought to the Prophet. He asked, "Where is the questioner?" He replied, "I (am here)." The Prophet said (to him), "Take this (basket of dates) and give it in charity."

The man said, "Should I give it to a person poorer than I? By Allah; there is no family between it's (i.e. Medina's) two mountains who are poorer than I." The Prophet smiled until his pre-molar teeth became visible and then said, 'Feed your family with it."

[Al-Bukhari (1936) and Muslim (1111)]

The Atonement is either to FREE A SLAVE, or FAST TWO SUCCESSIVE MONTHS, or FEED 60 POOR PEOPLE
If you had sex with your wife TEN TIMES in Ramadan, you feed the 60 People just once.
The food you buy for these poor people should not be too cheap or too expensive, it should be in the middle of these two extremes
If the wife initiated the intercourse both husband and wife has to feed the 60 poor people and if the husband initiated the intercourse then he must feed them by himself

>>> MASTURBATION DURING RAMADAN <<<

Masturbation is not allowed and the person who does so must make up for the fast because it breaks if he ejaculates
If the person masturbates 5 times in RAMADAN then he must make up 5 days of fasting and if 7 times then 7 days to make up
Masturbation while fasting in Ramadan is not a grave sin like intercourse with your wife and therefore the punishment is less

>>> EATING OR DRINKING WHILE FASTING IN RAMADAN DUE TO FORGETFULLNESS <<<

Abu Huraira reported that the Prophet (SAW) said, “If anyone forgets and eats or drinks (by accident while he is fasting), he should complete his fast, for it is Allah who has fed him and given him drink.”

 [Al-Bukhari (6669) and Muslim (1155)]

If you should eat or drink while fasting in Ramadan due to forgetfulness your fast is still VALID
You should continue to fast because your fast is not broken, and ALLAH will not hold it against you, because ALLAH fed you or gave you the drink
The above mentioned Hadith is HUJJAH

The Prophet (SAWS) said ALLAH has forgiven his UMMAH for things they did out of MISTAKE, DURESS and also FORGETFULLNESS

Ibn 'Abbas (RA) the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: "Verily Allah has pardoned [or been lenient with] for me my Ummah: their mistakes, their forgetfulness, and that which they have been forced to do under duress."

[Sunan Ibn Majah (3/200) No. 2045, al-Mu'jam al-Kabir al-Tabarani (11/133) No. 11274, al-Sunan al-Kubra al-Bayhaqi (7/584) No. 15094, Sunan al-Daraqutni (5/300) No. 4351]

>>> THOSE WHO OVERSLEPT AND MISSED SUHUR <<<

If you over slept and missed Suhur, you must go through the day without taking Suhur
If you are unable to wake up on your own, then ask the people you live with to wake you up or set an alarm
Waking up late for Suhur is not acceptable. SUHUR is SUNNAH MUAKKADA because there is BARAKH in the Suhur

Anas ibn Malik (RA) narrated the Prophet (SAW) said: “Eat sahoor, for in sahoor there is blessing.”

 [Al-Bukhari (1923) and Muslim (1095)]


Abu Hurairah (RAA) narrated, 'The Messenger of Allah (SAW) said, "Allah, the Most Exalted said: "Those among My servants, who hasten to break their fast, are the most beloved (or dearest) to Me."

[Related by at-Tirmidhi]

>>> THE INTENTION FOR FASTING <<<

The intention for fasting is FARD.

Hafsah (RA) reported the Prophet (SAW) as saying, “He, who has not formed an intention (to fast) before dawn, has not fasted”.

[Sunan Tirmidhi (3/108) No. 730, Sunan Abu Dawud (2/329) No. 2454, Sunan al-Nasa'i (4/196) No. 2331, Sunan Ibn Majah (2/598) No. 1700, Sunan al-Darime (2/12) No. 1698, Musnad Ahmad (6/287) No. 26500]


Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said: “Whoever thinks in his heart that he will fast tomorrow has formed the intention.” 

[Majmu' al-Fatawa al-Kubra (5/375)]

Anyone who did not make his intention to fast before the praying of FAJR has no fast for that day

Ibn Taymiyyah said saying in your heart the night before that I will fast tomorrow is sufficient
The ruling for making your intention to fast before Fajr applies only to the month of Ramadan

'Aisha (RA) narrated the Prophet (SAW) came to visit me one day and asked, “Do you have anything (to eat)?” I said, “No.” He said, “Then I am fasting.” Then he came to me another day and I said, “I had been given a present of some Hais (a mixture of dates and ghee). He said, “Show it to me, for I had began the day fasting.” Then he ate. 

[Sahih Muslim (2/809) No. 1154]

For Siyaam, outside of Ramadan then you have until Dhuhr to make your intention

>>> WHAT BREAKS THE FAST <<<

There are 10 things that break the fast
These are as follows: -

1 - TO EAT ON PURPOSE

2 - TO DRINK DILEBERATELY

3 - SMOKING DELEBERATELY

 4- TO INDUCE VOMIT

Abu Huraira (RA) narrated the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said, “Whoever vomits involuntarily does not have to make up the fast, but whoever vomits deliberately let him make up the fast.” 

[Sunan Tirmidhi (3/98) No. 720, Sunan Abu Dawud (2/310) No. 2380, Sunan Ibn Majah (2/581) No. 1676, Musnad Ahmad (2/498) No. 10468, Sunan al-Daraqutni (3/155) No. 2276]

5 - MENSES IF STARTED BEFORE MAGHRIB OF THAT DAY

6 - THE BLEEDING AFTER CHILDBIRTH

7 - TO MASTURBATE BEFORE MAGHRIB

8 - SEXUAL INTERCOURSE DELIBERATELY

9 - TO USE DRIPS IN THE HOSPITAL WHICH IS A SUPPLEMENT FOR FOOD

10 - APOSTASY

 The person if he comes back to Islam must make up for the days he missed when he apostated

>>> THINGS THAT DO NOT BREAK THE FAST <<<

1 - TO EAT OR DRINK FORGETFULLY

2 - TO VOMIT UNINTENTIONALLY

3 - TO BRUSH YOUR TEETH WITH TOOTHPASTE

4 - TO SWALLOW YOUR OWN SALIVA, and DUST or SMOKE from the kitchen

5 - MEDICAL INJECTIONS

Anas ibn Malik (RA) narrated that a man came to the Prophet and complained about his eyes troubling him. He said, “Shall I apply kohl (collegiums) while I am fasting?” He said, “Yes!"

[Sunan Tirmidhi (3/105) No. 726]

6 - ASTHMATIC PUMPS

7 - USING EAR DROPS, EYE DROPS, MASCARA & KOHL

Anas ibn Malik (RA) narrated that a man came to the Prophet and complained about his eyes troubling him. He said, “Shall I apply kohl (collegiums) while I am fasting?” He said, “Yes!"

[Sunan Tirmidhi (3/105) No. 726]

8 - HAVING A WET DREAM WHILE FASTING IN THE DAYTIME

9 - THINKING ABOUT BREAKING THE FAST

The scholars differ about this issue
The correct opinion is that it does not break the fast

10 - DOING A BLOODTEST

11 - HIJAAMA (cupping)

Ibn Abbas (RA) reported that Allah's Messenger had himself cupped when he was in the state of ihram.

[Al-Bukhari (1938) and Muslim (1202). It is added in a variant of al-Bukhari, "and was fasting."]

Thawban narrated the Prophet (SAW) said: “The cupper and the one for whom cupping is done have both invalidated their fast.”

[Sunan Abu Dawud (2/308) No. 2367, Sunan Ibn Majah (2/584) No. 1680, Sunan al-Darime (2/25) No. 1730, Musnad Ahmad (5/282) No. 22484]

Anas (RAA) narrated, 'The first time cupping was disliked for the one who is fasting was when Ja'far bin Abi Talib had himself cupped while fasting and the Messenger of Allah (SAW) came across him and said, "Those two have broken their fast (meaning Ja'far and the man who was cupping him)." But later on, the Prophet (SAW) allowed cupping for the one who is fasting. Anas used to have himself cupped while he was fasting.

[Related by Ad-Daraqutni, who regarded it as a strong hadith]

12 - WATER ACCIDENTALLY SLIPPING DOWN YOUR THROAT WHILE YOUR MAKING WUDU OR GHUSL

>>> WHEN IS IT HARAAM TO FAST <<<

It is Haraam to fast the following 6 days

1 - TO FAST ON A DOUBTFUL DAY

'Ammar bin Yasir (RA) reported: "He who observes the fast on a doubtful day, has in fact disobeyed Abul-Qasim."

[Sunan Abu Dawud (2/300) No. 2334, Sunan Tirmidhi (3/70) No. 686, Sunan al-Nasa'i (4/153) No. 2188, Sunan Ibn Majah (2/561) No. 1645, Sunan al-Darime (2/5) No. 1682]

You are not sure Ramadan has started but you still fast
This is not allowed
 If you read Abul Qaasim in a Hadith, it means the PROPHET (SAWS)

2 – It is Haraam to fast on the 10th , 11th, 12th, and 13th  of DHUL HIJJAH

Because these four days are EID days and it is Haraam to fast on Eid days

Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri (RA) narrated the Prophet (SAW) forbade fasting on the day of (Eid) al-Fitr and al-Nahr (the day of sacrifice, i.e., Eid al-Adha).”

[Al-Bukhari (1991) and Muslim (1138)]

Nubaisha al-Hudhali narrated the Prophet (SAW) said: “The days of al-Tashreeq are days of eating, drinking and remembering Allah.”

[Sahih Muslim (2/800) No. 1141]

This is known as the BIG EID, EID KABEER. These four days are EID UL ADHA
The days of Tashreeq are the 11th, 12th and 13th of Dhu’l-Hijjah. There are several verses and ahaadeeth which speak of their virtue:

Allaah says “And remember Allaah during the appointed Days”

[Al-Baqarah 2:203]

These are the days of Tashreeq. This was the view of Ibn ‘Umar and most of the scholars.

3 - It is HARAAM to fast on the first of Shawwaal, because the 1st of Shawwaal is EID UL FITR

These six days , the five days of EID and the doubtful day are Haraam to fast on
The five days of EID include The day of EID UL ADHA, the 3 days of Tashreeq and the one day of EID UL FITR

>>> SHOULD WE FOLLOW THE LOCAL SIGHTING OR THE SIGHTING IN MAKKAH <<<

Abu Huraira (RA) reported: The Messenger of Allah (SAW) said, "Observe Saum (fast) on sighting the crescent and terminate it on sighting it (the new moon), but if the sky is cloudy before you, then complete the number (thirty days) of the month."

[Al-Bukhari (1909) and Muslim (1081)]

The Scholars of Islam differ about this, because there is Hadith where Muawiyyah started his fast in Syria and Umar started the next day in Medina
This is why people say you should follow your local sighting
This FITNA will never go away
The CORRECT OPINION is that everyone in the WORLD SHOULD FOLLOW THE MOON OF MAKKAH TO UNITE THE UMMAH
It is worthy of mentioning that people who follow the local sighting, their fast is still valid

Kuraib narrated that Umm Al-Fadl sent him to Muawiyah in Ash-Sham. He said: "I came to Ash-Sham. He said: "I came to Ash-Sham and complete her errand. Then the new crescent of Ramadan was sighted while I was in Ash-Sham. I saw the new crescent on the night of Friday, then I came to Al-Madinah at the end of the month. 'Abdullah bin 'Abbas asked me about the sighting of the moon and said: ' When did you see it?' I said: 'We saw it on the night of Friday.' He said; 'You saw it on the ninth of Friday?' I said: 'Yes, and the people saw it and started fasting, and so did Muawiyah. He said: 'But we saw it on the night of Saturday, so we will continue fasting until we have completed thirty days or we see it.' I said: 'Will you not be content with the sighting of Muawiyah and his companions? He said; 'No; this is what the Messenger of Allah enjoined upon us."

[Sunan al-Nasa'i]

The people who fast using the local sighting use the above-mentioned hadith found in Nasai as their hujjah.

>>> TARAWEEH PRAYERS <<<

'A'isha reported that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) prayed one night in the mosque and people also prayed along with him. He then prayed on the following night and there were many persons. Then on the third or fourth night (many people) gathered there, but the Messenger of Allah (May peace be upon him) did not come out to them (for leading the Tarawih prayer). When it was morning, he said: I saw what you were doing, but I desisted to come to you (and lead the prayer) for I feared that this prayer might become obligatory for you. (He the narrator) said: It was the month of Ramadan.

[Sahih Muslim, Book 004, Number 1666]

Taraweeh prayers were done by the Prophet (SAWS) in jamaa’ah and then he stopped it because he feared we might think them to be compulsory
Taraweeh prayers are SUNNAH MUAKKADA

An-Nadr bin Shaiban said: "I said to Abu Salamah bin 'Abdur-Rahman: 'Tell me of something that you heard from your father, that he heard from the Messenger of Allah, with no one in between your father and Messenger of Allah concerning the month of Ramadan. He said: 'Yes; my father said: The Messenger of Allah said:

Allah, may He be blessed and exalted, enjoined the fast of Ramadan upon you, and I have made it Sunnah for you to spend its nights in prayer. Whoever fasts it and spends its nights in prayer out of faith and in the hope of reward, he will emerge from his sins as on the day his mother bore him."'

[Sunan al-Nasa'i (4/158) No. 2210, Sunan Ibn Majah (2/355) No. 1328, Musnad Ahmad (1/191) No. 1660] (Daeef)

This above-mentioned hadith is weak, however Shaikh is allowed to quote it to encourage us to do good. Whenever a Shaikh quotes a weak hadith, he must mention that the Hadith is weak in order to be sincere with the knowledge.

It is better to pray under one Imam in the Masjid than to pray Taraweeh by yourself at home.
Salah at the masjid  is 27 times better than to pray by yourself at home.
Uniting the ummah under 1 imam for Taraweeh prayer was one of the greatest accomplishments of Umar during his caliphate.

Likewise to unite the ummah with the Qurayshi dialect for the holy Quran was the greatest accomplishment during the caliphate of Uthman

You can pray either 8 or 20 Rakah

Let us listen to what Shaykh Ibn 'Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
Here we say that we should not go to extremes or be negligent. Some people go to extremes in adhering to the number mentioned in the Sunnah, and say that it is not permissible to do more than the number mentioned in the Sunnah, and they aggressively denounce those who do more than that, saying that they are sinners.

This is undoubtedly wrong. How can they be sinners, when the Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), upon being asked about night prayers, said that they are to be done two by two, and he did not specify any particular number? Of course, the one who asked him about the night prayer did not know the number, because if he did not know how to do it, it is even more likely that he did not know the number. And he was not one of those who served the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) so that we might say that he knew what happened inside his house. Since the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) told him how to do it but did not say how many times, it may be understood that the matter is broad in scope, and that a person may pray one hundred rak'ahs then pray Witr with one rak'ah.

With regard to the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), “Pray as you have seen me praying”, this does not apply in absolute terms even for these people. Hence, they do not say that a person should pray Witr with five rak'ahs sometimes and with seven rak'ahs sometimes and with nine rak'ahs sometimes. If we understand it in absolute terms, then we would have to pray Witr with five rak'ahs sometimes and with seven rak'ahs sometimes and with nine rak'ahs sometimes. But what is meant by the hadeeth is pray as you have seen me praying with regard to how to pray not how many rak'ahs, unless there is a text to state what the number is.

Whatever the case, a person should not be strict with people with regard to a matter that is broad in scope. We have even seen some brothers who are strict on this matter accusing the imams who pray more than eleven rak'ahs of following bid'ah, and they leave the mosque, thus missing out on the reward of which the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever stands with the imam until he finishes (the prayer), the reward of qiyaam al-layl will be recorded for him.” (Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 806; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi, 646). Some of them even sit down after completing ten rak'ahs, thus breaking up the rows of worshippers by sitting there, and sometimes they start talking and disturb the people who are praying.

We have no doubt that their intentions are good and they are doing their best to come to the right conclusion, but that does not mean that they are correct.

The other group does the opposite. They sternly denounce those who pray only eleven rak'ahs and say that they have gone against scholarly consensus. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And whoever contradicts and opposes the Messenger (Muhammad) after the right path has been shown clearly to him, and follows other than the believers' way, We shall keep him in the path he has chosen, and burn him in Hell -- what an evil destination!”[al-Nisa' 4:115]

All the generations who came before you only knew the number as twenty-three rak'ahs, and they denounce anyone who says anything different.

[Al-Sharh al-Mumti', 4/73-75]

When the Person is evil, they always take Quran and Sunnah out of context. They think they can deceive you because you don't know your DEEN

>>> WHEN IS IT MAKROOH TO FAST <<<

1 - TO SINGLE OUT FRIDAY TO FAST

Because Friday is the Eid of the Week
Every Friday is EID
You do not need to envy the Christians for Christmas because every Friday is Eid

Abu Huraira (RA) narrated: “I heard the Prophet (SAW) say, 'None of you should fast on a Friday unless he fasts the day before or the day after.'”

[Al-Bukhari (1985) and Muslim (1144)]

Abu Huraira (RA) narrated the Prophet (SAW) said, “Do not single out the night (preceding) Friday (from among the nights) for prayer; and do not single out Friday (from among the days) for fasting, unless it occurs during a day of fasting, which one of you normally observes.”

[Sahih Muslim (2/801) No. 1144]

Juwayriyah bint al-Harith (RA) narrated that the Prophet (SAW) entered upon her on a Friday when she was fasting. He asked her, “Did you fast yesterday?” She said, “No.” He asked, “Are you going to fast tomorrow?” She said, “No.” He said, “Then break your fast.” Hammad ibn al-Ja'd said, “I heard Qutadah say, Abu Ayyob told me that Juwayriyah spoke to him and he told her to stop her fast and she did so.”

[Sahih Bukhari (3/42) No. 1986]

Ibn Qudaamah said: “It is makrooh to single out the day of Friday for fasting, unless that coincides with a fast which one usually observes, such as a person who fasts alternate days, and a day that he fasts coincides with Friday, or a person who has the habit of fasting on the first or last day of the month, or the middle day of the month.”

(Al-Mughni, vol. 3, p. 53)

Al-Nawawi said: “Our companions (i.e. the Shaafa'is) said: it is makrooh to single out the day of Friday for fasting, but if one joins it with the day before or the day after, or it coincides with a day which he habitually fasts, or he vowed to fast the day that his sick loved one was cured, or the day So and so returns, and that day happens to be a Friday, then it is not makrooh

(al-Majmoo' Sharh al-Muhadhdhab, vol. 6, p. 479)

2 - TO SINGLE OUT SATURDAY OR SUNDAY, BECAUSE IT BELONGS TO JEWS AND CHRISTIANS

Abdullah ibn Busr reported from his sister that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: “Do not fast on Saturdays apart from days when you are obliged to fast. If any one of you cannot find anything other than grape skin or the twigs of a tree, let him chew it (to make sure that he is not fasting).”

[Musnad Ahmad (6/368) No. 27120, Sunan Abu Dawud (2/320) No. 2421, Sunan Tirmidhi (3/120) No. 744, Sunan Ibn Majah (2/619) No. 1726, Sunan al-Darime (2/47) No. 1790]

On Saturdays  and Sundays the Jews gather in their temples top worship

 3 - WOMAN FASTING SUNNAH WITHOUT THE PERMISSION OF HER HUSBAND

Abu Huraira (RA) narrated the Prophet (SAW) said: "It is not lawful for a woman to fast (Nawafil) when her husband is present except with his permission; and she should not allow anyone to enter his house except with his permission; and if she spends of his wealth (on charitable purposes) without being ordered by him, he will get half of the reward."

[Al-Bukhari (5195) and Muslim (1026)]

>>> THE BEST DAYS TO FAST <<<

1 - MONDAYS AND THURDAYS

It was narrated that Aisha (RA) said: "The Prophet (SAW) was keen to fast on Mondays and Thursdays."

[Sunan Tirmidhi (3/121) No. 745, Sunan Ibn Majah (2/627) No. 1739, Musnad Ahmad (6/106) No. 24792, al-Sunan al-Kubra al-Nasa'i (3/122) No. 2508]

Abu Huraira (RA) that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: “Deeds are shown (to Allah) on Mondays and Thursdays, and I like my deeds to be shown when I am fasting.”

[Sunan Tirmidhi (3/122) No. 747]

2 - DAY OF ARAFAH 9th of Dhul Hijjah

Abu Qatada narrated the Messenger of Allah (SAW) was asked about fasting the Day of 'Ashura' and said, "It expiates the past year."

[Sahih Muslim (2/819) No. 1162 and Musnad Ahmad (5/296) No. 22590]

Al-Nawawi (rh) said: “Fasting the day of 'Arafaah expiates for all minor sins, in other words this brings forgiveness for all sins except for major sins.”

[Al-Majmoo' Sharh al-Muhadhdhab (6/382)]

Ibn Taymiyyah (rh) said: “The expiation of purification, prayer, and fasting Ramadan, 'Arafah and 'Ashoora' applies to minor sins only.”

[Al-Fataawa al-Kubra (5/344)]

3 - THE SIX DAYS OF SHAWAAL

If you fast the six days of Shawaal you get Barakah for fasting for the whole year

Abu Ayub narrated that: the Messenger of Allah said: "Whoever fasts Ramadan, then follows it with six from Shawwal, then that is (equal in reward) to fasting every day."

[Tirmidhi]

These six days are any 6 days IN THE MONTH of SHAWAAL

4 - THE 10th DAY OF MUHARRAM (The 10th Day of Muharram is called Yaum Aashuraa)


Ibn Abbas said, "When the Messenger of Allah came to Al-Madinah, he found the Jews fasting the day of 'Ashura'. Therefore, he asked them about it and they said, 'This is the day that Allah gave Musa victory over Fir'awn.' Then, the Prophet said, 'We have more right to Musa (than them), so fast it.'"

[Al-Bukhari (3943) and Muslim (1130)]

5 - THE FAST OF DAVID

Abdullah bin Amr bin al-'As (RA) narrated the Messenger of Allah (SAW) was informed that I have said: "By Allah, I will fast all the days and pray all the nights as long as I live." On that, the Messenger of Allah asked me. "Are you the one who says: 'I will fast all the days and pray all the nights as long as I live?? ?' “I said, "Yes, I have said it." He said, "You cannot do that. So fast (sometimes) and do not fast (sometimes). Pray and sleep. Fast for three days a month, for the reward of a good deed is multiplied by ten time, and so the fasting of three days a month equals the fasting of a year."

I said: "I am capable of doing more than this, O Messenger of Allah." Thereupon he said: "Fast one day and do not fast for the next two days." I said: "Messenger of Allah, I have the strength to do more than that." The Holy Prophet (SAW), said: "Fast one day and break on the other day. That is known as the fasting of Dawud (AS) and that is the best fasting." I said: "I am capable of doing more than this." Thereupon the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: "There is nothing better than this."

[Al-Bukhari (3418) and Muslim (1159)]

This is fasting on alternate days. No one can do better than that.
This is because you are not allowed to make the Deen a burden on yourself and maybe a burden on your wife.
Your Body and your family have a right over you

>>> WHEN DOES FASTING BECOME COMPULSORY OUTSIDE OF RAMADAN <<<

 1 - IF YOU TAKE AN OATH WITH ALLAH TO FAST AFTER HE GIVES YOU SOMTHING

Allah will not punish you for what is unintentional in your oaths, but He will punish you for your deliberate oaths; for its expiation (a deliberate oath) feed ten Masakin (poor persons), on a scale of the average of that with which you feed your own families; or clothe them; or manumit a slave. But whosoever cannot afford (that), then he should fast for three days. That is the expiation for the oaths when you have sworn. And protect your oaths (i.e. do not swear much). Thus Allah make clear to you His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) that you may be grateful. 

(Al-Ma'idah 5:89)

2 - IF YOU TAKE AN OATH WITH ALLAH THAT YOU WILL NOT DO SOMETHING  (THAT IS IF YOU BREAK YOUR WALLAHI)

Allah will not punish you for what is unintentional in your oaths, but He will punish you for your deliberate oaths; for its expiation (a deliberate oath) feed ten Masakin (poor persons), on a scale of the average of that with which you feed your own families; or clothe them; or manumit a slave. But whosoever cannot afford (that), then he should fast for three days. That is the expiation for the oaths when you have sworn. And protect your oaths (i.e. do not swear much). Thus Allah make clear to you His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) that you may be grateful. 

(Al-Ma'idah 5:89)


3 - WHEN A RELATIVE DIES AND THEY LEFT BEHIND DAYS THEY OWED ALLAH - YOU SHOULD FAST ON BEHALF OF YOUR DEAD RELATIVES

'Aisha (RA) narrated the Prophet (SAW) said, “Whoever dies while some fast is due from him (which is unfulfilled), and his heir must fast on his behalf.”

[Al-Bukhari (1952) and Muslim (1147)]

>>> THOSE WHOSE FAST IS REJECTED BY ALLAH <<<

1 - THE KAAFIR

The deeds of the Kuffaar are not accepted; they are like scattered particles of Dust

And We shall turn to whatever deeds they (disbelievers, polytheists, sinners, etc.) did, and We shall make such deeds as scattered floating particles of dust. 

(Al-Furqan 25:23)

2 - THE MUNAAFIQ

Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths (grade) of the Fire; no helper will you find for them. 

(An-Nisa 4:145)

These hypocrites their destiny is in the bottom of the hellfire

3 - THE ZINDEEQ

The Zindeeq is a Heretic. Ex. Nation of Islam in Chicago, the Qadianis.etc

The Zindeeq their Hukm is the same as the Munaafiq
The Zindeeq will be in the bottom of the hellfire

4 - THE MURTADD

And whosoever of you turns back from his religion and dies as a disbeliever, then his deeds will be lost in this life and in the Hereafter, and they will be the dwellers of the Fire. They will abide therein forever." 

(Al-Baqarah 2:217)

The Murtadd is the apostate. If he fasts he only gets hunger and thirst and not an ounce of Barakak

5 - THE MUSHRIK

The Mushrik is the Pagan, who worships someone other than ALLAH.

Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam from Ata ibn Yasar that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said, "O Allah! Do not make my grave an idol that is worshipped. The anger on those who took the graves of their Prophets as places of prostration was terrible."

[Muwatta Malik (1/223) No. 570, Musannaf Abdur Razzaq (1/406) No. 1587, Musnad Ahmad (2/246) No. 7352]

The Mushriks are the Goofy Sufi, the Barailvis and the Shiites. The goofy Sufis are the extreme Sufi who pray to the inhabitants of the grave and they believe in wahdatul wujood (union)
Union is the concept that a man can become so pious till he becomes Allah and when he becomes Allah he does not need to pray anymore.

This ideology was introduced to the Muslims by Ibn Arabi (he was the spiritual father of the goofy Sufis)

Surely, the religion (i.e. the worship and the obedience) is for Allah only. And those who take Auliya' (protectors and helpers) besides Him (say): "We worship them only that they may bring us near to Allah." Verily, Allah will judge between them concerning that wherein they differ. Truly, Allah guides not him who is a liar, and a disbeliever. 

(Az-Zumar 39:3)

Abu Huraira (RA) narrated the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: “There may be a fasting person who gets nothing more from his fast than hunger and thirst, and there may be a person who prays qiyaam and all he gets from his qiyaam is a sleepless night.”
 
[Musnad Ahmad (2/373) No. 8843, Sunan Ibn Majah (2/591) No. 1690, Sunan al-Darime (2/390) No. 2720, Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah (3/242) No. 1997]

The 5 INFIDELS that were mentioned above do not receive any reward for their fast. Their fast is rejected and they only receive HUNGER and THIRST because IMAN is a prerequisite for your fast to be accepted.