Wednesday, October 30, 2013

Tafseer Surah As-Saff The Categorisation of Hadith


02nd September 2013
Notes by Authentic Tauheed 38

We are still explaining ayah 9 in which Allah (swt) said that He will give Islam a brilliant future even though the kufaar hate it

He it is Who has sent His Messenger (Muhammad SAW) with guidance and the religion of truth (Islamic Monotheism) to make it victorious over all (other) religions even though the Mushrikun (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, and disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah and in His Messenger Muhammed SAW) hate (it). (As-Saff 61:9)

Islam is the religion (system) that protects your six sacred things
Your life, wealth, honour, aql, lineage and Deen
We kill the murderer, flog the slanderer, cut the hand of the thief, kill the drug smuggler, kill the adulterer and also fight the zindeeq who spread false versions of Islam


What is the definition of Hadith?
The biography of the Rasul (saw) was documented through Hadith, how he walked, slept, fought and also what duas he made before and after every action

Indeed in the Messenger of Allah (Muhammad SAW) you have a good example to follow for him who hopes in (the Meeting with) Allah and the Last Day and remembers Allah much. (Al-Ahzab 33:21)

We don't have this in Christianity
You know how the Prophet did everything and when he did them
Ibn Abaas (r.a) said that we have what others never had before Islam

Hadith is a narration of the Rasul (saw) in regards to his speech, actions, approvals and disapprovals also his personal description

A Hadith Qudsi is one that the meaning is from Allah but the Rasul narrated it
He narrated it directly from Allah like the Hadith that says Allah has made oppression haraam on Himself

.“Oh, my servants! I have made oppression haraam (forbidden) upon myself, and also between you. So do not oppress each other...." [Sahih Muslim, Hadith #6246]

The Authority Of Abu Dharr Al-Ghafari: On the authority of Abu Dharr Al-Ghafari, of the prophet is that among the sayings he relates from his Lord is that He said: "O My servants, I have forbidden oppression for Myself and have made it forbidden amongst you, so do not oppress one another.

What is a Khabar?

A khabar is a narration about a person other than the Rasul

An Israeliyyah is the narrations from the Jewish rabbis

E.g. Yusuf (a.s) got married to Zulaika after her husband died
This story is from the israeliyyah and we take it with a pinch of salt
The Rasul said we neither deny nor accept their stories

 An athar is the speech and actions of the Sahabah
E.g. Umar (r.a) said that if poverty was a man he would have killed him with his own two hands
Also Abdur Rahman Ibn Auff divorced one of his wives when he was in his deathbed so that she doesn't inherit but Uthman (r.a) overruled that and allowed her to inherit

Isnad is the chain of transmitters leading back to the Rasul

The MATN is the body of the Hadith itself
I.e. to say the saying or action of the Rasul (saw)

Takhreej is to mention the scholars who reported the Hadith


1. Bukhari
2. Muslim
3. Abu Dawud
4. Tirmidhi
5. Nasa'i
6. Ibn Majah
7. The Muwatta of Imam Malick
8. At-Darimi
9. Musnad Ahmad

A Hadith Mutawaatir is when you have 4 or more Sahabahs reporting the Hadith
They all heard or witnessed the action being reported

Mutawaatir means widespread

Hadith Aahaad is when less than 4 Sahabahs reported the Hadith
We accept Hadith aahaad into our aqeeda and Shariah as long as it is sahih

Hadith Mashhoor is when 3 Sahabahs reported the Hadith
The Hanafis came up with this classification and the Ummah accepted it

Hadith Aziz is when 2 Sahabahs narrated the Hadith

 It was narrated that Anas said: The Prophet (SAW) said: “No one of you truly believes until I am dearer to him than his father, his son, his own self and all the people.” [Narrated by al-Bukhari (15) and Muslim (44)]

E.g. the Hadith that said none of you truly believes until I (the Rasul) am dearer to you more than your parents and yourself.

Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: that the Prophet  said: "Beware of narrating from me except what I taught you, for whoever lies about me on purpose, then let him take his seat in the Fire. And whoever says (something) about the Qur'an according to his (own) opinion, then let him take his seat in the Fire." {Tirmidhi}

Abdullah ibn Amr (RA) reported that Allah’s Messenger (SAW) said, Convey from me (to the absent) even one verse. And narrate from the Banu Isra’il there is no harm in that. If anyone lies about me deliberately then let him take his seat in Hell.” [Tirmidhi 2678, Ahmed 6496, Bukhari 3461]

An example of Hadith Mutawaatir is the above Hadith

Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Messenger () said, "We (Muslims) are the last (people to come in the world) but (will be) the foremost (on the Day of Resurrection)." [Sahih Al Bukhari 238/Vol 1 book 4 Hadith 239]

An example of Hadith Mashhoor is the above Hadith

A Hadith Ghareeb is a Hadith in which only one Sahabah narrated it
E.g. of Hadith ghareeb is ' travelling is a form of punishment'

Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Messenger () said, "There are three persons whom Allah will neither talk to nor look at, nor purify from (the sins), and they will have a painful punishment. (They are): (1) A man possessed superfluous water on a way and he withheld it from the travelers. (2) a man who gives a pledge of allegiance to a Muslim ruler and gives it only for worldly gains. If the ruler gives him what he wants, he remains obedient to It, otherwise he does not abide by it, and (3) a man bargains with another man after the `Asr prayer and the latter takes a false oath in the Name of Allah) claiming that he has been offered so much for the thing and the former (believes him and) buys it." [Sahih Al Bukhari 2672]

 Travel is a piece of punishment" Malik --- Yahya b. Abi Salih --- Abu Hurairah --- the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). With regard to its isnad, this Hadith is Sahih

 A Hadith is termed gharib ("scarce, strange") when a only a single reporter is found relating it at some stage of the isnad. For example, the saying of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), "Travel is a piece of punishment" is gharib; the isnad of this Hadith contains only one reporter in each stage: Malik --- Yahya ibn Abi Salih --- Abu Hurayrah --- the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). With regard to its isnad, this Hadith is sahih, although most gharib aHadith are weak

This is why you shorten and join your prayers when travelling
The minimum distance is 3 miles

Ahmad, Muslim, Abu Dawud, and al-Baihaqi record that Yahya ibn Yazid said: "I asked Anas ibn Malik about shortening the prayer, and he said: 'The Messenger of Allah would pray two rak'at if he had traveled a distance of three miles or farsakh."'

Hadith Sahih is an authentic Hadith i.e. free from defects

There are 3 conditions for a Hadith to be free from defects

1. Adl- Integrity

The narrator has to have integrity and not a munafiq or from a deviant group.
However Bukhari collected Hadiths from the khawaarij because they don't lie since they believe that to lie makes you a kaafir.

2. Dabt - Soundness in memory

If you are forgetful then the Hadith is classified as weak.
If a person with a weak memory is found in the chain of narrators it is classified as weak.
But if a liar is found then it is classified as fabricated because the first condition is missing.

3. Ittisaal - Continuity in the chain of transmitters
The chain of transmitters should not be broken

The second category of Hadith is HASAN
Which is a good Hadith but not at the level of sahih

The third category is called HASAN LI GHAIRIHI

Meaning a weak Hadith that was elevated to the level of Hasan because it has other narrations to support it
E.g. the black stone came from heaven white and the sins turned it black
Also when Asmaa (r.a) came to the presence of the Rasul wearing see-through clothes and the Rasul looked away saying she didn't dress properly as she should expose her palm and her face only

When a girl reaches puberty, it is not appropriate that any of her should be seen, excepting her face, and her hands upto the wrists." [Narrated by Abu Dawud; It is a mursal narration at the level of hasan.]

The fourth category is called DAEEF which is a weak Hadith
E.g. The worst halaal is divorce
It is permissible for a scholar to use a weak Hadith to encourage people to do good.

"The most hateful permissible thing (al-Halal) in the sight of Allah is divorce." (Abu Dawud, Hadith 1863, Ibn Majah, Hadith 2008).

So if he is trying to save a marriage then he can quote that Hadith

 The fifth category is MAWDOO3 which is fabricated

This is a lie which was attributed to the Rasul (saw)
If you lie on the Rasul deliberately you become a kaafir because Hadith came from Allah (swt) but if you quote it out it ignorance you are not a kaafir

Nor does he speak of (his own) desire. (An-Najm 53:3)

It is only an Inspiration that is inspired. (An-Najm 53:4)

Surah 53:3-4 proves that Hadiths are from Allah

An example of a fabricated Hadith is 'I am a city of knowledge and Ali is the gate'

he well-known and reliable Hadith of the Prophet - "I am the city of knowledge and 'Ali is its gate" is not present in the current editions of the Sahih (alternatively called Jami` or Sunan) of al-Tirmidhi (d. 279 AH).

Also ' My Sahabahs are like the stars in the sky anyone you follow you will be guided'
Another ' if it wasn't for Muhammad (saw) nothing would have been created'
Another ' seek knowledge even to China'

Seek knowledge even as far as China. [Related by Ibn Adee 2/207 and classified fabricated by Ibn Jawzee and Ibn Hibbaan.]

found in the Mustadrak of al Haakim “When Adam sinned, Allah told him to seek forgiveness in the name of Muhammad, then Allah said to him: Had it not been for Muhammad I wouldn’t create the heavens and the earth. I Allah created the heavens and the earth for the sake of Muhammad."

The members of my household are like the stars in the sky whichever one you follow you shall he guided. [Related by Abu Na'eem and classified fabricated by Adh-Dhahaabee who said a liar was found in the Isnaad called Ahmad Ibn Ishaaq]

The above Hadith was classified as fabricated because there was a liar in the isnaad
The Hadith ' love the arabs because I'm an arab' is also fabricated.

'Love the arabs for three reasons, because i am an arab, the Quran is in arabic and the language of the poeple of paradise is arabic'The is no evidence can be proven to the Hadith authentication. The Hadith is classed as fabricated. And the cause of fabricated can be specified as prejudice in favour of town or race or a particular imam

Also 'when the Rasul realised his parents died as kaafir, they were brought back alive and he gave them Shahadah' is fabricated

This is the favourite Hadith of goofy sufis

The Saudi Salafis love to quote the Hadith ' when the leader beats you up and takes your money then you should obey him'
This Hadith is in Muslim but is not authentic

The sixth category is MURSAL
Where a tabi'i narrates directly from the Rasul and leaves off the Sahabah
Because he left out the Sahabah it is classified as weak

The seventh category is MU'ALLAQ meaning hanging
It is when the Hadith scholars quotes the Hadith but doesn't mention from which Shaikh he got it from

The eighth category is MUDALLIS
A mudallis is a person who gives you a false impression
E.g. he lives in the same era as Imam Shafi' and says things attributing them to him but he didn't hear it from him
He gives you the impression that he is telling the truth

 The ninth category is MUNQATI3 meaning discontinuity (a transmitter is missing from the isnaad)

The tenth category is MATTASIL meaning continuity
It is the opposite of muttasil

The eleventh category is called SHAADH meaning bizarre of weird
Imam Shafi gave this definition
This is when a trustworthy narrator contradicts a narrator more trustworthy than himself
E.g. the Hadith that says you wag your fingers when in tashahud

Imam Nawawi mentions in the Majmu‘ (3.454) from Abu Dawud and others with a sound chain of narrators on the authority Abdullah Ibn Az-Zubayr, that he described the prayer of the Prophet (SAW) by saying, “He would point with his finger while supplicating without moving it.” As for what is present in the narration that mentions, that he (SAW) “used to move it”, the expression, “move it is an unreliable anomalous (Ar. shadhdh) narration because the narrator who relates [this Hadith] on the authority of the Companion Wael Ibn Hujr (RA) contradicts everyone else who narrated from him

The fatwa above refutes the wagging of the finger in Salah during tashahhud

The twelveth category is MUNKAR, which is a renounced and rejected Hadith
The Hanbalis came up with this definition
E.g. 'the Rasul spent 15 years in Makkah' is munkar

The categorisation of Hadith is a science called JARH WA TA'DEEL
This proves that the Islamic scholars painstakingly study the Deen in order to protect the Ummah from fabricated Hadiths.