Tafseer Surah Insaan (cont'd)
THE MANY VIRTUES OF SABR (Patience) With Evidences from Qur’an and Sunnah
By Shaikh Abdullah Faisal
Notes written and edited by Muminah_29
Oct 09 2013 Wednesday
Last time we were here we stopped at Ayah 24
Therefore be patient (O Muhammad SAW) and submit to the Command of your Lord (Allah, by doing your duty to Him and by conveying His Message to mankind), and obey neither a sinner nor a disbeliever among them.(Al-Insaan 76:24)
This is the Ayah we are about to explain and it is a very important Ayah
Allah has commanded the Prophet to have sabr in the above Ayah and not to obey the sinner or the disbeliever
When you are in a leadership position it is a position of trust and a lot of people will come to you to tell you how they think things should be done
So you have to have a strong personality
Because people will try to tell you what to do according to their own personal opinions
And know that, among you there is the Messenger of Allah (SAW). If he were to obey you (i.e. follow your opinions and desires) in much of the matter, you would surely be in trouble, but Allah has endeared the Faith to you and has beautified it in your hearts, and has made disbelief, wickedness and disobedience (to Allah and His Messenger SAW) hateful to you. These! They are the rightly guided ones,(Al-Hujurat 49:7)
And Allah revealed the above Ayah
So this Ayah is telling you when you are a leader many people will come to you with their own opinions
Narrated Ibn Abi Mulaika: Once the two righteous men, i.e., Abu Bakr and 'Umar were on the verge of destruction (and that was because): When the delegate of Bani Tamim came to the Prophet, one of them (either Abu Bakr or 'Umar) recommended Al-Aqra' bin H'abis at-Tamimi Al-Hanzali, the brother of Bani Majashi (to be appointed as their chief), while the other recommended somebody else. Abu Bakr said to 'Umar, "You intended only to oppose me." 'Umar said, "I did not intend to oppose you!" Then their voices grew louder in front of the Prophet whereupon there was revealed: 'O you who believe! Do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet...a great reward.' (49.2-3)
Ibn Az-Zubair said, 'Thence forward when 'Umar talked to the Prophet, he would talk like one who whispered a secret and would even fail to make the Prophet hear him, in which case the Prophet would ask him (to repeat his words). [Sahih Bukhari (6/137) No. 4845]
O you who believe! Do not put (yourselves) forward before Allah and His Messenger (SAW), and fear Allah. Verily! Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing. O you who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet (SAW), nor speak aloud to him in talk as you speak aloud to one another, lest your deeds may be rendered fruitless while you perceive not (Al-Hujurat 49:1-2)
Allah revealed Surah Hujurat vs 1 and 2 in regards to an incident with the Prophet Abu Bakr and Umar.
Abu Bakr made a proposal and Umar made a counter proposal then they both raised their voices in the presences of the Prophet because they were angry at each other
When you are in a position of leadership people want to tell you how to govern so you must be a strong leader you cant be flip flopping you must be decisive and strong
So Allah told the Prophet to be patient and steadfast to convey the message and do not obey the sinners or the disbelievers
One day the Prophet sent Waleed ibn Uqbah to collect zakah from Bani Mustaliq but he was known as a sinner
It has been narrated from the Prophet (SAW) that 'He sent Waleed ibn 'Uqbah to Bani Mustalaq to collect the zakat. When they saw him they proceeded in his direction. He became afraid so he returned to the Prophet and informed him that they had apostate from Islam. The Prophet sent Khalid ibn Waleed and ordered him to confirm this and not to delay.
Khaalid set out and he came to them at night. He dispatched his scouts and when they came (back) they informed Khalid that they (people of Bani Mustalaq) were holding fast to their Islam and they heard their adhan and their salah. So when Khalid came to them he saw that what they (the scouts) mentioned to him was correct, so he returned to the Prophet and informed him; and then this Ayah was revealed. In one narration the Prophet said "Hastiness is from Shaytan and deliberation (carefulness) is from Allah." [Tafseer at-Tabari (22/288)]
But he didn’t go and lied and said the people refused to pay the zakah and he caused the Prophet to get ready to fight against the tribe of Banu Mustaliq and Allah revealed an Ayah in regards to this
O you who believe! If a rebellious evil person comes to you with a news, verify it, lest you harm people in ignorance, and afterwards you become regretful to what you have done. (Al-Hujurat 49:6)
In the above-mentioned Ayah; Allah tells us we are only allowed to trust and obey the sincere believers
We are only allowed to take the sincere believers as our bosom friends, advisors and consultants
Allah told us this in Surah 3:118
O you who believe! Take not as (your) Bitanah (advisors, consultants, protectors, helpers, friends, etc.) those outside your religion (pagans, Jews, Christians, and hypocrites) since they will not fail to do their best to corrupt you. They desire to harm you severely. Hatred has already appeared from their mouths, but what their breasts conceal is far worse. Indeed We have made plain to you the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses) if you understand.(Al Imran 3:118)
Don’t take friends from among the Jews, Christians, hypocrites, heretics, apostates and pagans.
When you seek advise especially in regards to marriage, business and Hijrah we must only use the sincere believers because these are huge decisions that will affect our lives forever.
Why did Allah tell us not to take advice from sinners?
The reason is because they have no taqwa and so they have lost their furqaan
Furqaan is the criterion to judge right from wrong
Don’t think a faasiq is a kaafir
A faasiq is a sinner, a Muslim with weaknesses, the faasiq has lost his furqaan and he cannot judge right from wrong so we cannot seek his advise.
O you who believe! If you obey and fear Allah, He will grant you Furqan a criterion [(to judge between right and wrong), or (Makhraj, i.e. making a way for you to get out from every difficulty)], and will expiate for you your sins, and forgive you, and Allah is the Owner of the Great Bounty.(Al-Anfal 8:29)
In the above-mentioned Ayah Allah said if we have taqwa He will grant us the furqaan; therefore a person with no taqwa has no furqaan; therefore it is unwise to seek their advise on crucial matters of Deen and dunya.
Allah says in the same Ayah don’t approach the kuffar for advice
So if we are not allowed to take advice from a faasiq then how can we take advise from a kaafir.
The kaafir is worse than a faasiq because the faasiq is a weak Muslim but still a Muslim.
Never will the Jews nor the Christians be pleased with you (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ) till you follow their religion. Say: "Verily, the Guidance of Allah (i.e. Islamic Monotheism) that is the (only) Guidance. And if you (O Muhammad Peace be upon him) were to follow their (Jews and Christians) desires after what you have received of Knowledge (i.e. the Qur'an), then you would have against Allah neither any Wali (protector or guardian) nor any helper. (Al-Baqarah 2:120)
The Abbasid Caliph Musta’sim in the year 1258 CE encountered a humiliating death at the hands of the tartars because he disobeyed Allah and took a Shiite as his advisor, a twelver.
This Shiite while he was working as an advisor for the Caliph he was also spying for the tartars. So he was a double agent.
In 1258 CE the tartars invaded Bhagdad and killed the Caliph Musta’sim and dumped all the Islamic books in the Tigress river and killed a million Muslims men, women and children
The Muslims suffered this humiliation because the Caliph took a twelver for his advisor.
This Shiite dog told the Caliph to cut back on the Muslim army when he should have advised the Caliph to double the army.
He was happy to see the destruction of Bagdad and the annihilation of Islamic literature and manuscripts on Tawheed, Fiqh, Tafseer, Hadith, Seerah, Taarikh (history), Grammar, Philosophy, Rhetoric’s and Logic.
If we slip and suffer a relapse in regards to al Wala wal Bara then we will suffer.
We cannot make the mistake of Musta’sim because the consequences are always devastating.
Its because of this reason Allah said:
You (O Muhammad) will not find any people who believe in Allah and the Last Day, making friendship with those who oppose (Al-Mujadilah 58:22)
Allah told the Prophet (s.a.w.) to have Sabr in spreading the Deen because working with people is a difficult task.
THE MANY VIRTUES OF SABR
1) IT IS THE TRAIT OF THE TRUE BELIEVERS
And endure you patiently (O Muhammad SAW), your patience is not but from Allah. And grieve not over them (polytheists and pagans, etc.), and be not distressed because of what they plot. (An-Nahl 16:127)
When you are a true believer one of the traits of your character is you will remain steadfast in Deen.
2) SABR SAVES YOU FROM INSULTING ALLAH, KUFR AND APOSTASY
And certainly, We shall test you with something of fear, hunger, loss of wealth, lives and fruits, but give glad tidings to As-Sabirin (the patient ones, etc.). Who, when afflicted with calamity, say: "Truly! To Allah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return."(Al-Baqarah 2:155-156)
Allah told us He is going to test us in the above Ayat
We say: “To Allah we belong and to Him we will return” when afflicted with calamity, but the Munafiq apostates when he is afflicted by a calamity.
And among mankind is he who worships Allah as it were, upon the very edge (i.e. in doubt); if good befalls him, he is content therewith; but if a trial befalls him, he turns back on his face (i.e. reverts back to disbelief after embracing Islam). He loses both this world and the Hereafter. That is the evident loss. (Al-Hajj 22:11)
They say why did Allah pick on me, in the above-mentioned Ayah Allah atold you that the Munafiq will always apostate when afflicted by a calamity
3) SABR IS THE CHARACTERISTIC OF THE 5 STRONG WILLED PROPHETS
So wait with patience for the Decision of your Lord, and be not like the Companion of the Whale, when he cried out (to Us) while he was in deep sorrow.(Al-Qalam 68:48)
Allah commanded the Prophet (s.a.w.) to have sabr and don’t be like the companion of the whale
Allah is talking about Prophet Yunus (he was the companion of the whale)
Abdullah Ibn Rafi', the freed slave of Umm Salamah said I heard Abu Hurayrah narrated the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said, “When Allah wanted to keep Yunus in the belly of the whale, He revealed to the whale. He said, “Take him inside but do not eat his flesh nor break his bones.” When the whale went down to the depth of the sea, Yunus heard a voice; he said to himself, “What is this?”
Then Allah revealed to him, while he was inside the whale’s belly, that it was glorification of the sea animals. Then while in that state, Yunus also glorified Allah, which was heard by the angels. They then said, "O our Lord, we heard a very weak voice coming from unusual land.” Allah said, “That is My slave Yunus, he disobeyed me, so I detained him inside a whale in the sea.”
They said, “Is he the pious slave from whom the good deeds ascended to You everyday and night?” Allah replied, “Yes”. So the angels then pleaded on his behalf, so Allah ordered the whale to throw him out on the shore.”
[Tafseer al-Tabari (18/518), Tafseer Ibn Abi Hatim (10/3227) No. 18278, Musnad al-Bazzar (15/34) No. 8227 and Tafseer Ibn Katheer (5/367)]
When Prophet Yunus cried to Allah he made a dua and all the fishes and animals in the sea interceded for him.
So (endure) patiently under the Judgment of your Lord, and do not be as the Companion of the Whale (Prophet Yunus "Jonah") as he called out, as he (was) made to choke (inwardly). (Al-Qalam 68:48) Dr. Ghali
In the Ayah Allah said Hout (whale) and hout means whale not fish because a whale is not a fish.
So Allah told the Prophet (s.a.w.) don’t be like Prophet Yunus because Prophet Muhammad is one of the 5 strong willed Prophets
Prophet Yunus ran away from the dawah and got swallowed by the whale.
The grave that moved with the inhabitant inside of it is Yunus inside the belly of the whale.
4) WHEN YOU HAVE SABR ALLAH GIVES U A DOUBLE REWARD
These will be given their reward twice over, because they are patient, and repel evil with good, and spend (in charity) out of what We have provided them. (Al-Qasas 28:54)
5) SABR IS A REQUIREMENT FOR SUCCESSFUL LEADERSHIP
And We made from among them (Children of Israel), leaders, giving guidance under Our Command, when they were patient and used to believe with certainty in Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.). (As-Sajdah 32:24)
People like Prophet Samuel, David, Sulaiman and others they were successful leaders
One of them was Saul, they were leaders of Bani Israeel, and they were chosen because of their sabr
Most of the Prophets were Sheppard’s before being Prophets because if you have sabr to take care of dumb animals then you will have patience to lead the people.
6) WITH SABR YOU WILL GET THE COMPANIONSHIP OF ALLAH
And obey Allah and His Messenger, and do not dispute (with one another) lest you lose courage and your strength depart, and be patient. Surely, Allah is with those who are As-Sabirin (the patient ones, etc.).(Al-Anfal 8:46)
7) WITH SABR YOU WILL GAIN ALLAH'S HELP AND SUPPORT
Yes, if you hold on to patience and piety, and the enemy comes rushing at you; your Lord will help you with five thousand angels having marks (of distinction)." (Al Imran 3:125)
8) SABR AND TAQWA PROTECT YOU FROM THE CUNNING PLOTS OF THE ENEMY
If a good befalls you, it grieves them, but if some evil overtakes you, they rejoice at it. But if you remain patient and become Al-Muttaqun (the pious - see V.2:2), not the least harm will their cunning do to you. Surely, Allah surrounds all that they do. (Al Imran 3:120)
9) WITH SABR YOU GAIN ALLAH'S LOVE
And many a Prophet (i.e. many from amongst the Prophets) fought (in Allah's Cause) and along with him (fought) large bands of religious learned men. But they never lost heart for that which did befall them in Allah's Way, nor did they weaken nor degrade themselves. And Allah loves As-Sabirin (the patient ones, etc.). (Al Imran 3:146)
10) WITH SABR YOU GAIN ALLAH'S BARAKAH
But none is granted it (the above quality) except those who are patient, and none is granted it except the owner of the great portion (of the happiness in the Hereafter i.e. Paradise and in this world of a high moral character).(Fussilat 41:35)
Allah praised Prophet Ayyub for his patience
"And take in your hand a bundle of thin grass and strike therewith (your wife), and break not your oath. Truly! We found him patient. How excellent slave! Verily, he was ever oft-returning in repentance (to Us)!(Sad 38:44)
Prophet Ayyub lost everything and he had patience and then Allah gave him double the amount that he had as a reward
Even his wife wanted to despair and Prophet Ayyub told her he will give her 100 lashes and when he recovered he didn’t want to break his wallahi
Ayub, peace be upon him, got angry with his wife and was upset about something she had done, so he swore an oath that if Allah healed him, he would strike her with one hundred blows. When Allah healed him, how could her service, mercy, compassion and kindness be repaid with a beating? So Allah showed him a way out, which was to take a bundle of thin grass, with one hundred stems, and hit her with it once.
Thus he fulfilled his oath and avoided breaking his vow. This was the solution and way out for one who had Taqwa of Allah and turned to Him in repentance.
[Tafseer Ibn Katheer (7/76)]
So Allah told him to take a thin bundle of grass and hit her once to keep his oath
So the scholars use this as the Hujjah that you can’t beat your wife to cause pain and leave marks.
Prophet Ayyub wanted to beat his wife because it is not proper for a Muslim to despair.
In this regard Prophet Yaqub said:
Certainly no one despairs of Allah's Mercy, except the people who disbelieve." (Yusuf 12:87)
11) WITH SABR YOU ARE SAFE FROM DEPRESSION
And seek help in patience and As-Salat (the prayer) and truly it is extremely heavy and hard except for Al-Khashi'un [i.e. the true believers in Allah - those who obey Allah with full submission, fear much from His Punishment, and believe in His Promise (Paradise, etc.) and in His Warnings (Hell, etc.)]. (Al-Baqarah 2:45)
The solution to your problems is in your prayer.
12) WITH SABR YOU WILL BE SUCCESSFUL IN THE HEREAFTER (YOU WILL INHERIT THE PARADISE)
By Al-'Asr (the time).Verily! Man is in loss, (Al-'Asr 103:1-2)
Except those who believe (in Islamic Monotheism) and do righteous good deeds, and recommend one another to the truth (i.e. order one another to perform all kinds of good deeds (Al-Ma'ruf)which Allah has ordained, and abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds (Al-Munkar)which Allah has forbidden), and recommend one another to patience (for the sufferings, harms, and injuries which one may encounter in Allah's Cause during preaching His religion of Islamic Monotheism or Jihad, etc.). (Al-'Asr 103:3)
Then he became one of those who believed, and recommended one another to perseverance and patience, and (also) recommended one another to pity and compassion. They are those on the Right Hand (the dwellers of Paradise), (Al-Balad 90:17-18)
Those on the right hand are the dwellers of Paradise; those on the left hand are the dwellers of the Hellfire
SOME HADITHS OF THE PROPHET ABOUT SABR
Anas (RA) reported: The Prophet (SAW) passed by a woman who was crying over a grave and said, "Fear Allah and be patient." She said, "Away from me! My calamity has not befallen you and you are not aware of it." The woman was later told that it was the Prophet (SAW) (who had advised her). She came to his door where she found no doorkeeper.
She said, "(I am sorry) I did not know you." Messenger of Allah (SAW) said, "Patience is (becoming) only at the first (stroke) of grief." Another narration in Muslim says: The woman was crying over her son. [Sahih Bukhari (2/79) No. 1283]
Anas narrated the Prophet (SAW) said, "The real patience is at the first stroke of a calamity." [Al-Bukhari (1302) and Muslim (926)]
Whenever we are stricken by calamity the first thing we should say is:” To Allah we belong and to Him we will return”
If we say this then we have passed the test and Allah tells us that we will always be tested
We are tested to know who is truthful and who are liars
Alif Lam Mim. [These letters are one of the miracles of the Qur'an, and none but Allah (Alone) knows their meanings.] Do people think that they will be left alone because they say: "We believe," and will not be tested. And We indeed tested those who were before them. And Allah will certainly make (it) known (the truth of) those who are true, and will certainly make (it) known (the falsehood of) those who are liars, (although Allah knows all that before putting them to test). (Al-'Ankabut 29:1-3)
Abu Hurayra (RA) traced this hadith to the Prophet (SAW) that Allah, the Majestic and Glorious, said, “When I take away the eye-sight of a slave and he shows patience and looks forward to reward then I shall not be pleased for him with anything less than Paradise.”
[Sunan Tirmidhi (4/603) 2401, Musnad Ahmad (2/265) No. 7587]
In the above-mentioned Hadith if you had an accident and lost your two eyes your reward is Paradise if you had sabr.
'Ata' bin Abu Rabah reported: Ibn 'Abbas (RA) asked him whether he would like that he should show him a woman who is from the people Jannah. When he replied that he certainly would, he said, "This black woman, who came to the Prophet (SAW) and said, 'I suffer from epilepsy and during fits my body is exposed, so make supplication to Allah for me.'
He (SAW) replied: 'If you wish you endure it patiently and you be rewarded with Jannah, or if you wish, I shall make supplication to Allah to cure you?' She said, 'I shall endure it.' Then she added: 'But my body is exposed, so pray to Allah that it may not happen.' He (Prophet (SAW)) then supplicated for her."
[Al-Bukhari (5652) and Muslim (2576)]
The Prophet (s.a.w) made a dua for her for her body not to be exposed when she had her epilepsy
Suhayb Ibn Sinan narrated the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: “Wonderful are the affairs of a believer; for there is good in every affair of his; this is not the case with anyone else except a believer. If he has an occasion to feel delight, he thanks (Allah), thus there is good for him in it. If he suffers affliction, he endures patiently, which is good for him. [Sahih Muslim (4/2295) No. 2999]
Narrated Aisha: I asked Allah’s Messenger about the plague. He said, “That was a means of torture which Allah used to send upon whomsoever He wished, but He made it a source of mercy for the believers, for anyone who is residing in a town in which this disease is present, and remains there and does not leave that town, but has patience and hopes for Allah’s reward, and knows that nothing will befall him except what Allah has written for him, then he will get such reward as that of a martyr.” [Sahih Bukhari (8/127) No. 6619]
Narrated Samurah ibn Jundub: The Prophet (SAW) named our cavalry “the Cavalry of Allah,” when we were struck with panic, and when panic overtook us, the Messenger of Allah (SAW) commanded us to be united, to have patience and perseverance; and to be so when we fought. [Sunan Abu Dawud (3/25) No. 2560] (Daeef)
This Hadith is similar to the following ayah because both the Ayah and the hadith is commanding us to have sabr and be united when we face the enemy.
And obey Allah and His Messenger, and do not dispute (with one another) lest you lose courage and your strength depart, and be patient. Surely, Allah is with those who are As-Sabirin (the patient ones, etc.). (Al-Anfal 8:46)