Monday, February 17, 2014

Sharh: of Bulugh Al Maram: {The Call To Prayer} {Audio & Noted} {JANUARY 31 2014}



بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
 

THE SHARH OF BULUGH AL MARAM: AHKAAM ADHAN

Book 2 Chapter 2 (AHKAAM ADHAN) Page 74

BY SHAIKH ABDULLAH FAISAL

31 January 2013/18 Rabi Al-Awal 1434 A.H.

Edited by: AbuHafiza4 & AT6

Rulings Regarding Adhan (The Call To Prayer)} {Audio Click Me}

باب الأذان


Chapter 2: The Call to Prayer (Adhan)


 عن عبد الله بن زيد بن عبد ربه - رضي الله عنه - قال: طاف بي - وأنا نائم - رجل فقال تقول: الله أكبر الله أكبر، فذكر الآذان - بتربيع التكبير بغير ترجيع، والإقامة فرادى، إلا قد قامت الصلاة. قال: فلما أصبحت أتيت رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم - فقال: «إنها لرؤيا حق ... ». الحديث. أخرجه أحمد، وأبو داود، وصححه الترمذي، وابن خزيمة
 
190. Narrated 'Abdullah bin Zaid bin 'Abd Rabbih, 'While I was sleeping, a man came to me and said, 'Say Allahu Akbar! Allahu Akbar! (Allah is the Greatest),' and he mentioned the wording of the call to prayer, repeating the Takbir four times without Tarji' (repeating the rest of the phrases of the Adhan twice), and the Iqamah once, except for the phrase, qad Qamatussalah (which is said twice). When the morning came, I went to the Messenger of Allah (to tell him what I had seen). He said, "Your dream is true..."


[Related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and Abu Khuzaimah authenticated it]
 



- Ahkaam means the rules and regulations surrounding adhan.
  
- The adhan came to the ummah in the form of a dream so it is a gift to the ummah.


 وزاد أحمد في آخره قصة قول بلال في آذان الفجر: «الصلاة خير من النوم».

191. Ahmad added to the call to prayer (Adhan), what Bilal used to say in the Fajr prayer, "Prayer is better than sleep."

ولابن خزيمة: عن أنس قال: من السنة إذا قال المؤذن في الفجر: حي على الفلاح، قال الصلاة خير من النوم


192. Ibn Khuzaimah transmitted on the authority of Anas (RAA): 'It is part of the Sunnah that when the one who calls to prayer says in the Fajr prayer, 'Hayya 'alal-Falah, (come to success), he must then say, 'Prayer is better than sleep.'

- As-salatu khairun minan nawm is added to the adhan for fajr prayer
 


عن أبي محذورة - رضي الله عنه - أن النبي - صلى الله عليه وسلم - علمه الآذان، فذكر فيه الترجيع. أخرجه مسلم. ولكن ذكر التكبير في أوله مرتين فقط. ورواه الخمسة فذكروه مربعا


193. Narrated Abu Mahdhurah (RAA): that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) taught him the Adhan, and he mentioned Tarji' (repeating the rest of the phrases of the Adhan twice) in the Adhan.

[Related by Muslim, but he mentioned the Takbir "Allah is the Greatest," twice only at its beginning, while the five Imams related the Hadith but mentioned that the Takbir is said four times at the beginning]


- There are variations regarding the Takbir in the adhan.

- Some say it should be said twice.

- While others say it should be said 4 times.

- But ibn Taymiyyah said this is not an issue.
   
وعن أنس - رضي الله عنه - قال: أمر بلال أن يشفع الآذان، ويوتر الإقامة، إلا الإقامة، يعني قوله: قد قامت الصلاة. متفق عليه، ولم يذكر مسلم الاستثناء 


194. Narrated Anas (RAA): 'Bilal was ordered to repeat the phrases of the call to prayer (Adhan) twice, and the phrases of the Iqamah once, except for the phrase 'qad Qamatussalah' (the time for performing the prayer has come).

[Agreed upon]



وللنسائي: أمر النبي - صلى الله عليه وسلم - بلالا
  

195. In another narration by an-Nasa'i, 'The Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) ordered Bilal.'

 وعن أبي جحيفة - رضي الله عنه - قال: رأيت بلالا يؤذن وأتتبع فاه، هاهنا وهاهنا، وإصبعاه في أذنيه. رواه أحمد، والترمذي وصححه
 
196. Narrated Abu Juhaifah (RAA), 'I saw Bilal calling for the prayer, and I saw the movement of his mouth from this side to that side, and his fingers were in his ears.' Related by Ahmad and At-Tirmidhi graded it Sahih.

ولابن ماجه: وجعل إصبعيه في أذنيه
 
197. In a version by Ibn Majah he said, 'He put his fingers in his ears.'

ولأبي داود: لوى عنقه، لما بلغ «حي على الصلاة» يمينا وشمالا ولم يستدر. وأصله في الصحيحين
 
198. In the narration of Abu Dawud, 'When Bilal reached the phrase, 'Haya 'alas-salah (Come to the prayer), he turned his neck to the right and the left, but did not turn himself.' The original full narration of this Hadith is found in

[Al-Bukhari and Muslim]

- When Bilal was calling the adhan and reciting hayya' alas salaah and hayya' alal Falaah, he turned his neck not his whole body.

وعن أبي محذورة - رضي الله عنه: أن النبي - صلى الله عليه وسلم - أعجبه صوته، فعلمه الآذان. رواه ابن خزيمة

199. Narrated Abu Mahdhurah (RAA): that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) liked his voice, so he taught him the call to prayer.'

[Related by Ibn Khuzaimah]

عن جابر بن سمرة - رضي الله عنهما - قال: صليت مع النبي - صلى الله عليه وسلم - العيدين، غير مرة ولا مرتين، بغير أذان ولا إقامة. رواه مسلم

200. Narrated Jabir bin Samurah, 'I prayed along with the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) the two 'Id (feast) festival prayers, not only once or twice, without Adhan or Iqamah.'


[Related by Muslim]


 ونحوه في المتفق: عن ابن عباس - رضي الله عنهما -، وغيره
 
201. Al-Bukhari and Muslim transmitted something to the same effect on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas (RAA).

SHARH

- The Arabic word adhan means a call or an announcement. This is the linguistic meaning.

- The technical meaning is that the adhan is the Muslims call to prayer.

WHAT IS THE STORY BEHIND THE ADHAN?

 - When the Muslims migrated from Makkah to Medina in the first year of hijra, their number grew drastically and they needed a call to prayer.

 - Someone said to ring a bell but the Prophet did not want to resemble the kuffaar so he denied this suggestion.

Al-Bukhaari (604) and Muslim (377) narrated that Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: When the Muslims came to Madeenah, they used to gather and wait for the prayer, and there was no call for the prayer. One day they spoke about that and some of them said, “Let us use a bell like the bell of the Christians.” Others said, “No, let us use a horn like the horn of the Jews.” ‘Umar said, “Why don’t you send a man to give the call to prayer?” The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “O Bilaal, get up and call the people to prayer.”
  
- Another person said to use the horn like the Jews.

- Another said let’s build a fire like the Zoroastrians.

- So they went to bed without having a method.
  
- Abdullah Ibn Zaid (RA) then saw a dream at night and in it someone taught him how to recite the adhan and call to prayer.
  
- He told the prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) about his dream and he said it was a true dream.

- He asked him to teach Bilal the adhan and when it was recited Umar (RA) said he also saw the dream.
  
- So the voice of a man was used to call for prayer.

- The adhan is a gift to the ummah which we are neither allowed to add to nor subtract from it.

WHAT IS THE HUKUM FOR THE ADHAN: SUNNAH, FARD OR MUSTAHAB?

- According to Imam Ahmad it is fard kifaayah.

It was narrated that Maalik ibn al-Huwayrith said: we came to the Messenger of Allaah (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) when we were young men close in age, and we stayed with him for twenty days. The Messenger of Allaah (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was merciful and kind; he thought that we were missing our families so he asked us about our families whom we had left behind, then he said, “Go back to your families, and stay with them; teach them and instruct them. When the time for prayer comes, let one of you give the call to prayer and let the oldest of you lead you in prayer.”

(Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 602; Muslim, 674).

According to a report narrated by al-Bukhaari, 604: “When you both go out, give the call to prayer (adhaan), then the call immediately before the prayer (iqaamah), then let the older of you lead you in prayer.”
  
- So if you have a masjid in a community and you did not call the adhan 5 times a day, you are all living in sin.

- But according to the other 3 imams, it is mustahab.

- However ibn Taymiyyah said the correct opinion is that of the Hanbalis.
    
WHEN ARE WE OBLIGED TO CALL THE ADHAN?
  
1. FOR THE 5 DAILY PRAYERS
  
2. FOR SALATUL JUMUAH
  
-As for calling the adhan for the 2 Eids, this is bid'ah.

- It is also bid’ah for salatul janaza and istisqaa as well as salah for the eclipse of the moon.  

A farmer or a shepherd in the field is allowed to call the adhan by himself.
  
It was narrated that 'Uqbah bin 'Amir said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) say: 'Your Lord is pleased with a shepherd high in the mountains who calls the Adhan for the prayer and prays. Allah says: 'Look at this slave of Mine; he calls the Adhan and Iqamah for the prayer and fears Me. I have forgiven My slave and admitted him to Paradise.'"

[Sunan al-Nasa'i (2/20) No. 666]
  
- Even though they may be by themselves, the adhan still drives away the shaytan.

THE VIRTUES OF THE MU'ADHIN
  
The Virtues of Adhaan

The greatness of the virtue which Islam attaches to the "Adhaan" and the one who performs it i.e. the "Muadhin", can be noted from the following verse of the Holy Qur'an:“ Who is better in speech than one who calls (the people) to allah and works righteousness” (Qur'an 41:33)

The mother of the faithful, Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) confirmed that this verse concerns and refers to the Muadhin and was revealed on no other reason than for the

Muadhin. 
And, from the prophetic traditions, Abu Huraira reported that the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), said:
“If the people knew the reward in the Adhaan and the first row of the prayer and that they could not get it (the reward) save by drawing lots, they would draw lots”

(Narrated by Imam Bukhari)

And, in another saying the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), said: “The Muadhins will on the Day of Judgment have the longest necks (reflecting their exclusive eminence)”

(Reported by Imam Muslim)
 
Allah said:
  
And who is better in speech than he who [says: "My Lord is Allāh (believes in His Oneness)," and then stands straight (acts upon His Order), and] invites (men) to Allāh's (Islāmic Monotheism), and does righteous deeds, and says: "I am one of the Muslims."

(Fussilat 41:33)

 - The Mu'adhin should have a good character.

 - An evil person cannot be the imam.

THE CONDITIONS FOR THE ADHAN TO BE VALID

1. THE PERSON SHOULD BE A MUSLIM

2. HE HAS TO BE SANE

3. IT HAS TO BE RECITED IN ARABIC

4. NIYYAH
 (HANBALI AND MALIKI FIQH)  

5. TARTEEB

- This means the format.

- So you have to stick to the format and not twist the wordings of the adhan.
  
6. CONTINUITY
  
- You are not allowed to stop the adhan to do something else and then continue.
  
7. TIME
  
- It has to be called during the time for salah and not before.

- Calling the adhan before the time is deceiving the ummah.
    
8. IT HAS TO BE FREE FROM BID'AH
  
- Therefore you are not allowed to add to it like the Shiites do.

- They add 'hayyah ala khairil amal'.

- This is bid'ah and therefore the adhan of a Shia is bautil.
  
- The Shiites will say our adhan is also bid'ah.

- They will say it is bid’ah because ibn Umar left the masjid when the man recited as-salatul khairun minan nawm.

- But they won’t tell you that the man recited this for the adhan at dhuhr.

- This was why ibn Umar left and didn’t pray salah behind them.

- The Shiites will tell you that we added that statement to the adhan and so it is bid'ah.