Friday, February 21, 2014

Sharh of Bulugh Al Maram: (Salatul Khauf) {Noted} (FEBRUARY 23 2013}

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

SHARH BULUGH AL MARAAM:

{Book 2 Chapter 13 (Salatul Khauf) page 174}

{Prayer During Times of Fear or Danger}

FEBRUARY 23 2013 / 12 RABI AL THANI 1435 HIJRI

BY SHAIKH ABDULLAH FAISAL

EDITED BY ABU HAFIZA

اب صلاة الخوف

 CHAPTER SALATUL KHAUF

عن صالح بن خوات، - عمن صلى مع رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم - يوم ذات الرقاع صلاة الخوف: أن طائفة صلت معه وطائفة وجاه العدو، فصلى بالذين معه ركعة، ثم ثبت قائما وأتموا لأنفسهم، ثم انصرفوا فصفوا وجاه العدو، وجاءت الطائفة الأخرى، فصلى بهم الركعة التي بقيت، ثم ثبت جالسا وأتموا لأنفسهم، ثم سلم بهم. متفق عليه، وهذا لفظ مسلم. ووقع في «المعرفة» لابن منده، عن صالح بن خوات، عن أبيه

500. Salih bin Khawwat (RAA) on the authority of those who prayed Salatul Khauf (prayer during time of danger) with the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) at the battle of Dhat ar-Riqa', 'A group lined up with the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).

He prayed one rak'ah with the group that was with him and remained standing while they finished the prayer (by praying another rak'ah) and then left and faced the enemy. The second group came and prayed the remaining rak'ah with him, then he remained sitting until they had completed their prayers themselves, after which he led them in making the Taslim.'

[Agreed upon, and the wording is from Muslim]

- Prayed along with him; while another group faced the enemy.

وعن ابن عمر قال: غزوت مع النبي - صلى الله عليه وسلم - قبل نجد، فوازينا العدو، فصاففناهم، فقام رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم - يصلي بنا، فقامت طائفة معه، وأقبلت طائفة على العدو، وركع بمن معه، وسجد سجدتين، ثم انصرفوا مكان الطائفة التي لم تصل فجاءوا، فركع بهم ركعة، وسجد سجدتين، ثم سلم، فقام كل واحد منهم، فركع لنفسه ركعة، وسجد سجدتين. متفق عليه، وهذا لفظ البخاري
501. Ibn 'Umar (RAA), narrated, 'I took part in a battle with the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), in Najd. We faced the enemy and arranged ourselves in rows. Then the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) stood up to lead the prayer. A group lined up to pray with him while the other faced the enemy. The Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) bowed in ruku' and the first group bowed with him and then he performed two prostrations. The first group then left (after praying one rak'ah) and took place of those who had not yet prayed. The second group came to pray with the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and he prayed one rak'ah and performed two prostrations and then said the Taslim.

Then the latter group stood up and prayed another rak'ah and performed two prostrations on their own'

[Agreed upon, and the wording is from Al-Bukhari]

وعن جابر قال: شهدت مع رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم - صلاة الخوف، فصفنا صفين: صف خلف رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم - والعدو بيننا وبين القبلة، فكبر النبي - صلى الله عليه وسلم - وكبرنا جميعا، ثم ركع وركعنا جميعا، ثم رفع رأسه من الركوع ورفعنا جميعا، ثم انحدر بالسجود والصف الذي يليه، وقام الصف المؤخر في نحر العدو، فلما قضى السجود، قام الصف الذي يليه ... فذكر الحديث. وفي رواية: ثم سجد وسجد معه الصف الأول، فلما قاموا سجد الصف الثاني، ثم تأخر الصف الأول وتقدم الصف الثاني ... فذكر مثله. وفي آخره: ثم سلم النبي - صلى الله عليه وسلم - وسلمنا جميعا. رواه مسلم

502. Jabir bin 'Abdullah (RAA) narrated, 'I prayed Salatul Khauf (prayer when one is afraid) with the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and he arranged us in two rows behind him. The enemy was between us and the Qiblah (i.e. the enemy in this case was in the direction of the Qiblah).

The Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) made the Takbir and we all followed him. Then he made ruku' and we all performed ruku' after him. Then he raised his head from the ruku' and we all raised our heads from the ruku'. Next, the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) went down for Sujud (prostration) as well as the row closest to him (i.e. the front row), while the back row stood facing the enemy until the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and the first row had completed their prostration, after which the back row performed Sujud and then stood.

Following this, those in the back row moved to the front, while those in the front row moved to the back. The Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) performed the ruku' and we all performed ruku'.
Then, he raised his head and we raised our heads from ruku'. Afterward, he made the Sujud and the row that was previously in the back during the first rak'ah prostrated with him while the [new] back row stood facing the enemy. When the Prophet and the [new] front row had completed their Sujud, the [new] back row performed Sujud. Finally, the Prophet made the Taslim and we followed him in this.'

[Related by Ahmad, Muslim and An-Nasa'i. In another narration]

'Then he prostrated and the first row prostrated with him. When they stood, the second row performed Sujud...' and mentioned the same as the rest of the first Hadith.' Finally, 'Then the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) made the Taslim and we all made the Taslim with him.'

[Related by Muslim]
ولأبي داود: عن أبي عياش الزرقي مثله، وزاد: أنها كانت بعسفان

503. Abu Dawud related on the authority of Abu 'Aiyash az-Zuraqi, a similar Hadith with the following addition, 'It was performed (i.e. the fear prayer) at 'Usfan.'

- Some scholars say this is only for the prophet.

- They say you have to have two jamaah.

- One watch while they others pray.

And when you (Muslims) travel in the land, there is no sin on you if you shorten your Salat (prayer) if you fear that the disbelievers may attack you, verily, the disbelievers are ever unto you open enemies.

(An-Nisa 4:101)

When you (O Messenger Muhammad Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) are among them, and lead them in As-Salat (the prayer), let one party of them stand up [in Salat (prayer)] with you taking their arms with them; when they finish their prostrations, let them take their positions in the rear and let the other party come up which has not yet prayed, and let them pray with you taking all the precautions and bearing arms. Those who disbelieve wish, if you were negligent of your arms and your baggage, to attack you in a single rush, but there is no sin on you if you put away your arms because of the inconvenience of rain or because you are ill, but take every precaution for yourselves. Verily, Allah has prepared a humiliating torment for the disbelievers.

(An-Nisa 4:102)

- On the battlefield you still have to pray,

The Salah of fear is prescribed during every lawful battle, such as fighting disbelievers or aggressors, because Allaah, the Most High, says,

[If you fear that those who disbelieve will cause you distress

[Sura Al-Nisaa: 101].

The proof for the legality of the Salah of fear is the Quran, the Sunnah and the consensus. Allaah, the Most High says,

[And when you are among them and keep up the prayer for them, let a party of them stand up with you, and let them take their arms; then when they have prostrated themselves, let them go to your rear, and let another party who have not prayed come forward and pray with you, and let them take their precautions and their arms]

[Surah Al-Nisaa: 102].

There are different ways to perform the Salah of fear, and all of them are established in the authentic Sunnah and all are permissible.

Imam Ahmad, may Allaah bestow His mercy upon him, said, Five or six ways of praying the Salah of fear have been proven authentic from the Prophet, and all of these ways are allowed

The Salah of fear can be prayed when there is a need during travelling, or while residing if the Muslims fear an attack of the enemy, because the reason for it is fear, not travelling. However, there is no shortening of the Salah of fear for a resident, and only the manner in which it is prayed is shortened.

On the other hand, during travelling both the number of Rakaat if it were a Salah of 4 Rakaat as well as the way it is prayed is shortened.

This Salah is allowed with two conditions:

1. It is lawful to fight the enemy, as we have previously mentioned.

2. Fear that the enemy will attack during Salah, for Allaah says,

[If you fear that those who disbelieve will cause you distress]

[Sura Al-Nisaa: 101],

[(For) those who disbelieve desire that you may be careless of your arms and your luggage, so that they may then turn upon you with a sudden, united attack]

[Sura Al-Nisaa: 102]

From the characteristics of the Salah of fear is what was reported from the Prophet in the hadeeth of Sahl bin Abi Hathma Al-Ansaari, which Imam Ahmad adopted as it is similar to how the Salah is described in the Quran, and it is the safest, because a Salah at the time of war is harder on the enemy.

The Prophet r prayed this Salah during the battle of Dhaat Al-Riqaa, and in a report, Sahl described it as,

A group lined up with the Prophet while another group faced the enemy

He prayed one Raka'ah with the group that was with him, and remained standing while they finished the Salah and left to face the enemy. The second group came and prayed the remaining Raka'ah with him, and he remained seated until they completed their prayers individually, after which he led them in (making) the Tasleem

[Narration is agreed upon]

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- They use it to bug phones,