Monday, February 10, 2014

Tafsir Quran: Surah Ad Duha {Note & Audio} {FEBRUARY 09 2014}




TAFSIR OF SURAH AD DUHA
[THE FORENOON]

09 FEBRUARY 2014 / 29 Rabi Al Awwal 1435 Hijri

BY SHAIKH FAISAL 

NOTED TAKEN BY TI-Nspire

EDITED BY Abu Hafiza & Jansep2001

- This surah was revealed in Makkah.

- This surah was revealed to comfort the prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).

- In tafsir there is asbab al nuzul (cause of this revelation).

REASONS OF CAUSES OF REVELATION OF SURAH AD DUHA

- Some kuffar asked the prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) questions of revelation of surah ad duha.

- Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said come tomorrow for the answer.

- However the prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) forgot to say Insha'Allah.

- Thus the angel Jibreel didn't come to the prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).

- Similar to what happened to prophet Suleiman (AS) with his child; he also forgot to say Insha'Allah.

- So the child of prophet Suleiman (AS) was born deformed due to the fact he didn't say Insha'Allah.

Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "Once Solomon, son of David said, '(By Allah) Tonight I will have sexual intercourse with one hundred (or ninety-nine) women each of whom will give birth to a knight who will fight in Allah's Cause.' On that a (i.e. if Allah wills) but he did not say, 'Allah willing.' Therefore only one of those women conceived and gave birth to a half-man. By Him in Whose Hands Muhammad's life is, if he had said, "Allah willing', (he would have begotten sons) all of whom would have been knights striving in Allah's Cause."

(Sahih Bukhari, Book #52, Hadith #74)

And never say of anything, "I shall do such and such thing tomorrow." Except (with the saying), "If Allah will!" And remember your Lord when you forget and say: "It may be that my Lord guides me unto a nearer way of truth than this."

(Al-Kahf 18:23-24)

- So it is good adhab to say Insha'Allah; even Allah (SWT) said Insha'Allah

Indeed Allah shall fulfil the true vision which He showed to His Messenger (SAW) [i.e. the Prophet SAW a dream that he has entered Makkah along with his companions, having their (head) hair shaved and cut short] in very truth. Certainly, you shall enter Al­ Masjid­al ­Haram; if Allah wills, secure, (some) having your heads shaved, and (some) having your head hair cut short, having no fear. He knew what you knew not, and He granted besides that a near victory.

(Al-Fath 48:27)

- Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) also said Insha'Allah to the people of the grave saying we will join you soon Insha'Allah.

- The journey in this dunya is called "from the womb to the tomb"

- So when the angel Jibreel didn't come to the prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), the kufar were ridiculing him.

Neither those who disbelieve among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) nor Al-Mushrikun (the disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah, idolaters, polytheists, pagans, etc.) like that there should be sent down unto you any good from your Lord. But Allah chooses for His Mercy whom He wills. And Allah is the Owner of Great Bounty.

(Al-Baqarah 2:105)

- They were mocking him because the kuffar don't want any good to come to a believer.

Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: “O inhabitants of the land of believers and Muslims! May peace be upon you. Insha'Allah we are going to join you. I ask Allah for the salvation of both you and us.”

(Muslim, Janaiz, 104; Ibn Majah, Janaiz, 36).

Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, "Once Solomon, son of David said, '(By Allah) Tonight I will have sexual intercourse with one hundred (or ninety-nine) women each of whom will give birth to a knight who will fight in Allah's Cause.' On that a (i.e. if Allah wills) but he did not say, 'Allah willing.' Therefore only one of those women conceived and gave birth to a half-man. By Him in Whose Hands Muhammad's life is, if he had said, "Allah willing', (he would have begotten sons) all of whom would have been knights striving in Allah's Cause."

(Sahih Bukhari, Book #52, Hadith #74)

AYAH 1

By the morning brightness

(Ad-Duha 93:1)

AYAH 2

And [by] the night when it covers with darkness,

(Ad-Duha 93:2)

AYAH 3

Your Lord has not taken leave of you, [O Muhammad], nor has He detested [you].

(Ad-Duha 93:3)

 - In this surah, Allah (SWT) swears in order to bring comfort to prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) because the kuffar were mocking him.

- He (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) forgot to say insha Allah and Jibreel didn't descend.

- kuffar came to ask him (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) questions of revelation of surah ad duha.

- The prophet (
Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) replied to come back tomorrow for the answer without mentioning insha Allah.

- So the angel Jibreel stayed away and prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was mocked by the kuffar, It is called smear, sneer, and jeer.

Neither those who disbelieve among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) nor Al-Mushrikun (the disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah, idolaters, polytheists, pagans, etc.) like that there should be sent down unto you any good from your Lord. But Allah chooses for His Mercy whom He wills. And Allah is the Owner of Great Bounty.

(Al-Baqarah 2:105)

- So the kuffar were happy that Jibreel stayed away from the prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) because kuffar don't want any good for a believer.

- Allah (SWT) swears by the night, but He still wants you take refuge from the night.

Say: "I seek refuge with (Allah) the Lord of the daybreak, "From the evil of what He has created; And from the evil of darkness when it settles

(Al-Falaq 113:1-3)

- Because people cause mischief during night time and the shaytaan comes out at night.

- This is the reason Allah (SWT) tells you to take refuge from the night.

- Allah (SWT) also swears by the morning hour.

And have made the night as a covering (through its darkness), And have made the day for livelihood.

(An-Naba 78:10-11)

- Because during the day, people earn their livelihood as for the night, it is for the purpose of rest.

- When the night comes, people fall into three categories.

- First: he goes straight to bed, neither loses or gains.

- Second: a person stays up to do-good deeds (qiyaam al layl, read Quran), so he gains.

- Third: he stays up to do haram, so he is a loser.

AYAH 4

And the Hereafter is better for you than the first [life].

(Ad-Duha 93:4) Sahih International

- So Allah (SWT) told prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) that this life is temporary and the Hereafter is everlasting.

Nay, you prefer the life of this world; Although the Hereafter is better and more lasting.

(Al-A'la 87:16-17)

- Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said everything in this dunya is cursed except for three things: dhirk of Allah, a scholar of Islam, and the student of the scholar.

- And the life of this dunya is nothing but deception.

- One day the prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was walking and saw a dead sheep.

- The prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) asked who wants this dead sheep for 1 dinar.

- No one wanted it because it was deformed.

- So the prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said the dunya is similar to this dead sheep.

Abu Huraira (RA) reported that Allah's Messenger (SAW) said, “The world, with all that it contains, is accursed except for dhikr (the remembrance of Allah) that which pleases Allah; and the religious scholars and seekers of knowledge.''

[Sunan Tirmidhi (4/561) 2322 and Sunan Ibn Majah (5/231) 4112, (Abu Eesa al-Tirmidhi said: this hadeeth is hasan ghareeb)]

- Allah (SWT) said to his prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) that He gave shelter to you even thought you were an orphan.

AYAH 5

And your Lord is going to give you, and you will be satisfied. (Ad-Duha 93:5)

- Ayah 5 means before the angel of death takes your soul, you will see your mission successful.

- Over a period of 23 years, prophet (
Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) brought the Arabia Peninsula to Islam.

- This is indeed an amazing success.

- Many of the enemies of the prophet (
Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) took the shahada, people such as Hind, Abu Sufyan, etc

- Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) witnesses the breaking of idols (360) from masjid al haram.

- Not every prophet was accepted by their people.

- Jesus and Moses (AS) were not followed by their people.

- However the companions of the prophet Muhammad (
Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) accepted him and fought with him.

But if they violate their oaths after their covenant, and attack your religion with disapproval and criticism then fight (you) the leaders of disbelief (chiefs of Quraish - pagans of Makkah) - for surely their oaths are nothing to them - so that they may stop (evil actions).

(At-Tawbah 9:12)

- So the prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) witnessed the success of his mission before he past away.

AYAH 6

Did He not find you an orphan and give [you] refuge?

(Ad-Duha 93:6)

- In ayah 6, "yateem" means a person who's father died.

- Allah (SWT) always gave shelter to prophet Muhammad (
Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) even though he was an orphan.

- Orphans around the world don't get proper shelter.

And what will make you know the path that is steep? (It is) Freeing a neck (slave, etc.). Or giving food in a day of hunger (famine), To an orphan near of kin.

(Al-Balad 90:12-15)

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (SAW) as saying: The women of the Quraish are kind to the orphans in their childhood and look after the wealth of their spouses.

[Sahih Muslim, Hadith #6137]

Have you seen him who denies the Recompense? And does not encourage the feeding of the poor. That is he who repulses the orphan (harshly),

(Al-Ma'un 107:1-2)

AYAH 7

And He found you unaware (of the Qur'an, its legal laws, and Prophethood, etc.) and guided you?

(Ad-Duha 93:7)

"O, Abu Ubaydah! Had anyone other than you made such a statement, I would have made him a lesson for the Ummah of Muhammad (SAW). We were once amongst the lowest of people, but Allaah gave us honour because of Islaam. As soon as we start to seek honour in avenues other than that in which Allaah has granted us honour, Allaah will then humiliate us."

[Mustadrak al-Hakim (1/130) No. 207]

- Arabs use to make tawwaf around the kaaba naked

The angel came to him and asked him to read. The Prophet replied, "I do not know how to read.” The Prophet added, "The angel caught me (forcefully) and pressed me so hard that I could not bear it any more. He then released me and again asked me to read and I replied, 'I do not know how to read.' Thereupon he caught me again and pressed me a second time till I could not bear it any more. He then released me and again asked me to read but again I replied, 'I do not know how to read (or what shall I read)?' Thereupon he caught me for the third time and pressed me, and then released me and said, 'Read in the name of your Lord, who has created (all that exists) has created man from a clot. Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous." (96.1, 96.2, 96.3)

[Sahih Bukhari, Vol 1, Book 1, Hadith #003]

- They used to bury their children alive.

- They used to worship 360 idols around the Kaba'a.

- They used to eat dead carcass.

- Eating such thing is not permissible in Islam

- It was a barbaric culture,

- So the prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) went the cave Hira and the angel Jibreel came to him, ordered him to read.

Read! In the Name of your Lord, Who has created (all that exists), Has created man from a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood). Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous, Who has taught (the writing) by the pen [the first person to write was Prophet Idrees (Enoch)],

(Al-'Alaq 96:4)

Has taught man that which he knew not. (Al-'Alaq 96:1-5)

- That night the angel came to the prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), it is referred to the night of power; majority of the scholar say that night is the 27th of Ramadan.

- So Allah (SWT) said that He gave guidance to the prophet (
Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam)

- Which is referred to as al Hidaaya (GUIDANCE)

- This is the most important thing in your life

- We beg Allah 17 times every day for divine guidance in surah al Fatiha

Guide us to the Straight Way. (Al-Fatihah 1:6)

- There are two types of guidance: Tawfiq and Irshaad.

- Tawfiq is the divine guidance from Allah (SWT), and no one else but Allah (SWT).

Verily! You (O Muhammad SAW) guide not whom you like, but Allah guides whom He wills. And He knows best those who are the guided.

(Al-Qasas 28:56)

- Irshaad is guidance from beautiful speeches And this is guidance from men/women.

The Prophet said, "Go to them patiently and calmly till you enter the land. Then, invite them to Islam, and inform them what is enjoined upon them, for, by Allah, if Allah gives guidance to somebody through you, it is better for you than possessing red camels."

[Sahih Bukhari, Vol 4, Book 52, Hadith #253]

- What Allah (SWT) is saying to His prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) is that if I guide you than how can I hate you.

- When you hate someone, you misguide him in life.

- So Allah (SWT) doesn't hate His prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).

AYAH 8

And He found you poor, and made you rich (self-sufficient with self-contentment, etc.)?

(Ad-Duha 93:8)

Narrated By Abu Huraira (RA): The Prophet (SAW) said, "Riches does not mean, having a great amount of property, but riches is self-contentment."

[Al-Bukhari (6038 and Muslim (2287)]

- So Allah (SWT) doesn't hate His prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam). The prophet (SAW) described the rich man as someone with self-contentment.
- Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) sought refuge from poverty.

Narrated By 'Aisha: The Prophet used to seek refuge with Allah (by saying), "O Allah! I seek refuge with You from the affliction of the Fire and from the punishment in the Fire, and seek refuge with You from the affliction of the grave, and I seek refuge with You from the affliction of wealth, and I seek refuge with You from the affliction of poverty, and seek refuge with You from the affliction of Al-Masih Ad-Dajjal"

[Sahih Bukhari, Vol 8, Book 75, Hadith #387]

Anas Ibn Malik narrated the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: “Poverty, in all probability, leads to unbelief (kufr)...”

[Al-Bayhaqi narrated in 'Shu’ab al-Eemaan' (9/12) No. 6188 and Abu Na'eem narrated in 'Hileeyat al-Awwleeyah' (3/109)]

- So poverty is something harmful, which leads to kufr.

- Umar (RA) said if poverty was a man, he would have killed that man.

- Every man wants a rich wife, pretty, and young.

It was narrated that Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas said: The Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: “There are four things that are essential for happiness: a righteous wife, a spacious home, a good neighbour and a sound means of transportation. And there are four things that make one miserable: a bad neighbour, a bad wife, a small house and a bad means of transportation.”

[Narrated by Ibn Hibban in al-Saheehah (Vol. 9, pg.340) No. 4032]

- So the goodness of dunya is four things: pious wife, spacious house, a good transportation, and a good neighbour.

AYAH 9

Therefore, treat not the orphan with oppression,

(Ad-Duha 93:9)

One of the major sins is to rob the orphan.

Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah (SAW), said, "There are three people that Allah will not speak to on the Day of Rising nor purify nor look at and they will have a painful punishment: an old adulterer, a lying ruler and a poor person who is arrogant."

[Sahih Muslim (1/102) No. 107, Musnad Ahmad (2/480) No. 10232]

Verily, those who unjustly eat up the property of orphans, they eat up only a fire into their bellies, and they will be burnt in the blazing Fire!

(An-Nisa 4:10)

- Three people Allah (SWT) answers their dua, the father for his son, a traveller, and an oppressed.

Abu Hurayrah (RA) reported that Allah’s Messenger said, "Three prayers are surely answered: the supplication of the oppressed, the supplication of the traveller, and the supplication of the father for his son."

[Sunan Tirmidhi (5/502) No. 3448, Sunan Ibn Majah (5/30) No. 3862, Musnad Ahmad (2/258) No. 7501, Sunan Abu Dawud (2/89) No. 1536]

Narrated By Ibn Abbas: The Prophet sent Mu'adh to Yemen and said, "Fear the supplication of the oppressed, for there is no barrier between it and Allah."

[Al-Bukhari (1496) and Muslim (19)]

AYAH 10

And repulse not the beggar; (Ad-Duha 93:10)

- There is two types of beggar, one who begs you money and one who begs you for Islamic knowledge.

- It is not required for you to give money to a beggar in darul harb.

- It is only for a beggar living in the Islamic state.

- Beggars in darul harb will spend your money on illegal substances.

- As for the one who begs for Islamic knowledge, you can hide certain knowledge from them if you feel they are not ready.

'Ali (RA) said, "Speak to people according to what they know. Do you want Allah and His Messenger to be denied?" Abu't-Tufayl related this from 'Ali.

[Sahih Bukhari, (Vol. 1, pg.37) No. 127]

- So not every knowledge is suitable to everybody.

Narrated By Abu Huraira: I have memorized two kinds of knowledge from Allah's Apostle. I have propagated one of them to you and if I propagated the second, then my pharynx (throat) would be cut (i.e. killed).

[Sahih Bukhari, Vol 1, Book 3, Hadith #121]

AYAH 11

And proclaim the Grace of your Lord (i.e. the Prophethood and all other Graces).

(Ad-Duha 93:11)

- If Allah (SWT) gives you something, proclaim it; always show the barakah of Allah (SWT)

- Again poverty is harmful and it is not a barakah from Allah (SWT) and it leads to kufr

Shaitan (Satan) threatens you with poverty and orders you to commit Fahsha (evil deeds, illegal sexual intercourse, sins etc.); whereas Allah promises you Forgiveness from Himself and Bounty, and Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures' needs, All-Knower.

(Al-Baqarah 2:268)

- If poverty was good then why does the shaytaan use it as one of his weapon?

- Like Allah (SWT) told you in the above mentioned ayah.

- If poverty was good then why did the prophet (SAW) seek refuge from it in the following hadith?

Narrated By 'Aisha: The Prophet used to seek refuge with Allah (by saying), "O Allah! I seek refuge with You from the affliction of the Fire and from the punishment in the Fire, and seek refuge with You from the affliction of the grave, and I seek refuge with You from the affliction of wealth, and I seek refuge with You from the affliction of poverty, and seek refuge with You from the affliction of Al-Masih Ad-Dajjal"

[Sahih Bukhari, Vol 8, Book 75, Hadith #387]