Tuesday, April 8, 2014

03 {Notes} Lives of USMAN IBN AFFAN {LIVES OF THE SAHABAS} {APRIL 07 2014}



THE STORY OF UTHMAN BIN AFFAN
{Dhoo Nurain}

{The Possessor of Two Lights}

APRIL 08 2014 / 08 JUMADA AL AKHIRAH 1435 HIJRI

Shaikh Abdullah Al Faisal

Notes taken by @AT16 & @acceptruth

Hadith Hujjah by @AT3

Quran Hujjah by @AT19

EDITED BY Abu Hafiza

Uthman Ibn affan (RA) was born in 577 CE that makes him six years younger than the prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and prophet Muhammad was born 571 CE.

He was born in Ta'if Arabian Peninsula; he was the third most senior sahaba after Abu Bakr (RA) and Umar (RA).

Narrated By Ibn 'Umar: We used to compare the people as to who was better during the lifetime of Allah's Apostle. We used to regard Abu Bakr as the best, then 'Umar, and then 'Uthman.

[Translation of Sahih Bukhari: Vol 5, Book 57, Hadith: 7]

Uthman (RA) was a trader by profession and he was a close friend of Abu Bakr (RA), he was one of the early reverts to Islam. Abu Bakr (RA) gave him Dawah directly and he embraced Islam.

Uthman (RA) became very rich like his friend Abu Bakr; he became rich from trade (Tijara).

Uthman (RA) was tall, handsome and rich; he was from a powerful clan of Makkah called Banu Umayyad.

One of the prestigious clans of Makkah and they are known for being rich.

Mu'awiya (RA) was from this clan.

Uthman (RA) is known for being very shy.

'Aisha reported: Allah's Messenger (SAW) was lying in the bed in my apartment with his thigh or his shank uncovered that Abu Bakr sought permission to get in.

It was given to him and he conversed in the same very state (the Prophet's thigh or shank uncovered). Then 'Umar sought permission for getting in and it was given to him and he conversed in that very state.

Then 'Uthman sought permission for getting in; Allah's Messenger (SAW) sat down and he set right his clothes. Muhammad (one of the narrators) said: I do not say that it happened on the same day. He ('Uthman) then entered and conversed and as he went out, 'Aisha said: Abu Bakr entered and you did not stir and did not observe much care (in arranging your clothes), then 'Umar entered and you did not stir and did not arrange your clothes, then 'Uthman entered and you got up and set your clothes right, thereupon he said: Should I not show modesty to one whom even the Angels show modesty.

[Sahih Muslim, Book 31, Hadith #5906]

Uthman (RA) was known for his shyness.

He got married to two daughters of the prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).

'Abdullah ibn 'Umar ibn Aban al-Ju'fi said: My paternal uncle Husayn al-Ju'fi said to me: "O my son, do you know why 'Uthman was called Dhu al-Noorayn (the one with the two lights)?" I said: "I do not know." He said: "No one else was ever married to two daughters of a Prophet, from the time Allah created Adam until the Hour will begin, except 'Uthman. Hence he was called Dhu al-Noorayn."

[Al-Sunan al-Kubra al-Bayhaqi (7/115-116) No. 13427]

He was the only man in history to marry two daughters of the prophet; he will be the only one to do so because there is no prophet after Muhammad (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).

Uthman (RA) migrated from Makkah to Abyssinia with his wife, to escape the persecution of the Quraish.


Banu Umayyad was not happy that Uthman (RA) embraced Islam.

Eight BH means "before the Hijra".

The official date of the Hijra is 622 CE.

Uthman (RA) had a sister called Amina.

After spending two years in Abyssinia with his wife Ruqayyah; he left Abyssinia and returned to Makkah only to found out the rumour was false (that Quraish embraced Islam in multitudes) but he stayed in Makkah and worked as a trader.

After spending two years in Abyssinia , rumour spread that Quraish embraced Islam in multitudes, but when he came back with his wife he find out the rumour was not Sahih, it was a lie, but he stayed in Makkah anyway and began to work as a trader in Makkah.

He did not bother to return to Abyssinia.

When Uthman saw how the Muslims suffered from the Embargo that the Quraish put on them, he went there to feed them; he went and took his camels, and bought food for the Muslims in the valley.

When Quraish gave them 3 years of sanctions and embargo.

Quraish unleashed 3 years of Embargo when they saw this.

In 622 CE Uthman migrated from Makka to Medina with his wife.


In 2 AH, the battle of Badr started.

Uthman (RA) did not participate in the Battle of Badr because his wife Ruqaya fell critically ill with malaria and small pox.

So the prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) gave him permission to stay behind and look after his wife Ruqayyah.

The battle happed two years after the Hijra.

Even though the Muslims were victories at Badr he was not in the mood to celebrate, because his wife was ill.

Ruqayyah (RAA) was a daughter of the prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) has died; so he was not in the mood to celebrate he was divested because they were a very close couple.

After seeing how uthman was devastated when his wife died, he (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) gave him another daughter of his to marry, her name was Umm Khulthom bint Muhammad.

After getting married to Umm Khulthom, the ummah gave him the nickname dhoo nurain- (The possessor of two lights).

'Abdullah ibn 'Umar ibn Aban al-Ju'fi said: My paternal uncle Husayn al-Ju'fi said to me: "O my son, do you know why 'Uthman was called Dhu al-Noorayn (the one with the two lights)?" I said: "I do not know." He said: "No one else was ever married to two daughters of a Prophet, from the time Allah created Adam until the Hour will begin, except 'Uthman. Hence he was called Dhu al-Noorayn."

[Al-Sunan al-Kubra al-Bayhaqi (7/115-116) No. 13427]

Like Abu Bakr (RA), Uthman (RA) used to buy many slaves and set them free; using his wealth; he was known for being very charitable.


Charitable like his friend Abu Bakr (RA).

Uthman (RA) paid the dowry and the marriage expense for Ali (RA) to get married to Fatima (RAA).

Uthman (RA) participated in the battle of Uhud.

Uthman (RA) witnessed the treaty of hudaybiyyah.

In 6 AH the prophet left Medina to go to Makkah to perform umrah acting on a dream.

The Makkah pagans objected to the Muslims coming to Makkah.

They encamped in the valley of hudaybiyya.


The prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) sent a delegation to inform they came in peace without weapons.

Uthman (RA) was chosen to head the delegation, because he was from the Umayyad clan,

The prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) wanted to send Umar (RA), who refused saying his clan was not as powerful as Uthman’s (RA) when Uthman arrived in Makkah.

Abu Sufyan who was the leader of Makkah, he said to Uthman (RA); why don't you make tawaaf around the Kaaba.


The Muslims were grumbling saying that Uthman (RA) was making tawaaf and they were stuck in the valley.


The prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) heard them and said that he knew his sahabah that he would never make tawaaf before me.

Uthman’s (RA) said he would not make tawaaf around the kaaba before the prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) he knew Sufyan was looking to cause fitnah.

That prophet knew his sahabah.

When someone asked advice on who marry he told the woman not to marry someone because they were tight and recommended someone else, thus he knew his sahabah.

Uthman stayed longer in Makkah, and rumours spread that the kaffirs had killed him.

These rumours reached the ears of the prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).

When the rumours reached the ears of the prophet, he gathered his 1400 sahabas underneath a tree, and all stretched their hands forward and gave bayah to the prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).

Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah: On the day of Al-Hudaibiya, Allah's Apostle said to us' "You are the best people on the earth!" We were 1400 then. If I could see now, I would have shown you the place of the Tree (beneath which the Pledge of allegiance was given by us)," Salim said, "Our number was 1400." 'Abdullah bin Abi Aufa said, "The people (who gave the Pledge of allegiance) under the Tree numbered 1300 and the number of Bani Aslam was 1/8 of the Emigrants."

{Sahih Al-Bukhari 4155 & Bukhari: Vol. 5, Book 59, Hadith 475}

The bayah was that they would fight to the death.

Allah (SWT) was pleased with the bayah and He mentioned it in the Quran


Indeed, Allah was pleased with the believers when they gave their Bai'a (pledge) to you (O Muhammad SAW) under the tree, He knew what was in their hearts, and He sent down As-Sakinah (calmness and tranquillity) upon them, and He rewarded them with a near victory,

(Al-Fath 48:18)

The bayah was that they would fight to the death to avenge the death of Uthman (RA).

If he had indeed been killed.

Allah knew what was in their hearts and rewarded them with a victory.

This proves the importance of Uthman (RA) in the eyes of Allah and His rasool.

This ayah proves the Muslims are one body.


It proves that when one part of the body is feeling pain all feel the pain.

Narrated by An-Nu'man bin Bashir: The Prophet (SAW) said: “The likeness of the believers in their mutual love, mercy and compassion is that of one body; when one part of it suffers, the rest of the body joins it in staying awake and suffering fever.”

[Al-Bukhaari (6011) and Muslim (2586)]

Jabir (RA) reported that Allah’s Messenger (SAW) said, “None of those who swore allegiance under the tree will enter Hell.”

[Musnad Ahmad (3/350) No. 14820, Sunan Abu Dawud (2/624) No. 4653, Sunan Tirmidhi (5/695) No. 3860, Abu Eesa al-Tirmidhi said: this hadith is Hasan Sahih]

The prophet promised paradise to the 1400 that gave their bayah under the tree:

They conquered khaibar and got the booty.

Narrated By Ibn Umar: We did not eat our fill except after we had conquered Khaibar.

[Sahih Bukhari, Vol 5, Book 59, Hadith #548]

Uthman (RA) also participated in this battle.

Narrated By 'Aisha: When Khaibar was conquered, we said, "Now we will eat our fill of dates!"

[Sahih Bukhari, Vol 5, Book 59, Hadith #547]

Uthman (RA) participated in the conquest of Makkah, and then his entire family embraced Islam.

Soon after this conquest his wife; his wife Umm Khulthoom died of natural causes.

The prophet said if he had a third daughter, he would have given her to Uthman (RA).

Asmah Ibn malik narrates : When The Prophet's [saw] daughter who was married to Usman [ra] died.The Prophet [saw] said : " Give your daughter in marriage to Usman If I had a third daughter, I would give her in marriage to him and I never gave him my daughters except in compliance with a Divine Revelation."

(Reported by At-Tabarani).

The conquest of Makkah was good for uthman (RA), he had invested heavily and his investments were now secure.


The Muslims piled into Madina when it was known the prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was going to fight the Romans in the Tabuk expedition.

The prophet normally kept quiet about battles and the enemy was caught off guard with this battle it was publically announced this battle the prophet himself was taking the battle to the Romans the tabuk expedition.

Uthman (RA) spent heavily to arm in this expedition even the Muslims women took off their rings and gave.

Sayyidna Abdur Rahman ibn Khabbab (RA) narrated: I observed the Prophet (salall aho alaihi wa salaam) while he was encouraging (people) for the army ill equipped (for the battle of Tabuk).

Uthman ibn Affan (RA) stood up and said, “O Messenger of Allah! On me are a hundred camels loaded with their cloths and saddles in the path of Allah.”

He continued to urge the people forward and Uthman (RA) got up and said. “O Messenger of Allah, I am bound to provide two hundred camels with their cloths and saddles in Allah’s path.” As the Prophet carried on his appeal, Uthman Ibn Affan (RA) got up and said, “O Messenger of Allah On me are three hundred camels with their cloth and saddles in Allah’s path.”

I observed Allah’s Messenger (salall aho alaihi wa salam) get down from the pulpit, saying the while: (Say) Nothing against UTHMAN WHATEVER HE DOES AFTER THIS

[Sunnan al Tirimdhi Hadith No. 3720] – Imam Abu Isa Tirimdhi (rah) said: This Hadith is (Hasan) Gharib (i.e. rare but authentic)

After this the prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) made a statement that from this day uthman (RA) would not be harmed.

This was for his spending on the Tabuk expedition.

Some Muslims came to join and the prophet said he did not have any animals for them so they cried because of not being able to go.

Allah (SWT) said in the Quran in surah At-Tawbah verse 92.

Nor (is there blame) on those who came to you to be provided with mounts, and when you said: "I can find no mounts for you," they turned back, while their eyes overflowing with tears of grief that they could not find anything to spend (for Jihad).

(At-Tawbah 9:92)

They cried for not being able to go to jihad with the prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).

The Romans refused to fight the prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) for what took place at muta.

Uthman (RA) was very close to Abu Bakr (RA) in his life time and it was Abu Bakr (RA) who brought Uthman to Islam with his dawah.

Uthman (RA) was the second person to give bayah to Abu Bakr (RA) after Umar (RA) in those days you give you bayah to a caliph by shaking his hand.

In those days if you did not give your bayah to the caliph you could cause bloodshed.

When Abu Bakr (RA) was on his death bed he called Uthman (RA) and dictated his will to Uthman (RA).

He said he would like Ali (RA), who washed the body of the prophet, and he want Ali to wash his body and he would like Umar (RA) to lead his Janaza salat and want Umar (RA) to be caliph after him.

These are the things he put in the will.

So you should specify who you want to wash your body.

It is good to mention two people in case one is not available also put who you want to pray over you.

You don't want a brevali to pray over you.

Some people grumbled when Abu Bakr (RA) said he wanted Umar (RA) to succeed him because Umar was harsh.

Abu Bakr (RA) told them not to worry because Umar's (RA) heart would soften.

He was right, Umar (RA) took good care of the Muslims making sure all had food before he went to bed


Umar (RA) even appointed a woman to be finance minister is Shifaa Bint Abdullah (RAA).


This is how merciful he was to the Muslims; when Umar (RA) became caliph Uthman (RA) was the first to give bayah to him.

Uthman (RA) was an advisor to Umar (RA) especially in fiqh matters because he was well versed in this field.

When Umar (RA) was caliph he did not allow any of the senior sahabas to leave medina.

He wanted to be sure he did no make a mistake in matters of sharia.

Uthman (RA) was one of those sahabas.


When Umar (RA) was stabbed, he appointed six sahabas and said to choose one of them because when the prophet died he was sure the prophet was happy with them.

When Umar (RA) was stabbed, he appointed six sahabas and said to choose one of them because when the prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) died he was sure the prophet was happy with them.

THE SIX SAHABAS APPOINTED BY UMAR WERE:

ALI, UTHMAN, ABDUR RAHMAN BIN AUF, SAD IBN ABI WAQQAS, TALHA AND ZUBAIR

They held a shura meeting to decide who was to be the caliph.

The west was so impressed with this method that the Vatican use this method to choose their pope; they used the method of Umar (RA).

During the meeting Uthman emerged as the most suitable candidate and became the third caliph.

The first six years of Uthman’s (RA) reign was very successful, the Muslims conquered vast lands and became very wealthy.

Uthman's leadership was different from Umar (RA).

When he appointed someone as a governor; he did not interfere with the leadership and they enjoyed autonomy.

They would do their own jihad and each governor enjoyed his own autonomy.

Umar (RA) was different, he ruled each with an iron fist everything was going fine until disaster struck.

What is that disaster?


A Jew by the name of Abdullah Ibn Saba embraced Islam but his shahadah was fake; he came to do to Islam, what Paul did to Christianity.

So he went to the Egypt, Syria and Iraq to speak badly about Uthman (RA)

This is called sowing the seeds of discord/ fanning the flames of fitnah.

He went to Egypt, Syria and Iraq, to tell the people Uthman (RA) was guilty of nepotism and that Ali (RA) as a better candidate for caliph.

He would go and say other sahabahs also were better than Uthman (RA).

He convinced the Egyptians so they marched on Uthman (RA).

- One of those who led the campaign was Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr.


- He was a staunch supporter of Ali (RA)

He didn't like Uthman (RA) because Uthman (RA) did not appoint him as governor over a province.

"Ali (RA) had married his mother after Abu Bakr (RA) died"

Muhammad ibn Abi Hudhaifa (RA), the adopted son of Uthman (RA) also led the rebellion, because Uthman (RA) did not give him a governorship.

They said Uthman (RA) gave governorship to his family and they were better suited for the position.

Muwayyia (RA) offered to send troops, but Uthman (RA) refused, saying he didn't want to see bloodshed in the city of the prophet.

The rebels chose the hajj season when all the senior sahabas were on hajj

They surrounded his house preventing him from leading the salat at the masjid and they prevented food and water from him, going to his house.


One of the fiercest supporters of Uthman (RA) tried to break the siege, she was Safia Bint Huway (RAA); a widow of the prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).

She was a Jew, and because of this support they said Uthman (RA) was a Jew.

On the authority of Muhammad ibn Abdur Rahman who said: “A man in Kufa used to spread a rumour that Uthman ibn Affan (RA) was a Jew.

So Imam Abu Hanifa (rh) approached him and said: ‘I come to you with a proposal’. The man said: ‘what is the proposal concerning?’

Abu Hanifa said: ‘I come to ask for your daughter's hand in marriage for a man who is noble, wealthy and a hafiz of the Holy Qur'an, he's devoted in worship. He spends the night praying and cries a lot from the fear of Allah.

The man said: ‘you have said enough to convince me he's a suitable person to marry my daughter, O Abu Hanifa.’ Imam Abu Hanifa then said to the man: ‘Except that this suitor has a certain characteristic.’ The man said: ‘and what is that?’ Abu Hanifa said: ‘This man is a Jew.’ The Shia said: ‘Subhan Allah! Do you order me to give away my daughter in marriage to a Jew O Abu Hanifa?!

The imam said to the Shia: ‘Do you agree to marry her to the Jew?’ The Shia said: ‘No!’
Abu Hanifa said: ‘But you are spreading the news that the Holy Prophet (SAW) married two of his daughters to a Jew.’

The Shia said: ‘I seek Allah's forgiveness! I turn to Allah with repentance as of now.’”

[Related by al-Khateeb al-Baghdadi (d. 463 H) in 'Tarikh Baghdad', (Vol. 15, pg. 498-499)]

After laying siege the rebels jumped through the window and they attacked Uthman (RA) and his wife Naila tried to protect her husband, and they cut off her fingers then they stabbed Uthman (RA) and his blood fell on a verse of the holy Quran verse 2:137

So if they believe in the like of that which you believe, then they are rightly guided, but if they turn away, then they are only in opposition. So Allah will suffice you against them. And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.

(Al-Baqarah 2:137)

When they killed Uthman (RA) they fulfilled one of the prophecies of the prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).

Anas ibn Maalik, narrated that Allah’s Messenger (SAW) climbed the (mountain) Uhud, Abu Bakr (RA), Umar and Uthman (RA) were with him. The mountain shook while they were on top of it. So, the Prophet (SAW) said, “Steady, Uhud, for on you are a Prophet, a Siddiq (truthful), and two shahids.” (shahids is martyrs).

[Bukhari 3686, Tirmidhi 3717, Ahmed 12107, Abu Dawud 4651]

When they killed uthman (RA); the rebels were hunt down one by one and chopped their heads off.

People hunted them down and severed their heads from their body.

HOW WILL UTHMAN BE REMEMBERED:

Uthman (RA) died in year 35 AH at age 79 and his caliphate was for 12 years long.


Uthman (RA) will be remembered as the sahabah who married two daughters of the prophet


Abdullah ibn 'Umar ibn Aban al-Ju'fi said: My paternal uncle Husayn al-Ju'fi said to me: "O my son, do you know why 'Uthman was called Dhu al-Noorayn (the one with the two lights)?" I said: "I do not know." He said: "No one else was ever married to two daughters of a Prophet, from the time Allah created Adam until the Hour will begin, except 'Uthman. Hence he was called Dhu al-Noorayn." 

[al-Sunan al-Kubra al-Bayhaqi (7/115-116) No. 13427]

He will be remembered as the rich sahabah who spent mist of his wealth in the way of Allah (SWT).

Uthman (RAA) will be remembered as a shy sahabah.

Aisha reported: Allah's Messenger (SAW) was lying in the bed in my apartment with his thigh or his shank uncovered that Abu Bakr sought permission to get in.

It was given to him and he conversed in the same very state (the Prophet's thigh or shank uncovered).

Then 'Umar sought permission for getting in and it was given to him and he conversed in that very state.

Then 'Uthman sought permission for getting in; Allah's Messenger (SAW) sat down and he set right his clothes. Muhammad (one of the narrators) said: I do not say that it happened on the same day.

He ('Uthman) then entered and conversed and as he went out, 'Aisha said: Abu Bakr entered and you did not stir and did not observe much care (in arranging your clothes), then 'Umar entered and you did not stir and did not arrange your clothes, then 'Uthman entered and you got up and set your clothes right, thereupon he said: Should I not show modesty to one whom even the Angels show modesty.


[Sahih Muslim, Book 31, Hadith #5906]

The prophet didn't cover his leg until Uthman came into the room.


He will be remembered as the caliph who brought immense wealth to the Muslims.

He will be remembered as the caliph who was soft with his governors, leading to his downfall.


He will be remembered as the caliph who united the Muslims, compiling the Quran in one, the Quraish dialect.

Narrated Ibn Mas'ud: I heard a person reciting a (Quranic) Verse in a certain way, and I had heard the Prophet reciting the same Verse in a different way. So I took him to the Prophet and informed him of that but I noticed the sign of disapproval on his face, and then he said, "BOTH OF YOU ARE CORRECT, so don't differ, for the nations before you differed, so they were destroyed."

{Bukhari: Vol: 4 Book 56 Hadith 682}

Uthman will be remembered as an expert in fiqh and hence became an advisor to Abu Bakr and Umar.

Remembered as a hafiz and a great reciter of the Holy Quran.

He was buried in Jannahital Bahqee with the other sahabahs and his body was not washed because he died a shaheed.


He was buried in Jannahital Bahqee with the other sahabahs, his body was not washed because he died a shaheed.


In Islam we bury the bodies of shaheed and do not wash the body of the shaheed.