Wednesday, April 9, 2014

{Noted} Lives of Uthman Bin Affan (RA) {LIVE OF THE SAHABAS} {APRIL 08 2014}

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

THE STORY OF UTHMAN BIN AFFAN
DHU'N NURAYN
(THE POSSESSOR OF TWO LIGHTS)

BY SHAIKH ABDULLAH AL-FAISAL

APRIL 08 2014 / 08 JUMADA AL AKHIRAH 1435 HIJRI

Notes taken by @AT16 & @acceptruth

Hadith Hujjah by @AT3
Quran Hujjah by @AT19

Edited by Abu Hafiza & AT6

- Uthman was born in 577 CE; that makes him six years younger than the prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).

- He was born in Ta'if, Arabian Peninsula.

- He was the third most senior sahaba after Abu Bakr (RA) and Umar (RA).

Narrated By Ibn 'Umar: We used to compare the people as to who was better during the lifetime of Allah's Apostle. We used to regard Abu Bakr as the best, then 'Umar, and then 'Uthman.

[Sahih Bukhari, Vol 5, Book 57, Hadith 7]

- Uthman was a trader by profession and he was a close friend of Abu Bakr (RA).

- He was one of the early reverts to Islam.

- Abu Bakr (RA) gave him Dawah directly and he embraced Islam.

- Uthman (RA) became very rich like his friend Abu Bakr (RA); he became rich from tijarah (trade).

- Uthman (RA) was tall, handsome and rich.

- He was from a powerful clan of Makkah called Banu Umayyad, one of the prestigious clans of Makkah. They are known for being rich.

- Mu'awiya (RA) was from this clan.

- Uthman is known for being very shy.

'Aisha reported: Allah's Messenger (SAW) was lying in the bed in my apartment with his thigh or his shank uncovered that Abu Bakr sought permission to get in. It was given to him and he conversed in the same very state (the Prophet's thigh or shank uncovered). Then 'Umar sought permission for getting in and it was given to him and he conversed in that very state.

Then 'Uthman sought permission for getting in; Allah's Messenger (SAW) sat down and he set right his clothes. Muhammad (one of the narrators) said: I do not say that it happened on the same day. He ('Uthman) then entered and conversed and as he went out, 'Aisha said: Abu Bakr entered and you did not stir and did not observe much care (in arranging your clothes), then 'Umar entered and you did not stir and did not arrange your clothes, then 'Uthman entered and you got up and set your clothes right, thereupon he said: Should I not show modesty to one whom even the Angels show modesty.

[Sahih Muslim, Book 31, Hadith #5906]

- Uthman was known for his shyness.

- He got married to two daughters of the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).

'Abdullah ibn 'Umar ibn Aban al-Ju'fi said: My paternal uncle Husayn al-Ju'fi said to me: "O my son, do you know why 'Uthman was called Dhu al-Noorayn (the one with the two lights)?" I said: "I do not know." He said: "No one else was ever married to two daughters of a Prophet, from the time Allah created Adam until the Hour will begin, except 'Uthman. Hence he was called Dhu al-Noorayn."

[Al-Sunan al-Kubra al-Bayhaqi (7/115-116) No. 13427]

- He was the only man in history to marry two daughters of the prophet; he will be the only one to do so because there is no prophet after Muhammad (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).

- Uthman (RA) migrated from Makkah to Abyssinia with his wife, to escape the persecution of the Quraish.

- Banu Umayyad was not happy that Uthman (RA) embraced Islam

- Uthman had a sister called Amina.

- After spending two years in Abyssinia with his wife, there was a rumour that Quraish embraced Islam in multitudes.

- So he left Abyssinia and returned to Makkah only to find out the rumour was false (that Quraish embraced Islam in multitudes).

- Uthman stayed in Makkah and worked as a trader.

- He did not bother to return to Abyssinia.

- When Uthman saw how the Muslims suffered from the embargo that the Quraish put on them, he went there to feed them.

- He went and took his camels, bought food for the Muslims in the valley.

- Quraish unleashed 3 years of embargo when they saw this.

- In 622 CE Uthman migrated from Makka to Medina with his wife.

- In 2 AH, the battle of Badr started.

- Uthman did not participate in the Battle of Badr because his wife Ruqaya fell critically ill with malaria and small pox so the Prophet gave him permission to stay behind and look after his wife.

- The battle happed two years after the Hijra

- Even though the Muslims were victorious at Badr, he was not in the mood to celebrate because his wife died.

- Ruqaya was a daughter of the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).

- He was devastated because they were a close couple.

- The prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), after seeing how devastated Uthman was, gave Uthman another daughter of his to marry.

- Her name was Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad.

- After getting married to Umm kulthum, the ummah gave him the nickname dhoo nurain- (the possessor of two lights)

'Abdullah ibn 'Umar ibn Aban al-Ju'fi said: My paternal uncle Husayn al-Ju'fi said to me: "O my son, do you know why 'Uthman was called Dhu al-Noorayn (the one with the two lights)?" I said: "I do not know." He said: "No one else was ever married to two daughters of a Prophet, from the time Allah created Adam until the Hour will begin, except 'Uthman. Hence he was called Dhu al-Noorayn."

[Al-Sunan al-Kubra al-Bayhaqi (7/115-116) No. 13427]

- Like Abu Bakr (RA), Uthman (RA) used to buy many slaves and set them free using his wealth.

- He was known for being very charitable like his friend Abu Bakr (RA).

- Uthman (RA) paid the dowry and the marriage expense for Ali to get married to Fatima.

- Uthman (RA) participated in the battle of Uhud.

- Uthman (RA) witnessed the treaty of hudaybiyyah

- In 6 AH the Prophet left Medina to go to Makkah to perform umrah acting on a dream.

- The pagans of Makkah objected to the Muslims coming to Makkah.

- The Muslims encamped in the valley of hudaybiyya.

- The Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) sent a delegation to inform Quraish that they came in peace without weapons.

- Uthman (RA) was chose to be the head of the delegation because he was from the Umayyad clan.

- The prophet wanted to send Umar (RA), who refused saying his clan was not as powerful as Uthman’s (RA).

- When uthman (RA) arrived in Makkah, Abu Sufyan who was the leader of Makkah said to uthman (RA), “why don't you make tawaf around the Kaaba”.

- The Muslims were grumbling saying that Uthman (RA) was making tawaaf and they were stuck in the valley.

- The Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) heard them and said that he knew his sahabah and that he would never make tawaaf before him.

- Uthman (RA) said he would not make tawaaf around the kaaba before the Prophet.

- He knew Abu Sufyan was looking to cause fitnah.

- The prophet knew his sahabah.

- When someone asked advice on who to marry he told the woman not to marry someone because they were tight and recommended someone else; thus the Prophet knew his sahabah.

- Uthman (RA) stayed longer in Makkah, and rumours spread that the kaffirs had killed him.

- These rumours reached the ears of the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).

- When the rumours reached the ears of the prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), he gathered his 1400 sahabas underneath a tree, and all stretched their hands forward and gave bay’ah to the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).

Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah: On the day of Al-Hudaibiya, Allah's Apostle said to us' "You are the best people on the earth!" We were 1400 then. If I could see now, I would have shown you the place of the Tree (beneath which the Pledge of allegiance was given by us)," Salim said, "Our number was 1400." 'Abdullah bin Abi Aufa said, "The people (who gave the Pledge of allegiance) under the Tree numbered 1300 and the number of Bani Aslam was 1/8 of the Emigrants."

{Sahih Al-Bukhari 4155 & Bukhari: Vol. 5, Book 59, Hadith 475}

- The bayah was that they would fight to the death.

- Allah (SWT) was pleased with the bay’ah and He mentioned it in the Quran.

Indeed, Allah was pleased with the believers when they gave their Bai'a (pledge) to you (O Muhammad SAW) under the tree, He knew what was in their hearts, and He sent down As-Sakinah (calmness and tranquillity) upon them, and He rewarded them with a near victory,

(Al-Fath 48:18)

- The bay’ah was that they would fight to the death to avenge the death of Uthman (RA) if he had indeed been killed.

- Allah (SWT) knew what was in their hearts and rewarded them with a victory.

- This proves the importance of Uthman (RA) in the eyes of Allah (SWT) and His Rasool.

- This ayah proves the Muslims are one body.

- It proves that when one part of the body is feeling pain, all feel the pain.

Narrated by An-Nu'man bin Bashir: The Prophet (SAW) said: “The likeness of the believers in their mutual love, mercy and compassion is that of one body; when one part of it suffers, the rest of the body joins it in staying awake and suffering fever.”

[Al-Bukhaari (6011) and Muslim (2586)]

- The prophet promised paradise to the 1400 that gave their bayah under the tree.

Jabir (RA) reported that Allah’s Messenger (SAW) said, “None of those who swore allegiance under the tree will enter Hell.”

[Musnad Ahmad (3/350) No. 14820, Sunan Abu Dawud (2/624) No. 4653, Sunan Tirmidhi (5/695) No. 3860, Abu Eesa al-Tirmidhi said: this hadith is Hasan Sahih]

- They were the ones who conquered Khaibar and got the booty.

- Uthman also participated in this battle.

Narrated By Ibn Umar: We did not eat our fill except after we had conquered Khaibar. [Sahih Bukhari, Vol 5, Book 59, Hadith #548]

Narrated By 'Aisha: When Khaibar was conquered, we said, "Now we will eat our fill of dates!"

[Sahih Bukhari, Vol 5, Book 59, Hadith #547]

- Uthman participated in the conquest of Makkah, and then his entire family embraced Islam.

- Soon after this conquest his wife, umm khulthoom, died of natural causes.

- The Prophet said if he had a third daughter, he would have given her to Uthman (RA).

Asmah Ibn malik narrates : When The Prophet's [saw] daughter who was married to Usman [ra] died.The Prophet [saw] said : " Give your daughter in marriage to Usman If I had a third daughter, I would give her in marriage to him and I never gave him my daughters except in compliance with a Divine Revelation."

(Reported by At-Tabarani).

- The conquest of Makkah was good for Uthman; he had invested heavily and his investments were now secure.

- The Muslims piled into Medina when it was known the Prophet was going to fight the Romans at the Tabuk expedition.

- The Prophet normally kept quiet about battles and the enemy was caught off guard.

- With this battle it was publically announced.

- The Prophet himself was taking the battle to the Romans.

- Uthman spent heavily to arm this expedition.

- Even the Muslims women took off their rings and gave them.

Sayyidna Abdur Rahman ibn Khabbab (RA) narrated: I observed the Prophet (salall aho alaihi wa salaam) while he was encouraging (people) for the army ill equipped (for the battle of Tabuk). Uthman ibn Affan (RA) stood up and said, “O Messenger of Allah! On me are a hundred camels loaded with their cloths and saddles in the path of Allah.”.

He continued to urge the people forward and Uthman (RA) got up and said. “O Messenger of Allah, I am bound to provide two hundred camels with their cloths and saddles in Allah’s path.” As the Prophet carried on his appeal, Uthman Ibn Affan (RA) got up and said, “O Messenger of Allah On me are three hundred camels with their cloth and saddles in Allah’s path.”

I observed Allah’s Messenger (salall aho alaihi wa salam) get down from the pulpit, saying the while: (Say) Nothing against UTHMAN WHATEVER HE DOES AFTER THIS

[Sunnan al Tirimdhi Hadith No. 3720] – Imam Abu Isa Tirimdhi (rah) said: This Hadith is (Hasan) Gharib (i.e. rare but authentic)

- After this the prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) made a statement that from this day Uthman would not be harmed.

- This was for his spending on the Tabuk expedition.

- Some Muslims came to join and the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said he did not have any animals for them.

- They cried because of not being able to go.

Nor (is there blame) on those who came to you to be provided with mounts, and when you said: "I can find no mounts for you," they turned back, while their eyes overflowing with tears of grief that they could not find anything to spend (for Jihad).

(At-Tawbah 9:92)

- They cried for not being able to go to jihad with the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam)

- The Romans refused to fight the Prophet for what took place at Muta.

- Uthman (RA) was very close to Abu Bakr (RA) in his life and it was Abu Bakr (RA) who brought Uthman to Islam with his dawah.

- Uthman (RA) was the second person to give bayah to Abu Bakr (RA) after Umar (RA)

- In those days you give your bay’ah to a caliph by shaking his hand.

- In those days if you didn't give your bay’ah to the caliph you could cause bloodshed.

- When Abu Bakr (RA) was on his death bed he called Uthman (RA) and dictated his will to Uthman (RA).

- He said he would like Ali (RA), who washed the body of the prophet, to wash his body, and he would like Umar (RA) to lead his janaza salah and wants Umar (RA) to be caliph after him.

- These are the things he put in the will.

- So you should specify who you want to wash your body.

- It is good to mention two people in case one is not available.

- Also put who you want to pray over you.

- You don't want a barelvi to pray over you.

- Some people grumbled when Abu Bakr (RA) said he wanted Umar (RA) to succeed him because Umar was harsh.

- Abu Bakr (RA) told them not to worry because Umar's (RA) heart would soften.

- He was right, Umar (RA) took good care of the Muslims. making sure all had food before he went to bed.

- Umar (RA) even appointed a woman, Shifaa bint Abdullah, to be finance minister.

- This is how merciful he was to the Muslims.

- When Umar (RA) became caliph Uthman (RA) was the first to give bay’ah to him.

- Uthman (RA) was an advisor to Umar especially in fiqh matters because he was well versed in this.

- When umar (RA) was caliph, he did not allow any of the senior sahabas to leave Medina.

- He wanted to be sure he did not make a mistake in matters of sharia.

- Uthman (RA) was one of those sahabas.

- When Umar (RA) was stabbed, he appointed six sahabas and said to choose one of them because when the Prophet died he was sure the prophet was happy with them.

THE SIX SAHABAS APPOINTED BY UMAR WERE:

1. UTHMAN (RA)

2. ALI (RA)

3. ABDUR RAHMAN IBN AWF (RA)

4. SAAD IBN ABI WAQQAS (RA)

5. TALHA (RA)

6. ZUBAIR (RA)

- A shura meeting was held to decide who was to be the caliph.

- The west was so impressed with this method that the Vatican use this method to choose their pope.

- They used the method of Umar (RA).

- During the meeting, Uthman (RA) emerged as the most suitable candidate and became the third caliph.

- The first six years of Uthman’s (RA) reign was very successful.

- The Muslims conquered vast lands and became very wealthy.

- Uthman's (RA) leadership was different from Umar’s. (RA)

- When he appointed someone as a governor he did not interfere with the leadership.

- They enjoyed autonomy.

- They would do their own jihad.

- Each governor enjoyed his own autonomy.

- Umar (RA) was different; he ruled with an iron fist.

- Everything was going fine until disaster struck.

- What was that disaster?

- A Jew by the name of Abdullah Ibn Saba (RA) embraced Islam but his shahadah was fake.

- He came to do to Islam what Paul did to Christianity.

- So he went to Egypt, Syria and Iraq to speak badly about Uthman (RA).

- This is called ‘sowing the seeds of discord’ or ‘fanning the flames of fitnah’.

- He went to Egypt, Syria and Iraq to tell the people Uthman (RA) was guilty of nepotism and that Ali (RA) as a better candidate for caliph.

- He would go and say other sahabahs also were better than Uthman (RA).

- He convinced the Egyptians so they marched on Uthman (RA).

- One of those who led the campaign was Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr (RA); he was a staunch supporter of Ali (RA)

- He didn't like Uthman (RA) because Uthman (RA) did not appoint him as governor over a province.

- Ali (RA) had married his mother after Abu Bakr (RA) died.

- Muhammad ibn Abi Hudhaifa, (RA) the adopted son of Uthman, (RA) also led the rebellion because uthman (RA) did not give him governorship.

- They said uthman (RA) gave governorship to his family and they were better suited for the position.

- Muawiyya (RA) offered to send troops but Uthman (RA) refused saying he didn't want to see bloodshed in the city of the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).

- The rebels chose the hajj season when all the senior sahabas were on hajj.

- They surrounded his house preventing him from leading the salah at the masjid.

- They prevented food and water from going to his house.

- One of the fiercest supporters of Uthman (RA) tried to break the siege; she was Safiyya bint Huyayy, (RAA) a widow of the Prophet.

- She was a Jew, and because of this support they said uthman was a Jew.

On the authority of Muhammad ibn Abdur Rahman who said: “A man in Kufa used to spread a rumour that Uthman ibn Affan (RA) was a Jew. So Imam Abu Hanifa (rh) approached him and said: ‘I come to you with a proposal’. The man said: ‘what is the proposal concerning?’ Abu Hanifa said: ‘I come to ask for your daughter's hand in marriage for a man who is noble, wealthy and a hafiz of the Holy Qur'an, he's devoted in worship. He spends the night praying and cries a lot from the fear of Allah.

The man said: ‘you have said enough to convince me he's a suitable person to marry my daughter, O Abu Hanifa.’ Imam Abu Hanifa then said to the man: ‘Except that this suitor has a certain characteristic.’ The man said: ‘and what is that?’ Abu Hanifa said: ‘This man is a Jew.’ The Shia said: ‘SubhanAllah! Do you order me to give away my daughter in marriage to a Jew O Abu Hanifa?!

The imam said to the Shia: ‘Do you agree to marry her to the Jew?’ The Shia said: ‘No!’ Abu Hanifa said: ‘But you are spreading the news that the Holy Prophet (SAW) married two of his daughters to a Jew.’ The Shia said: ‘I seek Allah's forgiveness! I turn to Allah with repentance as of now.’”

[Related by al-Khateeb al-Baghdadi (d. 463 H) in 'Tarikh Baghdad', (Vol. 15, pg. 498-499)]

- After laying siege the rebels jumped through the window and they attacked Uthman (RA).

- His wife Naila tried to protect her husband, and they cut off her fingers.

- Then they stabbed Uthman (RA) and his blood fell on a verse of the holy Quran, verse 2:137.

So if they believe in the like of that which you believe, then they are rightly guided, but if they turn away, then they are only in opposition. So Allah will suffice you against them. And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.

(Al-Baqarah 2:137)

- When they killed Uthman (RA) they fulfilled one of the prophecies of the Prophet (Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).

Anas ibn Maalik, narrated that Allah’s Messenger (SAW) climbed the (mountain) Uhud, Abu Bakr (RA), Umar and Uthman (RA) were with him. The mountain shook while they were on top of it. So, the Prophet (SAW) said, “Steady, Uhud, For, on you are a Prophet, a Siddiq (truthful), and two shahids.” (shahids is martyrs).

[Bukhari 3686, Tirmidhi 3717, Ahmed 12107, Abu Dawud 4651]

- When they killed Uthman (RA), the rebels were hunted down one by one and their heads chopped off.

- People hunted them down and severed their heads from their bodies.

HOW WILL UTHMAN BE REMEMBERED?

- Uthman (RA) died 35 AH at age 79 and his caliphate was for 12 years.

- Uthman (RA) will be remembered as the sahabah who married two daughters of the Prophet
(Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).

Abdullah ibn 'Umar ibn Aban al-Ju'fi said: My paternal uncle Husayn al-Ju'fi said to me: "O my son, do you know why 'Uthman was called Dhu al-Noorayn (the one with the two lights)?" I said: "I do not know." He said: "No one else was ever married to two daughters of a Prophet, from the time Allah created Adam until the Hour will begin, except 'Uthman. Hence he was called Dhu al-Noorayn."

[al-Sunan al-Kubra al-Bayhaqi (7/115-116) No. 13427]

- He will be remembered as the rich sahabah who spent most of his wealth in the way of Allah (SWT).

- Uthman (RA) will be remembered as a shy sahabah.

Aisha reported: Allah's Messenger (SAW) was lying in the bed in my apartment with his thigh or his shank uncovered that Abu Bakr sought permission to get in.

It was given to him and he conversed in the same very state (the Prophet's thigh or shank uncovered).

Then 'Umar sought permission for getting in and it was given to him and he conversed in that very state.

Then 'Uthman sought permission for getting in; Allah's Messenger (SAW) sat down and he set right his clothes. Muhammad (one of the narrators) said: I do not say that it happened on the same day.

He ('Uthman) then entered and conversed and as he went out, 'Aisha said: Abu Bakr entered and you did not stir and did not observe much care (in arranging your clothes), then 'Umar entered and you did not stir and did not arrange your clothes, then 'Uthman entered and you got up and set your clothes right, thereupon he said: Should I not show modesty to one whom even the Angels show modesty.

[Sahih Muslim, Book 31, Hadith #5906]

- The Prophet
(Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) didn't cover his leg until Uthman (RA) came into the room.

- He will be remembered as the caliph who brought immense wealth to the Muslims.

- He will be remembered as the caliph who was soft with his governors, leading to his downfall.

- He will be remembered as the caliph who united the Muslims, compiling the Quran in one dialect, the Quraishi dialect.

Narrated Ibn Mas'ud: I heard a person reciting a (Quranic) Verse in a certain way, and I had heard the Prophet reciting the same Verse in a different way. So I took him to the Prophet and informed him of that but I noticed the sign of disapproval on his face, and then he said, "BOTH OF YOU ARE CORRECT, so don't differ, for the nations before you differed, so they were destroyed."

{Bukhari: Vol: 4 Book 56 Hadith 682}

- Uthman (RA) will be remembered as an expert in fiqh, hence becoming an advisor to Abu Bakr (RA) and Umar. (RA)

- He will be remembered as a hafiz and a great reciter of the Holy Qur’an.

- He was buried in Jannatul Baqi with the other sahabahs and his body was not washed because he died a shaheed.

- In Islam we bury the body of the shaheed and do not wash the body of the shaheed.