Monday, September 22, 2014

(Notes & Audio) Tafsir Surah al-A'raf - Part 1 - The Scale Of Justice

by Shaikh Abdullah Faisal
20th September 2014 / 26th Dhul Qaddah 1435 AH (Evening)


NOTES typed LIVE by AT3
Edited and Formatted by AT5

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ

- Surah A'raf - it has the characteristics of the Makkan Surahs
- it consists of 206 verses
- The people of A'raf are those people whose good deeds are equal to their bad deeds
- They will be held on the bridge for a while and then after the lapse of some time
- Allah will forgive them and enter them to jannah


Alif­Lam­Mim­Sad. [These letters are one of the miracles of the Qur'an and none but Allah (Alone) knows their meanings]. (Al-A'raf 7:1)


كِتَابٌ أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ فَلَا يَكُنْ فِي صَدْرِكَ حَرَجٌ مِنْهُ لِتُنْذِرَ بِهِ وَذِكْرَى لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ
(This is the) Book (the Qur'an) sent down unto you (O Muhammad SAW), so let not your breast be narrow therefrom, that you warn thereby, and a reminder unto the believers. (Al-A'raf 7:2)

- What is the meaning of: 'let not your breast be narrow there-from'?
- This means that - do not hesitate to warn the people of the message in the Quran.


اتَّبِعُوا مَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكُمْ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا مِنْ دُونِهِ أَوْلِيَاءَ قَلِيلًا مَا تَذَكَّرُونَ
[Say (O Muhammad SAW) to these idolaters (pagan Arabs) of your folk:] Follow what has been sent down unto you from your Lord (the Qur'an and Prophet Muhammad's Sunnah), and follow not any Auliya' (protectors and helpers, etc. who order you to associate partners in worship with Allah), besides Him (Allah). Little do you remember! (Al-A'raf 7:3)

- Allah commanded Muhammad (SAW) to invite the pagan Arabs to tauheed
- but they preferred to follow their forefathers and rejected the invitation.

When it is said to them: "Follow what Allah has sent down." They say: "Nay! We shall follow what we found our fathers following." (Would they do that!) Even though their fathers did not understand anything nor were they guided? (Al-Baqarah 2:170)

- This is also the argument of all the pagans e.g. Hindus, Buddhists, Brelvis etc.
- They need to be loyal to their culture and false creed
- What does Allah mean by: 'little do they remember'?
- This means that the majority of the people will not believe.
- They will not be on the sirat al-Mustaqeem.

And most of mankind will not believe even if you desire it eagerly. (Yusuf 12:103)

- Allah curses the majority in the Quran, as the majority lead people astray.

And if you obey most of those on earth, they will mislead you far away from Allah's Path. They follow nothing but conjectures, and they do nothing but lie. (Al-An'am 6:116)

- Then Allah mentions that even the so-called ‘Muslims’ who claim to believe in Allah; commit shirk.

And most of them believe not in Allah except that they attribute partners unto Him [i.e. they are Mushrikun -polytheists - see Verse 6: 121]. (Yusuf 12:106)

AYAH 4-5

وَكَمْ مِنْ قَرْيَةٍ أَهْلَكْنَاهَا فَجَاءَهَا بَأْسُنَا بَيَاتًا أَوْ هُمْ قَائِلُونَ (4) فَمَا كَانَ دَعْوَاهُمْ إِذْ جَاءَهُمْ بَأْسُنَا إِلَّا أَنْ قَالُوا إِنَّا كُنَّا ظَالِمِينَ (5)
And a great number of towns (their population) We destroyed (for their crimes). Our torment came upon them (suddenly) by night or while they were sleeping for their afternoon rest. (4) No cry did they utter when Our Torment came upon them but this: "Verily, we were Zalimun (polytheists and wrong­doers, etc.)". (Al-A'raf 7:4-5)

- Many people were destroyed while sleeping
- The people of Hud were destroyed during a mid-day nap.
- People of Saleh, Shuaib and Lut etc were all destroyed because of their sins.
- Where in the Quran does Allah make takfir on the homosexuals?
- As some people claim that a gay is a Muslim.
- They wish to establish gay mosques.

But We found not there any household of the Muslims except one [i.e. Lout (Lot) and his two daughters]. (36) And We have left there a sign (i.e. the place of the Dead Sea, well-known in Palestine) for those who fear the painful torment. (Adh-Dhariyat 51:36-37)

- So Allah states that only prophet Lut’s household; was a Muslim household
- Thus Allah makes takfeer on the rest of the people from the people of Lut


فَلَنَسْأَلَنَّ الَّذِينَ أُرْسِلَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَنَسْأَلَنَّ الْمُرْسَلِينَ
Then surely, We shall question those (people) to whom it (the Book) was sent and verily, We shall question the Messengers. (Al-A'raf 7:6)

- Allah will ask the people did any warner come to you?
- So Allah will question the people of all the prophets and they will deny that a warner came.


فَلَنَقُصَّنَّ عَلَيْهِمْ بِعِلْمٍ وَمَا كُنَّا غَائِبِينَ
Then surely, We shall narrate unto them (their whole story) with knowledge, and indeed We were not absent. (Al-A'raf 7:7)

- Even the earth will testify on judgement day.

That Day it will declare its information (about all what happened over it of good or evil). (4) Because your Lord has inspired it. (Az-Zalzalah 99:4-5)

- As will Allah’s transcribes - The 2 angels.

And indeed We have created man, and We know what his ownself whispers to him. And We are nearer to him than his jugular vein (by Our Knowledge). (16) (Remember!) that the two receivers (recording angels) receive (each human being after he or she has attained the age of puberty), one sitting on the right and one on the left (to note his or her actions) . (17) Not a word does he (or she) utter, but there is a watcher by him ready (to record it). (Qaf 50:16-18)
- Allah will narrate to people their life stories.
- Not even a leaf from a tree can drop; without Allah’s knowledge.

And with Him are the keys of the Ghaib (all that is hidden), none knows them but He. And He knows whatever there is in (or on) the earth and in the sea; not a leaf falls, but he knows it. There is not a grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry, but is written in a Clear Record. (Al-An'am 6:59)

AYAH 8-9

وَالْوَزْنُ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْحَقُّ فَمَنْ ثَقُلَتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ (8) وَمَنْ خَفَّتْ مَوَازِينُهُ فَأُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ خَسِرُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ بِمَا كَانُوا بِآيَاتِنَا يَظْلِمُونَ (9)
And the weighing on that day (Day of Resurrection) will be the true (weighing). So as for those whose scale (of good deeds) will be heavy, they will be the successful (by entering Paradise). (8) And as for those whose scale will be light, they are those who will lose their ownselves (by entering Hell) because they denied and rejected Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.). (Al-A'raf 7:8-9)

- The scales that Allah refers to here are; those in which deeds will be weighed on Qiyamah

Then as for him whose balance (of good deeds) will be heavy, (6) He will live a pleasant life (in Paradise). (7) But as for him whose balance (of good deeds) will be light, (8) He will have his home in Hawiyah (pit, i.e. Hell). (9) And what will make you know what it is? (10) (It is) a hot blazing Fire! (Al-Qari'ah 101:6-11)

- Allah mentions the word 'weighing' which means that Allah will not oppress anyone
- Haqq also means that Allah will not oppress anyone
- Allah is not oppressive to His slaves.

And We shall set up balances of justice on the Day of Resurrection, then none will be dealt with unjustly in anything. And if there be the weight of a mustard seed, We will bring it. And Sufficient are We as Reckoners. (Al-Anbiya 21:47)

- This ayah proves that Allah is not tyrannical.

Surely! Allah wrongs not even of the weight of an atom (or a small ant), but if there is any good (done), He doubles it, and gives from Him a great reward. (An-Nisa 4:40)

- Some scholars thus say that even the people will be weighed on these scales.

Zar bin Habaysh narrated Ibn Mas’ood was trying to break a siwaak branch from an araak tree and he had thin legs and the wind started to buffet him, so the people laughed at him. The Messenger of Allah (SAW) said, “What are you laughing at?” They said, “O Prophet of Allah, because his legs are so thin.” He said, “By the One in Whose hand is my soul, they will weigh more heavily in the Balance than Mount Uhud.” [Musnad Ahmad (1/420) No. 3991]

Narrated Abu Huraira that Allah's Messenger (SAW) said, "On the Day of Resurrection, a huge fat man will come who will not weigh, the weight of the wing of a mosquito in Allah's Sight." and then the Prophet added, 'We shall not give them any weight on the Day of Resurrection. (18:105)" [al-Bukhari (4729) and Muslim (2785)]


وَلَقَدْ مَكَّنَّاكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَجَعَلْنَا لَكُمْ فِيهَا مَعَايِشَ قَلِيلًا مَا تَشْكُرُونَ
And surely, We gave you authority on the earth and appointed for you therein provisions (for your life). Little thanks do you give. (Al-A'raf 7:10)

- Allah says we give you tamkeen in the land.
- Tamkeen means authority
- Allah gave insaan authority however he proved to be ungrateful

And He gave you of all that you asked for, and if you count the Blessings of Allah, never will you be able to count them. Verily! Man is indeed an extreme wrong-doer, - a disbeliever (an extreme ingrate, denies Allah's Blessings by disbelief, and by worshipping others besides Allah, and by disobeying Allah and His Prophet Muhammad SAW).
(Ibrahim 14:34)

- Ingrate - A person who is ungrateful
- Allah reminds us here that man is ungrateful.

Verily! Man (disbeliever) is ungrateful to his Lord; (6) And to that fact he bears witness (by his deeds); (7) And verily, he is violent in the love of wealth. (Al-'Adiyat 100:6-8)

- However when Allah gives the righteous tamkeen in the land
- they establish Salah and Zakat i.e. the Shariah

Those (Muslim rulers) who, if We give them power in the land, (they) order for Iqamat-as-Salat. [i.e. to perform the five compulsory congregational Salat (prayers) (the males in mosques)], to pay the Zakat and they enjoin Al-Ma'ruf (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam orders one to do), and forbid Al-Munkar (i.e. disbelief, polytheism and all that Islam has forbidden) [i.e. they make the Qur'an as the law of their country in all the spheres of life]. And with Allah rests the end of (all) matters (of creatures). (Al-Hajj 22:41)

- So the wicked establish mischief on the earth; when tamkeen is given to them.
- but the righteous establish Shariah; when tamkeen is given to them.


وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَاكُمْ ثُمَّ صَوَّرْنَاكُمْ ثُمَّ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ لَمْ يَكُنْ مِنَ السَّاجِدِينَ
And surely, We created you (your father Adam) and then gave you shape (the noble shape of a human being), then We told the angels, "Prostrate to Adam", and they prostrated, except Iblis (Satan), he refused to be of those who prostrate. (Al-A'raf 7:11)

- Allah created Adam with His Two Hands, out of respect for Adam
- Allah created 4 things with His Two Hands
- For everything else He said Kun fayakun ("Be!" and it is)

Mujahid narrated Abdullah ibn Umar (RA) said: “Allah created four things with His Hand; 1. The Throne 2. The Pen 3. Aadam and 4. The paradise of ‘Adn. He then said to the rest of the creation ‘Kun’ [Be] and it was.” [adh-Dhahabi in ‘Mukhtasar al-‘Uluw’ (p105), Abu al-Shaikh al-Asbahani in 'al-‘Adhuma' (5/1555), Tafsir al-Tabari (21/239), ‘The chain is authentic according to the conditions of Muslim.’]

- Allah created Adam from hama
- Hama is a black mud altered

And We did certainly create man out of clay from an altered black mud. (Al-Hijr 15:26)

- The reason why iblis refused to bow to Adam is because of envy.
- He felt Allah had been unjust to him

[Iblis (Satan)] said: "See? This one whom You have honoured above me, if You give me respite (keep me alive) to the Day of Resurrection, I will surely seize and mislead his offspring (by sending them astray) all but a few!" (Al-Isra 17:62)

- So iblis is on the war-path because Allah preferred man over him.


قَالَ مَا مَنَعَكَ أَلَّا تَسْجُدَ إِذْ أَمَرْتُكَ قَالَ أَنَا خَيْرٌ مِنْهُ خَلَقْتَنِي مِنْ نَارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِنْ طِينٍ
(Allah) said: "What prevented you (O Iblis) that you did not prostrate, when I commanded you?" Iblis said: "I am better than him (Adam), You created me from fire, and him You created from clay." (Al-A'raf 7:12)

- Iblis declared here that he is better than man
- Iblis was the first racist
- As he refused to prostrate to Adam claiming that fire was better than clay
- Iblis was also the first Mu'tazila
- Mu'tazila is a rationalist - one who uses logic to practise Islam.
- We must practise Islam by revelation and not logic.

Ali (RA) observed, "If the religion was based on opinion, the bottom of the sock would take preference in being wiped to the top of the sock." [Related by Abu Dawud (1/90) No. 162 and ad-Daraqutni (1/378) No. 783 with a hassan or sahih chain.]

- Iblis was not intellectually convinced of this commandment and so he disobeyed Allah.
- Same as what the Mu'tazila do.
- The following ayah proves that iblis is a jinn:

And (remember) when We said to the angels; "Prostrate to Adam." So they prostrated except Iblis (Satan). He was one of the jinns; he disobeyed the Command of his Lord. Will you then take him (Iblis) and his offspring as protectors and helpers rather than Me while they are enemies to you? What an evil is the exchange for the Zalimun (polytheists, and wrong-doers, etc). (Al-Kahf 18:50)

- Some say that Iblis is an angel, like what the Christians claim, however they are incorrect.
- Mu'tazilites also believe that iblis is an angel.
- Zamakhshari was a mu'tazila scholar that held the opinion: ‘iblis is an angel’.
- We must not take our aqeedah from him.


قَالَ فَاهْبِطْ مِنْهَا فَمَا يَكُونُ لَكَ أَنْ تَتَكَبَّرَ فِيهَا فَاخْرُجْ إِنَّكَ مِنَ الصَّاغِرِينَ
(Allah) said: "(O Iblis) get down from this (Paradise), it is not for you to be arrogant here. Get out, for you are of those humiliated and disgraced." (Al-A'raf 7:13)

- Iblis was thrown out of jannah because the inhabitants of jannah cannot contain diseases of the heart.
- Iblis displayed arrogance, Allah will disgrace the arrogant.
- Only Allah can be proud - Al-Mutakabbir - The Proud.
- We cannot compete with Allah in this, this is what Iblis did.

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (RA), who said that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: "Allah (mighty and sublime be He) said: Pride is My cloak and greatness My robe, and he who competes with Me in respect of either of them I shall cast into Hell-fire. [Related by Abu Dawud (4090) also by Ibn Majah (4175) and Ahmad (9348) with sound chains of authority. This Hadith also appears in Muslim (2620) in another version.]

- The downfall of iblis was; pride
- as was the downfall of Firawn, Nimrod, Abu Lahab, Abu Jahl, the USSR etc
- and currently the USA is demonstrating such characteristics - pride and arrogance.

It is narrated on the authority of Abdullah bin Mas'ud that the Messenger of Allah (SAW), observed: He who has in his heart the weight of a mustard seed of pride shall not enter Paradise. A person (amongst his hearers) said: Verily a person loves that his dress should be fine, and his shoes should be fine. He (the Holy Prophet) remarked: Verily, Allah is Graceful and He loves Grace. Pride is disdaining the truth (out of self-conceit) and contempt for the people. [Sahih Muslim (1/93) No. 91]

AYAH 14-17

قَالَ أَنْظِرْنِي إِلَى يَوْمِ يُبْعَثُونَ (14) قَالَ إِنَّكَ مِنَ الْمُنْظَرِينَ (15) قَالَ فَبِمَا أَغْوَيْتَنِي لَأَقْعُدَنَّ لَهُمْ صِرَاطَكَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ (16) ثُمَّ لَآتِيَنَّهُمْ مِنْ بَيْنِ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ وَعَنْ أَيْمَانِهِمْ وَعَنْ شَمَائِلِهِمْ وَلَا تَجِدُ أَكْثَرَهُمْ شَاكِرِينَ (17)
(Iblis) said: "Allow me respite till the Day they are raised up (i.e. the Day of Resurrection)." (14) (Allah) said: "You are of those allowed respite." (15) (Iblis) said: "Because You have sent me astray, surely I will sit in wait against them (human beings) on Your Straight Path. (16) Then I will come to them from before them and behind them, from their right and from their left, and You will not find most of them as thankful ones (i.e. they will not be dutiful to You)." (Al-A'raf 7:14-17)

- The kuffar become such due to the whispers of iblis.
- Iblis promised to mislead man by the majority.
- 'Grant me respite' shows that iblis believes in the Day of Judgment.
- Iblis believes that death exists


قَالَ اخْرُجْ مِنْهَا مَذْءُومًا مَدْحُورًا لَمَنْ تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ لَأَمْلَأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنْكُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ
(Allah) said (to Iblis) "Get out from this (Paradise) disgraced and expelled. Whoever of them (mankind) will follow you, then surely I will fill Hell with you all." (Al-A'raf 7:18)

- Hellfire is for man and jinn.
- They are the only ones from creation that have been granted freewill - man and jinn.