Tafsir Surah Al 'Araf - Part 6 - The History Of Shirk
By Shaikh Abdullah Faisal
Saturday 27th September 2014
NOTES TYPED LIVE BY AT3
EDITED AND FORMATTED BY AT38
Certainly, We have brought to them a Book (the Qur'an) which We have explained in detail with knowledge, - a guidance and a mercy to a people who believe. (Al-A'raf 7:52)
Allah (swt) said here that the Quran has been explained.
This explanation is called tafsir
There are various types of tafsir
The first type is - the Quran explaining the Quran
In which one ayah explains another ayah.
The second type is where the hadith explains the Quran
The third is a sahaba explaining the Quran
The most reliable sahabah in the field of tafsir was Ibn Abbas RA
The fourth type is the Arabic language explaining the Quran
Allah (swt) tells us that the purpose of sending Muhammad SAW
Is to explain the Quran to us
And We have also sent down unto you (O Muhammad SAW) the reminder and the advice (the Qur'an), that you may explain clearly to men what is sent down to them, and that they may give thought. (An-Nahl 16:44)
The hadith of Muhammad SAW is wahee (revelation)
Nor does he speak of (his own) desire. (An-Najm 53:3)
It is only an Inspiration that is inspired. (An-Najm 53:4)
Therefore it is incumbent upon us to believe in both Quran & hadith
As both are wahee.
And whatsoever the Messenger (Muhammad SAW) gives you, take it, and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it), and fear Allah (swt). Verily, Allah (swt) is Severe in punishment. (Al-Hashr 59:7)
This is evidence that we have to follow hadith.
Say (O Muhammad SAW to mankind) : "If you (really) love Allah then follow me (i.e. accept Islamic Monotheism, follow the Qur'an and the Sunnah), Allah will love you and forgive you of your sins. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." (Aali Imran 3:31)
Await they just for the final fulfillment of the event? On the Day the event is finally fulfilled (i.e. the Day of Resurrection), those who neglected it before will say: "Verily, the Messengers of our Lord did come with the truth, now are there any intercessors for us that they might intercede on our behalf? Or could we be sent back (to the first life of the world) so that we might do (good) deeds other than those (evil) deeds which we used to do?" Verily, they have lost their ownselves (i.e. destroyed themselves) and that which they used to fabricate (invoking and worshipping others besides Allah) has gone away from them. (Al-A'raf 7:53)
Those that they used to worship have dumped them
Allah (swt) tells us that they will admit that 'yes a warner did come to us',
As Allah (swt) never punishes anyone before sending a warner to them.
And We never punish until We have sent a Messenger (to give warning). (Al-Isra 17:15)
This is Allah (swt)’s infinite justice; perfect justice
If you could but see when they will be held over the (Hell) Fire! They will say: "Would that we were but sent back (to the world)! Then we would not deny the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, revelations, etc.) of our Lord, and we would be of the believers!" (Al-An'am 6:27)
Nay, it has become manifest to them what they had been concealing before. But if they were returned (to the world), they would certainly revert to that which they were forbidden. And indeed they are liars. (Al-An'am 6:28)
They claim that if Allah (swt) gives them a 2nd chance they will rectify themselves
And work righteous deeds but they lie
If anything, they will do the same or worse.
Their promise is fake.
Allah (swt) speaks of them again:
Until, when death comes to one of them (those who join partners with Allah), he says: "My Lord! Send me back, (Al-Mu'minun 23:99)
"So that I may do good in that which I have left behind!" No! It is but a word that he speaks, and behind them is Barzakh (a barrier) until the Day when they will be resurrected. (Al-Mu'minun 23:100)
Indeed your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He Istawa (rose over) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty). He brings the night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly, and (He created) the sun, the moon, the stars subjected to His Command. Surely, His is the Creation and Commandment. Blessed be Allah, the Lord of the 'Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists)! (Al-A'raf 7:54)
There is only one Lord - Allah (swt)
This is called Tauheed Rububeeyah
Allah (swt) is Lord because He is The Only Creator
Man can make but Allah (swt) creates
Only Allah (swt) can create the ruh - the soul.
Abu Hurayrah narrated: Allah's Messenger (SAW) told me: Allah created the dust on Saturday, and He created the mountains on Sunday, and He created the trees on Monday, and He created the unpleasant things on Tuesday and He created the light on Wednesday and He spread the creatures throughout it on Thursday and He created Adam after Asr on Friday. He was the last created during the last hour of Friday, between Asr and the night. [Musnad Ahmad (2/327) No. 8323]
When Allah (swt) created the heavens & earth
No fatigue touched Him.
This refutes the Christians who say:
Allah (swt) rested:
…and He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them. And He is the Most High, the Most Great. [This Verse 2:255 is called Ayat-ul-Kursi.] (Al-Baqarah 2:255)
It is a sign between me and the children of Israel for ever: for in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed. (Exodus 31:17) King James Version
No Lugoob (fatigue) touches Allah (swt).
Verily! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, there are indeed signs for men of understanding. (Aali Imran 3:190)
And a sign for them is the night, We withdraw therefrom the day, and behold, they are in darkness. (Ya-Sin 36:37)
And the sun runs on its fixed course for a term (appointed). That is the Decree of the All-Mighty, the All-Knowing. (Ya-Sin 36:38)
And the moon, We have measured for it mansions (to traverse) till it returns like the old dried curved date stalk. (Ya-Sin 36:39)
It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor does the night outstrip the day. They all float, each in an orbit. (Ya-Sin 36:40)
And indeed We created the heavens and the earth and all between them in six Days and nothing of fatigue touched Us. (Qaf 50:38)
The word Istawaa means rose over
Ibn Katheer (rh) said: As for Allah’s statement,...and then He rose over (Istawa) the Throne... (Al-A'raf 7:54), the people had several conflicting opinions over its meaning. However, we follow the way that our righteous predecessors took in this regard, such as Malik, Al-Awza`i, Ath-Thawri, Al-Layth bin Sa`d, Ash-Shafi`i, Ahmad, Ishaq bin Rahwayh and the rest of the scholars of Islam, in past and present times. [Tafseer Ibn Katheer (3/426-427)]
So if we are asked how Allah (swt) rose over the arsh
We say - in a manner that suits His Majesty
Ja'far Ibn Abdullah narrated: We were with Malik Ibn Anas when a man came to him and said: “O Abu Abdullah (Allah said) 'Ar-Rahman upon the Throne Istawa' (20:5), how was His Istiwa? Imam Malik inclined his head and was silent until the sweat of fever covered his brow, then he looked up and said: "Istiwa is not unknown, the Kayf (how) is uncomprehendable, believing in it is wajib (obligatory), and asking about it is bid'ah (innovation), and I do not think that you are anything but an innovator." Then he ordered that the man be expelled. [Abu-Naeem Al-Asbahani in 'Hilyatul-Awliya wa Tabaqat Al-Asfiya' (Vol. 6, pg. 325-326)]
Or the above answer of Imam Malick (rh) can be given
Abu Haneefah (rh) said, when asked of his opinion of the one who says, ‘I do not know whether Allah is above the heavens or on the earth.’ - “He has disbelieved, because Allah says, “The Most Merciful rose above the Throne,” and His Throne is above His seven heavens.’ He was then asked , ‘what if he said that Allah is above His Throne but he does not know whether the Throne is in the heavens or on the earth?’ He said, ‘He has disbelieved, because He has denied that He is above the heavens, And whosoever denied that He is above the heavens has disbelieved.” (‘Sharh Usul I'tiqaad Ahlus Sunnah’ of al-Laalikaaee (d.414AH), ‘al-Uluww’ of adh- Dhahabee, also ‘Sharh Aqueedah at-Tahaawiyyah’ of ibn Abee al-Izz al-Hanafee)
Imam Shafi'i (rh) said: This is the evidence that Allah (swt) the Most High is above the Arsh, without specificity known to us, and He is away from His creation. There is none comparable to His and He is the All-Hearing the All-Seeing. [Tafseer al-Imam ash-Shafi'i (3/1063)]
Yusuf bin Musa al-Qattan, the Shaikh of Abu Bakr al-Khallal, said: It was said to Abu Abdullah (Ahmad bin Hanbal): "Allah (swt) is above the seventh heaven, over His Throne, separate and distinct (ba'in) from His creation, and His Power and Knowledge are in every place?" He said: Yes, He is over His Throne, and nothing escapes His Knowledge. [related by Adh-Dhahabi in Mukhtasar al-Uluww (p.189)] This al-Qattan is thiqah (trustworthy) from the Shaikhs of al-Bukhari. He died in 253H, al-Khallal heard from him, and the isnaad is sahih.
For us to believe that Allah (swt) is above the Arsh
Is a matter of necessity within the religion and cannot be denied.
Surely, His is the Creation and Commandment. Blessed be Allah, the Lord of the 'Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists)! (Al-A'raf 7:54)
Allah (swt) then says that His is the creation & the command
Allah (swt) is the only commander
He is the Creator and so command belongs to Him
No one knows us better than our Creator
This concept is Tauheed Haakimeeyah - that Allah (swt) is the only commander.
The concept that Allah (swt) is the only Lord is Tauheed Rububeeyah.
This concept that Allah (swt) alone deserves to be worshiped is Tauheed Ibaadah.
To believe in Allah (swt) 99 names is tauheed Asma wa sifaat.
Invoke your Lord with humility and in secret. He likes not the aggressors. (Al-A'raf 7:55)
Rasool SAW said here that our dua is ibaadah
Nu’man ibn Bashir (RA) narrated the Prophet (SAW) said, “The supplication is itself worship.” Then he recited. And your Lord says, “Call upon Me, and I shall answer you. Surely those who are too arrogant to worship Me, they shall enter Hell, disgraced.” (40: 60) [Tirmidhi (5/456) No. 3372, Abu Dawud (2/76) No. 1479, Ibn Majah (5/5) No. 3828, Ahmad (4/271) No. 18410]
Allah (swt) is pleased when we call upon Him
Whereas man does not like to be begged
When there is no tawakul a person will not beg from Allah (swt)
The best time to beg from Allah (swt) is the last third of the night.
On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (RA), who said that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: "Our Lord (glorified and exalted be He) descends each night to the earth's sky when there remains the final third of the night, and He says: 'Who is saying a prayer to Me that I may answer it? Who is asking something of Me that I may give it him? Who is asking forgiveness of Me that I may forgive him?'" [al-Bukhari (7494) (also by Muslim (758), Malik (619), at-Tirmidhi (3498) and Abu Dawud (1315)]
When we make a dua to Allah (swt) we should be positive in the dua
We should not say InshaAllah but have yaqeen that it will be answered
Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said, “None of you should say, ‘O Allah, forgive me if You will. O Allah, have mercy on me if You will.’ He should be firm in his asking. No one can force Him.” [al-Bukhari (6339) and Muslim (2679)]
In a variant of Muslim, “He should be firm and should have great desire. Nothing is too great for Allah (swt) Almighty to give him.” [Sahih Muslim (4/2063) No. 2679]
A believer is positive in dua because he has good thoughts about Allah (swt).
And do not do mischief on the earth, after it has been set in order, and invoke Him with fear and hope; Surely, Allah's Mercy is (ever) near unto the gooddoers. (Al-A'raf 7:56)
Mischief on earth takes different forms
To sell drugs
To open a brothel in the Islamic state
To sell alcohol in the Islamic state
To spread wrong aqeedah
Those who spread wrong aqeedah in the Islamic state should be beheaded
Ali (r.a) killed the khawaarij for doing so
It is permitted to crucify those who spread mischief
The recompense of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger and do mischief in the land is only that they shall be killed or crucified or their hands and their feet be cut off on the opposite sides, or be exiled from the land. That is their disgrace in this world, and a great torment is theirs in the Hereafter. (Al-Ma'idah 5:33)
The worst of mischief is to spread shirk
To preach shirk and call it Islam
That is a great fitnah and fitnah is worse than slaughter
…..And Al-Fitnah is worse than killing….. (Al-Baqarah 2:191)
And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and polytheism: i.e. worshipping others besides Allah) and the religion (worship) will all be for Allah Alone [in the whole of the world]. But if they cease (worshipping others besides Allah), then certainly, Allah is All-Seer of what they do. (Al-Anfal 8:39)
And do not do mischief on the earth, after it has been set in order, and invoke Him with fear and hope; Surely, Allah's Mercy is (ever) near unto the gooddoers. (Al-A'raf 7:56)
If you worship Allah (swt) with fear alone you are a khawaarij
If you worship Allah (swt) with hope alone, you are a murjee (a liberal)
So we must worship Allah (swt) with both fear & hope
If you worship Allah (swt) with love alone you are a goofy soofy
We are a balanced nation and so we must worship Allah (swt) with love, hope and fear.
Allah’s Mercy is near
We can’t go to paradise just with our pious deeds
It is only by His mercy do we enter paradise:
Narrated 'Aisha: The Prophet said, "Do good deeds properly, sincerely and moderately, and receive good news because one's good deeds will not make him enter Paradise." They asked, "Even you, O Messenger of Allah (swt)?" He said, "Even I, unless and until Allah (swt) bestows His pardon and Mercy on me." [Sahih Bukhari (8/98) No. 6463]
Allah (swt)’s Mercy proceeds His wrath
Abu Huraira reported Allah (swt)'s Messenger (SAW) as saying: Allah (swt), the Exalted and Glorious, said: "My mercy prevails over My wrath." [al-Bukhari (7553), Muslim (2751), Tirmidhi (3543), Ahmad (7297)]
It isn’t permissible for us to despair of the mercy of Allah (swt)
Say: "O 'Ibadi (My slaves) who have transgressed against themselves (by committing evil deeds and sins)! Despair not of the Mercy of Allah, verily Allah forgives all sins. Truly, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (Az-Zumar 39:53)
Regardless of how many sins we commit, we must not despair of Allah (swt)’s mercy.
Allah (swt) forgives all sins provided we repent before we die.
"O my sons! Go you and enquire about Yusuf (Joseph) and his brother, and never give up hope of Allah (swt)'s Mercy. Certainly no one despairs of Allah's Mercy, except the people who disbelieve." (Yusuf 12:87)
So only the kuffaar despair of Allah (swt)’s mercy.
This is evident in the prevalence of suicide amongst them
And it is He Who sends the winds as heralds of glad tidings, going before His Mercy (rain). Till when they have carried a heavyladen cloud, We drive it to a land that is dead, then We cause water (rain) to descend thereon. Then We produce every kind of fruit therewith. Similarly, We shall raise up the dead, so that you may remember or take heed. (Al-A'raf 7:57)
Allah (swt) describes the dead land same as a dead man
Allah (swt) gives life to dead land & dead man
Seeking to limit the power of Allah (swt) is shirk
Look then at the effects (results) of Allah's Mercy, how He revives the earth after its death. Verily! That (Allah) Who revived the earth after its death shall indeed raise the dead (on the Day of Resurrection), and He is Able to do all things. (Ar-Rum 30:50)
And He it is Who sends down the rain after they have despaired, and spreads abroad His Mercy. And He is the Wali (Helper, Supporter, Protector, etc.), Worthy of all Praise. (Ash-Shura 42:28)
The vegetation of a good land comes forth (easily) by the Permission of its Lord, and that which is bad, brings forth nothing but a little with difficulty. Thus do We explain variously the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) for a people who give thanks. (Al-A'raf 7:58)
In the above ayah, Allah (swt) explains that some soils are better than others.
As we were created from the soil, some people will be better than others.
Abu Musa al-Ash’ari (RA) reported that Allah (swt)’s Messenger (SAW) said, “Indeed, Allah (swt) created Adam (AS) from a fistful (of dust) which he took from all over the earth. Thus, there are among them (children of Adam), the red (coloured), the white, the black and those between these (colours) and the mild and the rugged, and the evil and the good.” [Tirmidhi 2965, Ahmed 19599, Abu Dawud 4693]
Some of us are good natured, some bad natured, some of us are good, others evil etc
Indeed, We sent Nuh (Noah) to his people and he said: "O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other Ilah (God) but Him. (La ilaha ill-Allah: none has the right to be worshipped but Allah). Certainly, I fear for you the torment of a Great Day!" (Al-A'raf 7:59)
Ibn 'Abbas (RA) said: "Between Nooh (Noah) and Adam were ten generations, all of them were upon Sharee'ah (law) of the truth, then they differed. So Allah (swt) sent prophets as bringers of good news and as warners." [Related by Ibn Jareer at-Tabaree in his tafseer (4/275) No. 4048 and al-Haakim (2/596) No. 4009 who said: "It is authentic according to the criterion of al-Bukhari." Adh-Dhahabe also agreed]
Nuh AS was the first messenger to mankind
The first people to commit shirk were the people of Nuh
Between Adam (as) & Nuh were 10 generations, all upon tauheed.
THE HISTORY OF SHIRK.
The children, grandchildren and great grandchildren of Adam (as) were very pious
When they died the people lamented over their loss
So Iblis came to them saying make statues of them so that you may remember them
And so they obeyed Iblis.
After many years elapsed, they suffered a draught
Iblis inspired them to pray to these statues for rain
And they obeyed him.
The most famous of these idols were:
Wad & suwa
Ibn Katheer (rh) said: Abdullah bin Abbas and several other scholars of Tafsir said that; the first idol worship began when some righteous people died and their people built places of worship over their graves. They made images of them so that they could remember their righteousness and devotion, and thus, imitate them. When time passed, they made statues of them and later on worshipped these idols, naming them after the righteous people: Wadd, Suwa, Yaghuth, Ya`uq and Nasr. After this practice became popular, Allah (swt) sent Nuh as a Messenger, all thanks are due to Him. [Tafseer Ibn Katheer (3/431)]
This is how Iblis introduced shirk to the people of Nuh
This method he used is also known as
Sequential persuasion, subliminal seduction and classical conditioning
These are satan’s webs
Verily, We sent Nuh (Noah) to his people (Saying) : "Warn your people before there comes to them a painful torment." (Nuh 71:1)
He said: "O my people! Verily, I am a plain warner to you, (Nuh 71:2)
"That you should worship Allah (Alone), be dutiful to Him, and obey me, (Nuh 71:3)
"He (Allah) will forgive you of your sins and respite you to an appointed term. Verily, the term of Allah when it comes, cannot be delayed, if you but knew." (Nuh 71:4)
He said: "O my Lord! Verily, I have called my people night and day (i.e. secretly and openly to accept the doctrine of Islamic Monotheism), (Nuh 71:5)
"But all my calling added nothing but to (their) flight (from the truth). (Nuh 71:6)
"And verily! Every time I called unto them that You might forgive them, they thrust their fingers into their ears, covered themselves up with their garments, and persisted (in their refusal), and magnified themselves in pride. (Nuh 71:7)
Satan has many many webs, these are just some of his webs.