Monday, September 8, 2014

(NOTES & AUDIO) Tafsir Surah Qasas - The Escape Of Musa (as) From Darul Harb (Part 2)


THE ESCAPE OF MUSA (AS) FROM DAR-UL-HARB
by Shaikh Abdullah Faisal
5th September 2014 / 11th Dhul Qaddah 1435 AH (Evening)



Download : https://archive.org/details/TafsirSurahQasasTheEscapeOfMusaasFromDarulHarbPart2

NOTES typed LIVE by AT7 & AT19
Edited and Formatted by AT5

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ

AYAH 17

قَالَ رَبِّ بِمَا أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيَّ فَلَنْ أَكُونَ ظَهِيرًا لِلْمُجْرِمِينَ
He said: "My Lord! For that with which You have favoured me, I will never more be a helper for the Mujrimun (criminals, disobedient to Allah, polytheists, sinners, etc.)!" (Al-Qasas 28:17)

- The favour that Allah bestowed upon Musa (AS) was that He (Allah) concealed Musa's crime
- of having killed the oppressive man
- Also Allah blessed Musa with prophethood
- wisdom (hikmah), knowledge, good health and guidance
- Due to these favours; Musa supplicated with this dua
- he vowed never to become a helper to the taghoot
- the taghoot here is the firawn and his government
- instead of using the word taghoot, Musa addressed them with the word: mujrimeen (criminals)

AYAH 18

فَأَصْبَحَ فِي الْمَدِينَةِ خَائِفًا يَتَرَقَّبُ فَإِذَا الَّذِي اسْتَنْصَرَهُ بِالْأَمْسِ يَسْتَصْرِخُهُ قَالَ لَهُ مُوسَى إِنَّكَ لَغَوِيٌّ مُبِينٌ
So he became afraid, looking about in the city (waiting as to what will be the result of his crime of killing), when behold, the man who had sought his help the day before, called for his help (again). Musa (Moses) said to him: "Verily, you are a plain misleader!" (Al-Qasas 28:18)

- Egypt was the superpower of that time; the USA of that time
- and firawn was like the US president
- So the man who Musa saved on the previous day by killing the oppressor, he called Musa again requiring help
- so Musa rebuked him - the Hebrew, as a person who is always getting himself into trouble and fitnah
- he was a fataan, a person who likes fitnah

AYAH 19

فَلَمَّا أَنْ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَبْطِشَ بِالَّذِي هُوَ عَدُوٌّ لَهُمَا قَالَ يَا مُوسَى أَتُرِيدُ أَنْ تَقْتُلَنِي كَمَا قَتَلْتَ نَفْسًا بِالْأَمْسِ إِنْ تُرِيدُ إِلَّا أَنْ تَكُونَ جَبَّارًا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَمَا تُرِيدُ أَنْ تَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُصْلِحِينَ
Then when he decided to seize the man who was an enemy to both of them, the man said: "O Musa (Moses)! Is it your intention to kill me as you killed a man yesterday? Your aim is nothing but to become a tyrant in the land, and not to be one of those who do right." (Al-Qasas 28:19)

After scolding the Hebrew, Musa decided to seize/punish the pagan Egyptian
- Musa wanted to stop the Egyptians tyranny
- the Hebrew then thought that Musa was coming for him
- when Musa was actually going towards the Egyptian
- and so the Hebrew cried out saying: “are you going to kill me like you killed the man yesterday?”
- “your aim is nothing but to be tyrannical in the land rather than being of the good-doers”

The crime of Musa thus became publicised
- due to the man who Musa helped the previous day i.e. the Hebrew, shouting it out
- This news reached the ears of Firawn; that his adopted son, Musa, the prince had killed a man
- After consultation they decided that they were going to kill Musa, as Musa killed an Egyptian,
- how could a Hebrew kill an Egyptian? this would set a bad example for the public
- and so they decided to make an example out of Musa, by killing him
- regardless of the fact that Musa killed the Egyptian by accident
- from firawns perspective, Musa killed him due to racism
- Asabiya - racism is a web of shaytaan used to divide people
- Firawn could not see beyond Musa killing the Egyptian due to asabiya

AYAH 20

وَجَاءَ رَجُلٌ مِنْ أَقْصَى الْمَدِينَةِ يَسْعَى قَالَ يَا مُوسَى إِنَّ الْمَلَأَ يَأْتَمِرُونَ بِكَ لِيَقْتُلُوكَ فَاخْرُجْ إِنِّي لَكَ مِنَ النَّاصِحِينَ
And there came a man running, from the farthest end of the city. He said: "O Musa (Moses)! Verily, the chiefs are taking counsel together about you, to kill you, so escape. Truly, I am to you of those who give sincere advice." (Al-Qasas 28:20)

THE LESSON TO BE LEARNT FROM THIS AYAH:

1. Killing an Egyptian was a grave crime
- to the point where firawn was willing to kill his own adopted son, a prince
- to make an example out of him.

2. A real man takes sides with the oppressed not the oppressor
- as Allah described this man as a 'real' man
- in this case the oppressed was Musa and the oppressor firawn

3. What is discussed in a meeting will never remain a secret
- people always discuss the points raised in meetings, outside of the meeting
e.g. to a friend, wife etc
- Firawn is planning to kill his own son is front-page news!

4. Hadith Ahad is hujjah
- Musa acted upon the testimony of ONE man to save his life,
- thus this is evidence that hadith ahad can be used as valid hujjah
- this can be used against Hizb ut-Tahrir, who claim that multiple testimonies are required to be valid

5. A word to the wise is sufficient

6. It’s compulsory upon us to escape from dar ul-harb when danger is imminent
- Musa made hijra as they were going to kill him

…And Al-Fitnah is worse than killing… (Al-Baqarah 2:191)

- Imprisonment is worse than slaughter.

7. This incident is Qadr Allah - for Musa to leave the land of the Firawn
- Allah did not wish for Musa to live in this land as it was dar ul-Harb

He said: "My Lord! For that with which You have favoured me, I will never more be a helper for the Mujrimun (criminals, disobedient to Allah, polytheists, sinners, etc.)!" (Al-Qasas 28:17)

- Musa makes a declaration that he does not wish to help the taghoot
- How can Musa being a prophet, live in the palace of firawn and help prop up the rule of a tyrant?
- It is not befitting for a prophet to do such.

Ibn Hazm Stated in Al-Muhalla (11/138): "What is correct is that His statement, the Most High, "And if any amongst you takes them as Auliya', then surely he is one of them." (The Quran 5:51), should be understood on the basis of its apparent meaning. The person being referred to is a disbeliever from the generality of disbelievers, and no two Muslims disagree regarding this."

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rh) said: "A scholar who abandons what has learnt from the Quran and the Sunnah and follows a ruler who does not rule in accordance with the teaching of Allah and His Messenger is an apostate and a disbeliever who deserves punishment in this world and in the hereafter " [Majmua al-Fataawa (35/373)]

Sheikh Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahab, may Allah have mercy on him, gathered ten actions that negate one's Islam (Nawaqid ul-'Ashr), the eighth one of which states: "Assisting the disbelievers (against the believers) (Mudhaharatul Mushrikeen) and supporting them against the believers (is from the actions that negates of one's faith). The Proof being the statement of Allah, "And if any amongst you takes them as Auliya', then surely he is one of them. Verily, Allah guides not those people who are the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers and unjust). (The Quran 5:51)."

O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians as Auliya' (friends, protectors, helpers, etc.), they are but Auliya' to one another. And if any amongst you takes them as Auliya', then surely he is one of them. Verily, Allah guides not those people who are the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong­doers and unjust). (Al-Ma'idah 5:51)

Sheikh Ibn Baz stated: "There is a consensus amongst the scholars that whoever supports the disbelievers against the believers (Dhahar Al-Kuffar 'Ala Al-Muslimeen), and assists them by any means of assistance, then he is a disbeliever just like them (the disbelievers he supported)…" [Al-Fataawa (1/274)]

- It is haram to help the taghoot against the Muslims and takes one out of the fold of Islam

AYAH 21

فَخَرَجَ مِنْهَا خَائِفًا يَتَرَقَّبُ قَالَ رَبِّ نَجِّنِي مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ
So he escaped from there, looking about in a state of fear. He said: "My Lord! Save me from the people who are Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers)!" (Al-Qasas 28:21)

- Despite being a prophet, Musa feared the tyranny of firawn
- so it is acceptable to fear the tyranny of the taghoot
- and this does not reflect hypocrisy but wisdom

They said: "Our Lord! Verily! We fear lest he should hasten to punish us or lest he should transgress (all bounds against us)." (Ta-Ha 20:45)

AYAH 22

وَلَمَّا تَوَجَّهَ تِلْقَاءَ مَدْيَنَ قَالَ عَسَى رَبِّي أَنْ يَهْدِيَنِي سَوَاءَ السَّبِيلِ
And when he went towards (the land of) Madyan (Midian) he said: "It may be that my Lord guides me to the Right Way." (Al-Qasas 28:22)

- Why did Musa go to Madyan?
- because Madyan was outside the jurisdiction of the taghoot/firawn
- Madyan did share a border with Egypt but had no extradition treaty with Egypt
- It took Musa a week to arrive in Madyan
- this is the meaning of the words of Musa:
- "It may be that my Lord guides me to the Right Way."

AYAH 23

وَلَمَّا وَرَدَ مَاءَ مَدْيَنَ وَجَدَ عَلَيْهِ أُمَّةً مِنَ النَّاسِ يَسْقُونَ وَوَجَدَ مِنْ دُونِهِمُ امْرَأَتَيْنِ تَذُودَانِ قَالَ مَا خَطْبُكُمَا قَالَتَا لَا نَسْقِي حَتَّى يُصْدِرَ الرِّعَاءُ وَأَبُونَا شَيْخٌ كَبِيرٌ
And when he arrived at the water of Madyan (Midian) he found there a group of men watering (their flocks), and besides them he found two women who were keeping back (their flocks). He said: "What is the matter with you?" They said: "We cannot water (our flocks) until the shepherds take (their flocks). And our father is a very old man." (Al-Qasas 28:23)

- There are many lessons to be learnt from this ayah
- Musa cared for the affairs of women, as are all prophets
- contrary to the other male shepherds, who did not care for the women

AYAH 24-28

فَسَقَى لَهُمَا ثُمَّ تَوَلَّى إِلَى الظِّلِّ فَقَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّي لِمَا أَنْزَلْتَ إِلَيَّ مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَقِيرٌ (24) فَجَاءَتْهُ إِحْدَاهُمَا تَمْشِي عَلَى اسْتِحْيَاءٍ قَالَتْ إِنَّ أَبِي يَدْعُوكَ لِيَجْزِيَكَ أَجْرَ مَا سَقَيْتَ لَنَا فَلَمَّا جَاءَهُ وَقَصَّ عَلَيْهِ الْقَصَصَ قَالَ لَا تَخَفْ نَجَوْتَ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ (25) قَالَتْ إِحْدَاهُمَا يَا أَبَتِ اسْتَأْجِرْهُ إِنَّ خَيْرَ مَنِ اسْتَأْجَرْتَ الْقَوِيُّ الْأَمِينُ (26) قَالَ إِنِّي أُرِيدُ أَنْ أُنْكِحَكَ إِحْدَى ابْنَتَيَّ هَاتَيْنِ عَلَى أَنْ تَأْجُرَنِي ثَمَانِيَ حِجَجٍ فَإِنْ أَتْمَمْتَ عَشْرًا فَمِنْ عِنْدِكَ وَمَا أُرِيدُ أَنْ أَشُقَّ عَلَيْكَ سَتَجِدُنِي إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ (27) قَالَ ذَلِكَ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكَ أَيَّمَا الْأَجَلَيْنِ قَضَيْتُ فَلَا عُدْوَانَ عَلَيَّ وَاللَّهُ عَلَى مَا نَقُولُ وَكِيلٌ (28)
So he watered (their flocks) for them, then he turned back to shade, and said: "My Lord! Truly, I am in need of whatever good that You bestow on me!" (24) Then there came to him one of the two women, walking shyly. She said: "Verily, my father calls you that he may reward you for having watered (our flocks) for us." So when he came to him and narrated the story, he said: "Fear you not. You have escaped from the people who are Zalimun (polytheists, disbelievers, and wrong-doers)." (25) And said one of them (the two women) : "O my father! Hire him! Verily, the best of men for you to hire is the strong, the trustworthy." (26) He said: "I intend to wed one of these two daughters of mine to you, on condition that you serve me for eight years, but if you complete ten years, it will be (a favour) from you. But I intend not to place you under a difficulty. If Allah will, you will find me one of the righteous." (27) He [Musa (Moses)] said: "That (is settled) between me and you whichever of the two terms I fulfill, there will be no injustice to me, and Allah is Surety over what we say." (Al-Qasas 28:24-28)

17 LESSONS FROM THE STORY OF MADYAN

1) When you escape from the taghoot do not go to a land where the taghoot have any power or influence
- or else your extradition will be demanded

2) Livestock is a form of natural wealth, past and present
- Some scholars say that it was prophet Shuaib who gave shelter to Musa

3) Musa had a kind heart towards women
- He helped the women water their flock

4) A home without a male is lacking
- A strong man in a household is a barakah

5) Dua is a weapon of the believer

رَبِّ إِنِّي لِمَا أَنْزَلْتَ إِلَيَّ مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَقِيرٌ
(rabbi innee lima anzalta ilayya min khayrin faqeer)
…"My Lord! Truly, I am in need of whatever good that You bestow on me!" (Al-Qasas 28:24)

- This was a dua against Musa's poverty
- He fell from being a prince to a pauper

6) There are two types of walking; either a shy walk or an alluring walk

Then there came to him one of the two women, walking shyly... (Al-Qasas 28:25)

- A woman can choose how to walk

7) She gave a reason for approaching a non-mahram
- her reason was a message from her father

…She said: "Verily, my father calls you that he may reward you for having watered (our flocks) for us."… (Al-Qasas 28:25)

8) Women discuss men they encounter with their family
- Why? because they want the opinion of their family

…So when he came to him and narrated the story, he said: "Fear you not. You have escaped from the people who are Zalimun (polytheists, disbelievers, and wrong-doers)." (Al-Qasas 28:25)

9) The pious man of Madyan, reassured Musa with :

…So when he came to him and narrated the story, he said: "Fear you not. You have escaped from the people who are Zalimun (polytheists, disbelievers, and wrong-doers)." (Al-Qasas 28:25)

- As a Muslim you are not allowed to hand over your fellow Muslim to the taghoot
- It is haram to do such.
- The pious man of Madyan projects an understanding of Al-wala wal-bara
- Al-wala wal-bara is one of the 7 conditions of shahaadah

10) Always make hijrah when the tide is turning against you
- Musa ran away just as the tide began turning against him

And there came a man running, from the farthest end of the city. He said: "O Musa (Moses)! Verily, the chiefs are taking counsel together about you, to kill you, so escape. Truly, I am to you of those who give sincere advice." (Al-Qasas 28:20)

11) A word to the wise is sufficient
- One word is sufficient
- All it took for Musa to escape was one man with one word

12) Hadith Ahad is hujjah
- Musa escaped from Egypt based upon the testimony of one man
- This saved Musa's life
- The Rasool (SAW) sent one man to Yemen namely: Muadh ibn Jabal,
- who taught the Yeminis their deen

It is reported on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas (RA) that Allah's Messenger (SAW) said when he sent Mu'aaz (RA) to Yemen: "You are going to a people who are from the People of the Book: So the first thing to which you call them should be the testimony that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah ." - And in another narration: "that they testify to the Oneness of Allah ." - "And if they obey you in that, then inform them that Allah has made compulsory upon them five prayers every day and night. And if they obey you in that, then inform them that Allah has made incumbent upon them a charity (Zakah) which is to be taken from the rich among them and given to their poor. And if they obey you in that then be careful not to take the best of their wealth (as Zakah), and be careful of the supplication of those who have suffered injustice, for there is no obstacle between it and Allah. [al-Bukhari (1458) and Muslim (19)]

13) A pious woman has furqaan and can recognise a good man

And said one of them (the two women): "O my father! Hire him! Verily, the best of men for you to hire is the strong, the trustworthy." (Al-Qasas 28:26)

- She knew he was a good man
- he didn’t speak to her inappropriately and he lowered his gaze
- Musa walked in front of her to avoid gazing upon her
- She directed him from behind

- The Hanafis state that a woman can marry without a wali
- as she is able to distinguish between a good and bad man
- they say: “the hadith that states 'theres no nikah without a wali' refers to slave girls”
- however the other 3 schools of thought disagree and state that a wali is required

Aisha reported that Allah’s Messenger (SAW) said, “Any woman who gets married without the permission of her guardian, her marriage is invalid, her marriage is invalid, her marriage is invalid. But if the marriage is consummated then the mahr is hers because she has allowed him to be intimate with her. If they dispute, then the ruler is the guardian of the one who has no guardian.” [Sunan Tirmidhi (3/399-400) No. 1102, Musnad Ahmad (6/47) No. 24251, Sunan Abu Dawud (2/229) No. 2083, Sunan Ibn Majah (3/77) No. 1879]

The renowned Hanafi jurist, Imam al-Haskafi (Allah have mercy on him) states: “The marriage of a free and legally responsible (i.e. adult and sane) woman is valid (even) without the permission of her guardian (wali)…..and the Fatwa issued in her marrying someone who is not her legal match is of invalidity, and this is the chosen Fatwa due to corrupt times…” (This is the position chosen by Ibn Abidin in his Hashiya and many other Hanafi jurists) [See: Radd al-Muhtar ala al-Durr (3/56-57)]

Imam Zafar Ahmad Uthmani (Allah have mercy on him) states in his colossal encyclopaedic work, I’la al-Sunan, that Hadiths such as “Any woman who marries without the permission of her guardian, her marriage is invalid, invalid, invalid” (related by Ibn Hibban, Tirmidhi and others, and Tirmidhi considered it to be hasan) and “There is no marriage without the (permission of a) guardian” (related by Hakim and Abu Dawud) are to be understood in light of the other Hadiths that point to the validity of such a marriage. As such, the generality in these two Hadiths is restricted to pubescent (non-baligha) and slave women, whilst adult and free women are to be excluded from this general ruling due to the evidences favouring the validity of their marriages without the guardian’s approval.
As such, the meaning of the Messenger of Allah’s statement “There is no marriage without the (permission of a) guardian” would be “There is no complete and blessed marriage without the permission of the guardian” but the marriage in of itself is valid provided the woman marries a person who is a legal match to her. Likewise, the meaning of the Hadith “Any woman who marries without the permission of her guardian, her marriage is invalid, invalid, invalid” will mean “her marriage is invalid in some situations” and that situation is when she marries herself off to a person who is not considered a legal match to her.
Moreover, the two reporters of these two Hadiths, Sayyida A’isha and Imam Zuhri (Allah be pleased with them) have both opposed the ruling given in them. Sayyida A’isha (Allah be pleased with her) married off Hafsa bint Abdirrahman without the approval of her guardian, whilst Imam Zuhri is reported to have said: “Any woman who marries herself without her guardian’s approval, her marriage is valid”. It is an accepted principle that if the reporter of a narration himself or herself contradicts that which is being reported, then his/her reported Hadith should not be taken at face value, but rather understood in light of the reporter’s action.
All of this, keeping in mind that the two Hadiths also have certain deficiencies from a transmittal (isnad) point of view. (I’la al-Sunan 11/69, Chapter: Having a guardian is not a pre-requisite for the validity of an adult woman’s marriage)

- if a hanafi girl, in accordance to her madhab, marries without a wali, she cannot be accused of zina

14) The Dowry is fardh

He said: "I intend to wed one of these two daughters of mine to you, on condition that you serve me for eight years, but if you complete ten years, it will be (a favour) from you. But I intend not to place you under a difficulty. If Allah will, you will find me one of the righteous." (Al-Qasas 28:27)

- As the father proposed a condition to Musa
- for marriage to his daughter
- The dowry being 8 years of work

And give the women [upon marriage] their [bridal] gifts graciously… (An-Nisa 4:4)

Ibn ‘Abbaas said: “This refers to the mahr (dowry).” [Tafsir at-Tabari (7/553) No. 8507, Tafsir Ibn Abi Hatim (3/861) No. 4770, Tafsir Ibn Kathir (2/213)]

Abu Huraira narrated the Prophet (SAW) said: “The one who gets married with the intention not to pay dowry to his wife is a fornicator. And the one who borrows money with the intention not to pay back is a thief.” [Ibn Hibban in ‘al-Majruheen’ (2/261) No. 941]

15) Musa was kind hearted
- and exceeded the minimum 8 years and instead worked an extra 2 years, totalling 10 years
- the extra 2 years were a form of charity (sadaqah)

16) When you marry your daughter, you also gain a son
- The pious man married his daughter Zipporah to Musa and thereby gained a son

17) Not every stranger is a danger
- Musa came to be a great blessing for the family
- These are the 17 lessons derived from the story of Madyan