Sunday, September 21, 2014

(NOTES & AUDIO) Tafsir Surah Qasas - Paradise Is For Those Who Are Humble - Part 9

by Shaikh Abdullah Faisal
18th September 2014 / 24th Dhul Qaddah 1435 AH (Evening)


NOTES typed LIVE by AT3
Edited and Formatted by AT5 

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ


تِلْكَ الدَّارُ الْآخِرَةُ نَجْعَلُهَا لِلَّذِينَ لَا يُرِيدُونَ عُلُوًّا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فَسَادًا وَالْعَاقِبَةُ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ
That home of the Hereafter (i.e. Paradise), We shall assign to those who rebel not against the truth with pride and oppression in the land nor do mischief by committing crimes. And the good end is for the Muttaqun (pious - see V.2:2). (Al-Qasas 28:83)

- Ayah 83 specifically speaks of:
- The people who are proud
- The people who are oppressive/tyrannical 
- The people who are spread mischief in the land
- Allah informs us that the insincere people will never become sincere believers
- The people who are proud, oppressive and the spreaders of mischief
- Can not be sincere believers and nor will they enter paradise
- A prime example of this is Iblis:

And (remember) when We said to the angels: "Prostrate yourselves before Adam.". And they prostrated except Iblis (Satan), he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to Allah). (Al-Baqarah 2:34)

- Here Allah gives us an example of a being who became a kaafir because of pride
- To rebel against one commandment of Allah is sufficient to become a kaafir
- Another example of such is Nimrod - a person who refused to believe because of pride
- The third example is the firawn of Egypt
- The fourth example is Abu Jahl
- They all refused to believe in the name of pride
- They were loyal to a fault, meaning to be loyal to falsehood

It Is narrated on the authority of Abdullah b. Mas'ud that the Messenger of Allah (SAW), observed: He who has in his heart the weight of a mustard seed of pride shall not enter Paradise. A person (amongst his hearers) said: Verily a person loves that his dress should be fine, and his shoes should be fine. He (the Holy Prophet) remarked: Verily, Allah is Graceful and He loves Grace. Pride is disdaining the truth (out of self-conceit) and contempt for the people. [Sahih Muslim (1/93) No. 91]

- So in this Ayah (83) Allah speaks about pride and oppression
- these two diseases of the heart go hand in hand
- those who are proud are always oppressive too
- Hence Allah mentions both diseases in the same ayah.

Iyad ibn Himar reported: The Messenger of Allah (SAW), said, “Verily, Allah has revealed to me that you must be humble towards one another, so that no one oppresses another or boasts to another.” [Sahih Muslim (4/2198) No. 2865]

- When Luqman the wise advised his sons
- he said do not be proud:

"And turn not your face away from men with pride, nor walk in insolence through the earth. Verily, Allah likes not each arrogant boaster. (Luqman 31:18)

- Allah dislikes both the arrogant
- and also those who are oppressive:

And as for those who believe (in the Oneness of Allah) and do righteous good deeds, Allah will pay them their reward in full. And Allah does not like the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers). (Aali Imran 3:57)

- Allah has said that those who do not govern by that which He has revealed are the oppressors:

…And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed - then it is those who are the Zalimun (wrongdoers). (Al-Ma’idah 5:45)

- Allah states that we must not allow our hatred for people to oppress them
- we must be just even towards those we dislike:

O you who believe! Stand out firmly for Allah and be just witnesses and let not the enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. Be just: that is nearer to piety, and fear Allah. Verily, Allah is Well­Acquainted with what you do. (Al-Ma'idah 5:8)

Narrated By Ibn Abbas: The Prophet sent Mu'adh to Yemen and said, "Fear the supplication of the oppressed, for there is no barrier between it and Allah." [al-Bukhari (1496) and Muslim (19)]

Abu Hurayrah (RA) reported that Allah’s Messenger said, "Three prayers are surely answered: the supplication of the oppressed, the supplication of the traveller, and the supplication of the father for his son." [Sunan Tirmidhi (5/502) No. 3448, Sunan Ibn Majah (5/30) No. 3862, Musnad Ahmad (2/258) No. 7501, Sunan Abu Dawud (2/89) No. 1536]

- Then Allah mentions that we must not spread mischief in the land
- e.g. opening brothels, selling drugs, armed robberies, terrorising people etc
- The biggest mischief in the land is the preaching of a false religion 
- especially to do such with the claim that it's Islaam that is being preached
- Such a person is a zindeeq - a heretic - one who constructs his own religion

'Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Muhammad Ibn Habeeb Ibn Abee Habeeb on the authority of his father, on the authority of his grandfather [who] said: I witnessed Khaalid Ibn 'Abdullah Al-Qasree - and he addressed them at Waasit - "Oh People, make sacrifice, may Allah accept it from you. Verily I am sacrificing Al-Ja'd Ibn Dirham, for indeed he claims that Allah did not take Ibrahim as a khaleel (close friend), and [that] He did not speak to Moosa. Most Perfect is He and exalted is He from what Al-Ja'd says." Then he descended and slaughtered him. I say: And the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah speak with this, and they distort the text of the revelation regarding that, and they claim that the Lord is purified of that (i.e. having spoken to Moses and taken Ibrahim as a khalil). [Mukhtasar al-Uluww of adh-Dhahabi, (p.134)]

- Ja'd Ibn Dirham was beheaded because he was spreading mischief in the land
- by spreading erroneous beliefs/aqeedah, preaching kufr in the name of Islaam
- He claimed, Allah did not take Ibrahim as a friend nor did Allah speak to Moosa 
- This is the worst of mischiefs - to preach 'Hislam' instead of Islam
- Allah tells us in the following ayah, how to deal with the mischief spreaders of the land

The recompense of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger and do mischief in the land is only that they shall be killed or crucified or their hands and their feet be cut off on the opposite sides, or be exiled from the land. That is their disgrace in this world, and a great torment is theirs in the Hereafter. (Al-Ma'idah 5:33)

- The permission of crucifixion is clearly mentioned in the above verse
- So when crucifixion is carried out in accordance to the shareeyah, it shouldn't surprise us
- This form of punishment is carried out in Saudi Arabia.
- If a person recants after having created mischief
- they maybe forgiven and saved from capital punishment
- however this decision is up to the judge.
- It is more likely for the judge to prevent capital punishment,
- if the person repents through his own freewill before getting caught.
- In certain circumstances  even an apostate who seeks Allahs forgiveness may be set free
- However Taubah (repentance) does not always lift the capital punishment.
- As the judge may say although you have repented, the taubah is between you and Allah.
- So not every person who recants will be spared
- It is a circumstantial decision made by the Qadee /judge
- If the apostate is adamant in his kufr then the capital punishment will be executed.

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (rh) said: “Apostasy is of two types: ordinary apostasy and extreme apostasy, for which execution is prescribed. In both cases there is evidence that it is essential to execute the apostate, but the evidence indicating that the sentence of death may be waived if the person repents does not apply to both types of apostasy. Rather the evidence indicates that that is allowed only in the first case – i.e., ordinary apostasy – as will be clear to anyone who studies the evidence that speaks about accepting the repentance of the apostate. In the second type – i.e., extreme apostasy – the obligation to put the apostate to death still stands, and there is no text or scholarly consensus to indicate that the death sentence may be waived. The two cases are quite different and there is no comparison between them. It does not say in the Qur’aan or Sunnah, or according to scholarly consensus, that everyone who apostatizes in word or deed may be spared the death sentence if he repents after he is a captured and tried. Rather the Qur’aan and Sunnah, and scholarly consensus, differentiate between the different kinds of apostates.” [al-Saarim al-Maslool, (pg. 366-367)]


مَنْ جَاءَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ خَيْرٌ مِنْهَا وَمَنْ جَاءَ بِالسَّيِّئَةِ فَلَا يُجْزَى الَّذِينَ عَمِلُوا السَّيِّئَاتِ إِلَّا مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ
Whosoever brings good (Islamic Monotheism along with righteous deeds), he shall have the better thereof, and whosoever brings evil (polytheism along with evil deeds) then, those who do evil deeds will only be requited for what they used to do. (Al-Qasas 28:84)

- Allah states in the above ayah that what you sow you shall reap
- therefore tauheed brings good deeds and shirk brings evil deeds
- And Allah will recompense us in the akhira, for that which we did in the dunya

On the authority of Abu Dharr al-Ghifaree (RA) from the Prophet (SAW) from his Lord, that He said: "…O My servants, it is but your deeds that I reckon up for you and then recompense you for, so let him who finds good praise Allah, and let him who finds other than that blame no one but himself." [Sahih Muslim (4/1994) No. 2577]


إِنَّ الَّذِي فَرَضَ عَلَيْكَ الْقُرْآنَ لَرَادُّكَ إِلَى مَعَادٍ قُلْ رَبِّي أَعْلَمُ مَنْ جَاءَ بِالْهُدَى وَمَنْ هُوَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُبِينٍ
Verily, He Who has given you (O Muhammad SAW) the Qur'an (i.e. ordered you to act on its laws and to preach it to others) will surely bring you back to the Ma'ad (place of return, either to Makkah or to Paradise after your death, etc.). Say (O Muhammad SAW): "My Lord is Aware of him who brings guidance, and he who is in manifest error." (Al-Qasas 28:85)

- Herein Allah commands the Rasool to preach to mankind
- as he (SAW) was sent as a mercy to mankind

Say (O Muhammad SAW): "This is my way; I invite unto Allah (i.e. to the Oneness of Allah - Islamic Monotheism) with sure knowledge, I and whosoever follows me (also must invite others to Allah i.e to the Oneness of Allah - Islamic Monotheism) with sure knowledge. And Glorified and Exalted be Allah (above all that they associate as partners with Him). And I am not of the Mushrikun (polytheists, pagans, idolaters and disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah; those who worship others along with Allah or set up rivals or partners to Allah)." (Yusuf 12:108)

- So when we wish to invite people to Islam
- we must ensure that we have Sure Knowledge
- and if we do not know, then we should simply say: 'I do not know'
- To speak of Allah without knowledge is haraam

And do not pursue that of which you have no knowledge. Indeed, the hearing, the sight and the heart - about all those [one] will be questioned. (Al-Isra 17:36)

Ibn Abbas (RA) narrated that Allah’s Messenger (SAW) said, “He who speaks on the Qur’an without possessing knowledge must assume his seat in the Fire.” [Musnad Ahmad (Vol. 1, pg. 269) No. 2429, Sunan at-Tirmdhi (Vol. 5, pg.198) No. 2950, Abu Eesa al-Tirmidhi said: this hadeeth is hasan]

Al-Haytham bin Jamil said: "I heard Malik bin Anas being asked forty eight questions, to thirty-two of which he replied: ‘I do not know.’ [Tarikh al-Abi Ziraa al-Dimashqi, Vol.1, pg. 49, no. 995]

- we must train ourselves in dawah prior to giving dawah.
- Baseerah means sure knowledge.

And say (O Muhammad SAW) "Do deeds! Allah will see your deeds, and (so will) His Messenger and the believers. And you will be brought back to the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen. Then He will inform you of what you used to do." (At-Tawbah 9:105)

- This is an order from Allah to perform righteous deeds without fearing the blame of the blamers.

Sheikh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah said: “Freeing the prisoners is one of the greatest compulsory deeds and spending ransom money and other means towards that, is one of the greatest ways to come close to Allah.” [Al-Fatawa (28/635)]

Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani said: “The saying of Imam Al-Bukhari, 'The Chapter on Freeing Prisoners' refers to freeing them from the hands of the enemy by money or by other means. The word 'Al-Fakak', where the fa (Arabic letter) from the word has a fatha (it is also permissible for it to take a kasrah), means to free. This word is mentioned in two hadiths. The first one is the hadith of Abu Musa: "Free the prisoner." Ibn Battal said that freeing the prisoners is compulsory on a collective duty (Fard Kifayah). This opinion is also held by the majority of the scholars.” [Fath Al-Bari (6/167)]

Ibn Qudaamah (rh) said: ‘It is obligatory to pay the ransom money for the Muslim prisoners, if it is possible. This was also said by Umar bin Abdul-Aziz, Imam Malik and Ishaq. It has been narrated from Ibn Zubair that he asked al-Hassan bin Ali about freeing the prisoners. al-Hassan replied: “It is obligatory upon the entire Earth on which he was fighting.”
It has been established from the Messenger of Allah (SAW) that he said: “Feed the hungry, visit the sick and free the prisoner.”
It has been narrated by Saeed through his chain from Hibban bin Jabalah, that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: “Indeed it is obligatory upon the Muslims to free their captives or to pay their ransoms.”
The Messenger of Allah (SAW) wrote a letter advising the Muhajireen and Ansar: “To restrain the enemy soldiers in their fortresses and to free the Muslim captives with goodness.”
The Messenger of Allah (SAW) paid the ransom for two Muslim men with a man who he (SAWS) had taken from Bani Uqail, and he paid the ransom for two people with a woman who was given as a gift by Salamah bin Al-Akwa.’ [al-Mughni (9/284) No. 7567]

Ibn Juzai al-Maliki (rh) said: “It is necessary to rescue the Muslim prisoners from the hands of the disbelievers by fighting them. If the Muslims are unable to do so, then it becomes compulsory upon them to pay the ransom money. It is incumbent on a rich person to ransom himself and on the Imam (leader), to pay the ransom money for the poor people, from the Islamic Treasury. If they still fall short, then it becomes compulsory to take from the wealth of all the Muslims, even if it finishes their wealth.” [Qawaneen Al-Ahkam Ash-Shar'iyyah (Page 172)]


وَمَا كُنْتَ تَرْجُو أَنْ يُلْقَى إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابُ إِلَّا رَحْمَةً مِنْ رَبِّكَ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ ظَهِيرًا لِلْكَافِرِينَ
And you were not expecting that the Book (this Qur'an) would be sent down to you, but it is a mercy from your Lord. So never be a supporter of the disbelievers. (Al-Qasas 28:86)

- Allah gave Muhammad (SAW) the Quran, although he was not expecting it
- Tauheed was new in Makkah
- they were deep in shirk
- so they fought against Muhammad (SAW)

- Allah instructs Muhammad (SAW) not to become a helper of the kaafirun
- Fatawa of the classical scholars

O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians as Auliya' (friends, protectors, helpers, etc.), they are but Auliya' to one another. And if any amongst you takes them as Auliya', then surely he is one of them. Verily, Allah guides not those people who are the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong­doers and unjust). (Al-Ma'idah 5:51)

Ibn Hazm Stated in Al-Muhalla (11/138):"What is correct is that His statement, the Most High, "And if any amongst you takes them as Auliya', then surely he is one of them." (The Quran 5:51), should be understood on the basis of its apparent meaning. The person being referred to is a disbeliever from the generality of disbelievers, and no two Muslims disagree regarding this."

- We have to understand the ayah with its apparent meaning

Sheikh Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahab, may Allah have mercy on him, gathered ten actions that negate one's Islam (Nawaqid ul-'Ashr), the eighth one of which states: "Assisting the disbelievers (against the believers) (Mudhaharatul Mushrikeen) and supporting them against the believers (is from the actions that negates of one's faith). The Proof being the statement of Allah, "And if any amongst you takes them as Auliya', then surely he is one of them. Verily, Allah guides not those people who are the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers and unjust). (The Quran 5:51).”

Sheikh Ibn Baz stated (Al-Fatawa 1/274): “There is a consensus amongst the scholars that whoever supports the disbelievers against the believers (Dhahar Al-Kuffar 'Ala Al-Muslimeen), and assists them by any means of assistance, then he is a disbeliever just like them (the disbelievers he supported)…"

- So there is ijmaa amongst the scholars in this matter,
- that to assist the kufaar against the Muslims, by any means, then he becomes a kaafir.
- E.g. Pakistan allowing their land and air space to be used by the kaafirs to kill the Afghanis
- Saudi providing land, air space and fuel to assist the kaafirs
- this confirms that they are apostate regimes

AYAH 87-88

وَلَا يَصُدُّنَّكَ عَنْ آيَاتِ اللَّهِ بَعْدَ إِذْ أُنْزِلَتْ إِلَيْكَ وَادْعُ إِلَى رَبِّكَ وَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ (87) وَلَا تَدْعُ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَهًا آخَرَ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ كُلُّ شَيْءٍ هَالِكٌ إِلَّا وَجْهَهُ لَهُ الْحُكْمُ وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ (88)
And let them not turn you (O Muhammad SAW) away from (preaching) the Ayat (revelations and verses) of Allah after they have been sent down to you, and invite (men) to (believe in) your Lord [i.e: in the Oneness (Tauhid) of Allah (i) Oneness of the Lordship of Allah; (ii) Oneness of the worship of Allah; (iii) Oneness of the Names and Qualities of Allah], and be not of Al-Mushrikun (those who associate partners with Allah, e.g. polytheists, pagans, idolaters, those who disbelieve in the Oneness of Allah and deny the Prophethood of Messenger Muhammad SAW). (87) And invoke not any other ilah (god) along with Allah, La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He). Everything will perish save His Face. His is the Decision, and to Him you (all) shall be returned. (Al-Qasas 28:87-88)

- Allah confirms that every time He sends a messenger, there are people who oppose them

And so We have appointed for every Prophet enemies - Shayatin (devils) among mankind and jinns, inspiring one another with adorned speech as a delusion (or by way of deception). If your Lord had so willed, they would not have done it, so leave them alone with their fabrications. (Tafseer Qurtubi, Vol.7, Page 67) (Al-An'am 6:112)

- They have enemies from both mankind and jinn
- So Allah is reminding the Prophet not to allow these enemies to deter him from his mission
- and not to be of the mushrikeen
- So if Muhammad (SAW) was warned about shirk,
- then how can we be offended when we are warned of shirk?

- e.g. to believe in: Horoscopes, fortune-tellers and palm-readers is shirk

Abu Huraira reported that the Prophet (SAW), said “Whoever comes to a fortune-teller and believes him has disbelieved in what was revealed to Muhammad (SAW)”. [Musnad Ahmad (Vol. 2, pg. 429) No. 9532 and Mustadrak al-Hakim (Vol. 1, pg. 49) No. 15]

- also to bow to other than Allah

And indeed it has been revealed to you (O Muhammad SAW), as it was to those (Allah's Messengers) before you: "If you join others in worship with Allah, (then) surely (all) your deeds will be in vain, and you will certainly be among the losers." (Az-Zumar 39:65)

- eating meat which was slaughter in a name other than Allah’s

Eat not (O believers) of that (meat) on which Allah's Name has not been pronounced (at the time of the slaughtering of the animal), for sure it is Fisq (a sin and disobedience of Allah). And certainly, the Shayatin (devils) do inspire their friends (from mankind) to dispute with you, and if you obey them [by making Al­Maytatah (a dead animal) legal by eating it], then you would indeed be Mushrikun (polytheists) [because they (devils and their friends) made lawful to you to eat that which Allah has made unlawful to eat and you obeyed them by considering it lawful to eat, and by doing so you worshipped them, and to worship others besides Allah is polytheism]. (Al-An'am 6:121)

Or were you witnesses when death approached Ya'qub (Jacob)? When he said unto his sons, "What will you worship after me?" They said, "We shall worship your Ilah (God - Allah), the Ilah (God) of your fathers, Ibrahim (Abraham), Isma'il (Ishmael), Ishaque (Isaac), One Ilah (God), and to Him we submit (in Islam)." (Al-Baqarah 2:133)

- Even from his death bed Yaqub (AS) warned his sons of shirk
- The majority of the Muslims are deep in shirk

Ibrahim (Abraham) was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but he was a true Muslim Hanifa (Islamic Monotheism - to worship none but Allah Alone) and he was not of Al-Mushrikun (See V.2:105). (Aali Imran 3:67)

- To die in a state of major shirk is to die in a state of disbelief

Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with him in worship, but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He pleases, and whoever sets up partners with Allah in worship, he has indeed invented a tremendous sin. (An-Nisa 4:48)

And most of them believe not in Allah except that they attribute partners unto Him [i.e. they are Mushrikun -polytheists - see Verse 6: 121]. (Yusuf 12:106)

- Most people who claim to believe in Allah are swimming in shirk


Question 1: Assalam alekum shaikh. What are the grounds for capital punishment in Sharia? The Islamic State is known to carry out executions, are all of these cases (which you know of) legal in Sharia?

The recompense of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger and do mischief in the land is only that they shall be killed or crucified or their hands and their feet be cut off on the opposite sides, or be exiled from the land. That is their disgrace in this world, and a great torment is theirs in the Hereafter. (Al-Ma'idah 5:33)

- The grounds for capital punishment are as follows:

1) To insult Allah

2) To insult Muhammad (SAW)

Hussain ibn Ali related from his father Ali Ibn Abi Talib that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: "Whoever curses a Prophet, kill him. Whoever curses my Companions, beat him." [al-Mu’jam al-Awsat al-Tabarani (5/35) No. 4602]

It was narrated that Abu Barzah Al-Aslami said: "A man spoke harshly to Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, and I said: 'Shall I kill him?' He rebuked me and said: 'That is not for anyone after the Messenger of Allah (SAW)"'. [Sunan Nasa'i (7/108) No. 4071]

Ibn 'Abbas narrated that: 'A blind man had a freed concubine (umm walad) who used to insult the Prophet (SAW) and say bad things about him. He told her not to do that but she did not stop, and he rebuked her but she did not heed him. One night, when she started to say bad things about the Prophet (SAW) and insult him, he took a short sword or dagger, put it on her belly and pressed it and killed her. The following morning that was mentioned to the Messenger of Allaah (SAW). He called the people together and said, “I adjure by Allah the man who has done this action and I adjure him by my right over him that he should stand up.” The blind man stood up and said, “O Messenger of Allaah, I am the one who did it; she used to insult you and say bad things about you. I forbade her, but she did not stop, and I rebuked her, but she did not give up her habit. I have two sons like pearls from her, and she was kind to me. Last night she began to insult you and say bad things about you. So I took a dagger, put it on her belly and pressed it till I killed her.” Thereupon the Prophet (SAW) said: “Bear witness, there is no blood money due for her.”' [Sunan Abu Dawud (4/129) No. 4361, Sunan al-Nasa'i (7/107) No. 4070, al-Sunan al-Kubra al-Bayhaqi (7/96) No. 13375, Sunan al-Daraqutni (4/116) No. 3194, Mustadrak al-Haakim (4/394) No. 8044, al-Haakim said: It is saheeh according to the conditions of Muslim although they [al-Bukhari and Muslim] did not narrate it. It was classed as saheeh by al-Dhahabi in his Talkhees, and by Ibn Hajar in Buloogh al-Maraam (pg. 369) No. 1215]

3) To insult the Qur'an (i.e. by saying it is corrupted)

4) To deny an aspect of Islam - an aspect that is known by necessity
- e.g. zakat

Abu Hurairah (RA) reported: When the Messenger of Allah (SAW) passed away, Abu Bakr (RA) was appointed as his successor (caliph). Amongst the Arabs some men apostatised. Abu Bakr (RA) resolved to fight them. 'Umar bin Al-Khattab (RA) said to Abu Bakr: "How can you fight them when the Messenger of Allah (SAW) has declared: 'I have been commanded to fight people till they testify La ilaha illallah (there is no true god except Allah); and if they do it, their blood (life) and property are secured except when justified by law, and it is for Allah to call them to account." Upon this Abu Bakr (RA) said: "By Allah, I would definitely fight him who makes distinction between Salat and the Zakat, because it is an obligation upon the rich to pay Zakat. By Allah I will fight them even to secure the piece of rope which they used to give to the Messenger of Allah (SAW)." 'Umar (RA) said: "I realized that Allah opened the heart of Abu Bakr (RA) for fighting those who refused to pay Zakat, and I fully recognized that Abu Bakr was on the truth." [al-Bukhari (1399, 1400) and Muslim (20)]

5) Adultery

Narrated By 'Abdullah: Allah's Messenger (SAW) said, "The blood of a Muslim who confesses that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that I am His Messenger, cannot be shed except in three cases: In Qisas for murder, a married person who commits illegal sexual intercourse and the one who reverts from Islam (apostate) and leaves the Muslims." [al-Bukhari (6878) and Muslim (1676)]

6) Murderer

7) Homosexuality
- it is haraam to kill a lesbian because the intimacy of lesbians is superficial

Ibn ‘Abbas (RA) said: The Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: “Whoever you find doing the action of the people of Loot, execute the one who does it and the one to whom it is done.” [Sunan Tirmidhi (4/57) No. 1456, Sunan Abu Dawud (4/158) No. 4462, Sunan Ibn Majah (3/594) No. 2561, Musnad Ahmad (1/300) No. 2732]

Ibn Qudamah said: "If two women engage in lesbian sexual relations, then they are guilty of zina and are cursed, because it was narrated that the Prophet (SAW) said: “If a woman has sexual relations with another woman, then they are both guilty of zina.” There is no hadd punishment for them because they did not have intercourse, rather it is likened to intimate relations that are less than intercourse, and they are to be subjected to a ta’zeer punishment." [al-Mughni (9/61)]

8) Incest

Narrated By Al-Bara' ibn Azib: I met my uncle who was carrying a standard. I asked him: 'Where are you going?' He said: 'The Messenger of Allah (SAW) has sent me to a man who has married his father's wife. He has ordered me to cut off his head and take his property.' [Sunan Abu Dawud (4/157) No. 4457, Sunan al-Nasa'i (6/109) No. 3332, Sunan al-Darime (2/205) No. 2239, Musnad Ahmad (4/290) No. 18580]

It was narrated from Ibn 'Abbas that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: “Whoever has intercourse with a Mahram relative, kill him; and whoever has intercourse with an animal, kill him, and kill the animal.” [Sunan Ibn Majah (3/596) No. 2564]

9) Bestiality

Narrated By Abdullah ibn Abbas: The Prophet (SAW) said: "If anyone has sexual intercourse with an animal, kill him and kill it along with him." I (Ikrimah) said: I asked him (Ibn Abbas): 'What offence can be attributed to the animal?' He replied: 'I think he (the Prophet) disapproved of its flesh being eaten when such a thing had been done to it.' [Sunan Abu Dawud (4/159) No. 4464, Sunan Tirmidhi (4/56) No. 1455, Musnad Ahmad (1/269) No. 2420]

10) The rapist
- Only some rapists are killed, it is up to decision of the judge
- dependent on the circumstances

11) Paedophile
- (not every paedophile is killed, it is a decision for the judge to make)

12) Those who perform black magic

Jundub (RA) reported that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: “The hadd (prescribed punishment) for the practitioner of magic is a blow with the sword (i.e., execution)" [Sunan Tirmidhi (4/60) No. 1460, Sunan al-Daraqutni (4/120) No. 3204, Mustadrak al-Haakim (4/401) No. 8073, al-Sunan al-Kabir al-Bayhaqi (8/234) No. 16500, al-Mu'jam al-Kabir al-Tabarani (2/161) No. 1665]

Bajaalah (RA) said: “Umar ibn al-Khattaab (RA) wrote to us commanding us to kill every sorcerer, male or female.” [Musnad Ahmad (1/190) No. 1657, Sunan Abu Dawud (3/168) No. 3043, al-Sunan al-Kabir al-Bayhaqi (9/318) No. 18652]

13) Armed Robber

Narrated Anas: Some people from 'Uraina tribe came to Medina and its climate did not suit them, so Allah's Messenger (SAW) allowed them to go to the herd of camels (given as Zakat) and they drank their milk and urine (as medicine) but they killed the shepherd and drove away all the camels. So Allah's Messenger sent (men) in their pursuit to catch them, and they were brought, and he had their hands and feet cut, and their eyes were branded with heated pieces of iron and they were left in the Harra (a stony place at Medina), till they died. [al-Bukhari (6802) and Muslim (1671)]

14) The Spy

Ibn al-Qayyim said (concerning the hadeeth of Haatib ibn Abi Balta'ah): This was quoted as evidence by those who do not think that the Muslim spy should be killed, such as al-Shaafa'i, Ahmad and Abu Haneefah (may Allaah have mercy on them). And it was quoted as evidence by those who think that the spy should be killed, such as Maalik and Ibn 'Aqeel among the companions of Ahmad, and others. They said: This is because the reason for not killing him was that he had been present at Badr. If being Muslim was the reason for not killing him, he would not have given a reason that is more specific, which is the fact that he had been present at Badr. [Zad al-Ma'ad (3/104)]

Ibn al-Qayyim said: "The correct view is that execution of a spy depends on the opinion of the ruler; if executing him is in the Muslims’ interests, he should be executed, but if letting him live serves a greater interest, then he should be allowed to live. And Allah knows best." [Zad al-Ma'ad (3/372)]

15) Drug smuggler
- not every drug smuggler is killed
- it depends on how dangerous the drugs in question are

16) The apostate

On the authority of Ibn Abbas (RA) narrated the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: "If somebody (a Muslim) discards his religion, kill him." [Sahih Bukhari (4/61) No. 3017, Musnad Ahmad (1/322) No. 2968, Sunan al-Nasa'i (7/104) No. 4059, Sunan Ibn Majah (3/574) No. 2535, Sunan Abu Dawud (4/126) No. 4351, Sunan Tirmidhi (4/59) No. 1458]

- Not every apostate is killed, it is the decision of the judge
- in certain circumstances if the apostate recants then the judge may leave off the death sentence

Al-Qurtubi said: "There is no dispute among the scholars that qisaas (retaliatory punishments) such as execution cannot be carried out except by those in authority who are obliged to carry out the qisaas and carry out hadd punishments etc, because Allaah has addressed the command regarding qisaas to all the Muslims, and it is not possible for all the Muslims to get together to carry out the qisaas, which is why they appointed a leader who may represent them in carrying out the qisaas and hadd punishments." [Tafseer al-Qurtubi (2/245-246)]

Ibn Rushd said: "With regard to the one who should carry out this punishment they agreed that the ruler should carry it out, and that applies to all the hadd punishments." [Bidaayat al-Mujtahid (4/228)]

Question 2: Is machine slaughtered meat halal?

- Yes if the person who is operating the machine says 'Bismillah'
- The difference of opinion is regarding stunning
- If the stunning kills the animal then the meat is haraam
- However if the stunning did not kill the animal then it is halal
- so a weaker animal may die due to the stunning e.g. chicken
- whereas a stronger animal may not e.g. cow
- The blood has to be drained on death