Wednesday, October 29, 2014

(Notes & Audio) Tafsir Surah Al ‘Araf - Part 20 - Allah (swt) Has The Most Beautiful Names

by Shaikh Abdullah Faisal
27th October 2014 / 4th Muharram 1436 AH (Evening)


NOTES typed LIVE by Kamila1201 and AT19
Edited and Formatted by AT5

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ

AYAH 180
وَلِلّهِ الأَسْمَاء الْحُسْنَى فَادْعُوهُ بِهَا وَذَرُواْ الَّذِينَ يُلْحِدُونَ فِي أَسْمَآئِهِ سَيُجْزَوْنَ مَا كَانُواْ يَعْمَلُونَ
And (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allah, so call on Him by them, and leave the company of those who belie or deny (or utter impious speech against) His Names. They will be requited for what they used to do. (Al-A'raf 7:180)

- Allah (SWT) has 99 names and attributes
- anyone who memorizes these names will enter Paradise
- It is worthy of mentioning that if a person doesn't memorize these names they are still Muslim

Abu Huraira narrated the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: “Allah has ninety-nine Names, i.e., one hundred minus one, and whoever 'ahsaha' (enumerates them, believes in them, ponders their meanings, worships Allah by them and supplicates with them, and acts by them according to one's belief in them) will enter Paradise.” [al-Bukhari (7392) and Muslim (2677)]

- e.g. A man said to his family when I die burn my ashes and scatter them
- Because this man was jahil he told his family to burn his body and then scatter his ashes

On the authority of Abu Hurayrah (RA), who said that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: "A man sinned greatly against himself, and when death came to him he charged his sons, saying: 'When I have died, burn me, then crush me and scatter [my ashes] into the sea, for, by Allah, if my Lord takes possession of me, He will punish me in a manner in which He has punished no one [else].' So they did that to him. Then He said to the earth: 'Produce what you have taken - and there he was!' And He said to him: 'What induced you to do what you did?' He said: 'Being afraid of You, O my Lord (or he said: 'Being frightened of You'),' and because of that He forgave him." [Muslim (also by Al-Bukhari, an-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah)]

Allah's (SWT) names are of two types:
1. Personal (Sifa Dhaatiyya)
- The personal names are the names that are ALWAYS with Allah (SWT)
- these names don't leave Allah (SWT)
- e.g. al-Qawee = the strong
- Do you think Allah (SWT) is strong at times and weak at times?
- No Allah (SWT) is NEVER weak and ALWAYS strong
- another example: al-Aleem = the knowledgeable
- Allah (SWT) is ALWAYS knowledgeable
- therefore this name is a personal name, a name which doesn't leave Allah (SWT)

2. Impersonal (Sifa Fi'liyya)
- e.g. al Muntaqim = the Avenger
- Does Allah (SWT) take revenge all the time or does He sometimes forgive?
- Allah (SWT) forgave the people of Yunus (AS) for rejecting his message
- another example: al-Ghafoor = the Most Forgiving
- Sometimes Allah (SWT) forgives and sometimes He (SWT) doesn't
- therefore the name al-Ghafoor is impersonal
- It is worthy of mentioning that Allah (SWT) has more than 99 names

- Allah (SWT) kept back some names and did not reveal them to us
- because our human intellect is too weak to understand those names

On the authority of ‘Abdullah bin Masud (RA) said that the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) said, “Any person who is overcome by sadness or grief and supplicates,
اللهم إني عبدك بن عبدك بن أمتك ناصيتي بيدك ماض في حكمك عدل في قضاؤك أسألك بكل اسم هو لك سميت به نفسك أو علمته أحدا من خلقك أو أنزلته في كتابك أو استأثرت به في علم الغيب عندك أن تجعل القرآن ربيع قلبي ونور صدري وجلاء حزني وذهاب همي
 ‘Allaahumma inni ‘abduka ibn ‘abdika ibn amatika naasyati bi yadika, maada fiyya hukmuka, ‘adlun fiyya qadaa’uka. As’aluka bi kulli ismin huwa laka sammayta bihi nafsaka aw anzaltahu fi kitaabika aw ‘allamtahu ahadan min khalqika aw ista’tharta bihi fi ‘ilm il-ghayb ‘indaka an taj’al al-Qur’aana rabee’ qalbi wa noor sadri wa jalaa’ huzni wa dhihaab hammi
(“O Allah! I am Your servant, son of Your servant, son of Your female servant. My forelock is in Your Hand. Your decision concerning me shall certainly come to pass. Just is Your Judgment about me. I invoke You by every Name that You have and that You called Yourself by, sent down in Your Book, taught to any of Your creatures, or kept with You in the knowledge of the Unseen that is with You. Make the Glorious Qur’an the spring of my heart, the light of my chest, the remover of my grief and the dissipater of my concern.”)
Surely, Allah will remove his grief and sadness and exchange them for delight. The Prophet (SAWS) was asked, “O Messenger of Allah! Should we learn these words?” He said, “Yes. It is an obligation on all those who hear this supplication to learn it.”[Musnad Ahmad (1/391) No. 3712]

- this is the evidence used by the islamic scholars that Allah (SWT) has kept back some names
- Don't entertain the idea that Allah (SWT) has ONLY 99 names, this is not the case
- Only Allah (SWT) knows how many names He (SWT) has
- Allah (SWT) kept back some names out of mercy for us

...and leave the company of those who belie or deny (or utter impious speech against) His Names. They will be requited for what they used to do. (Al-A'raf 7:180)

- Because of this above ayah, we the members of ahlus sunnah wa jamaa, we believe in Allah's (SWT) names and attributes without tashbih
- Tashbih means to make Allah (SWT) similar to His (SWT) creation

...There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer. (Ash-Shura 42:11)

- We believe in Allah's (SWT) names and attributes without Tajseem (anthropomorphism)
- The Mujassima believes Allah has a body that resembles our body
- even though Allah said He doesn't resemble His creation
- We believe in Allah's names and attributes without takyeef
- Takyeef is to apply specificity to Allah's 99 names and attributes
- When Allah says He descends every night, we don't ask how
- We don't ask how Allah (SWT) rose over the arsh

Ja'far Ibn Abdullah narrated: We were with Malik Ibn Anas when a man came to him and said: “O Abu Abdullah (Allah said) 'Ar-Rahman upon the Throne Istawa' (20:5), how was His Istiwa? Imam Malik inclined his head and was silent until the sweat of fever covered his brow, then he looked up and said: "Istiwa is not unknown, the Kayf (how) is uncomprehendable, believing in it is wajib (obligatory), and asking about it is bid'ah (innovation), and I do not think that you are anything but an innovator." Then he ordered that the man be expelled. [Abu-Naeem Al-Asbahani in 'Hilyatul-Awliya wa Tabaqat Al-Asfiya' (Vol. 6, pg. 325-326)]

- We believe in Allah's (SWT) 99 names and attributes without tafweed
- The mufawwida is an agnostic Muslim
- He says Allahu Alim to everything
- Allah (SWT) said you should abstain from the people who belie His 99 names and attributes

Who are the ones who belie the 99 names and attributes? the Mu'tazilites
- Allah (SWT) said to stay away from the Mu'tazilites (the rationalists)
- They reject Allah (SWT) 99 names and attributes and believe in only one name, Allah (SWT)
- Allah (SWT) is the greatest name

- They only believe in the name, Allah (SWT) and as for the rest of His (SWT) names they believe are separate Gods besides Allah (SWT)
- We says to the Mu'tazillah you speak like the kafir of Quraish
- When they came to sign the treaty of Hudaibiyah they used the same argument against the prophet

"...Suhail said to the Prophet "Please conclude a peace treaty with us." So, the Prophet called the clerk and said to him, "Write: بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ 'Bismillah ir-Rahman ir-Raheem' (In the Name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful)." Suhail said, "As for الرَّحْمَنِ 'ar-Rahman (Beneficent), by Allah, I do not know what it means. So write: بِاسْمِكَ اللهُمَّ 'Bismika Allahumma' (By Your Name O Allah)..." [al-Bukhari (2731) and Muslim (1784)]

There is a group of philosophers who are called the Ashaa'ira
- they broke away from the Mutazilah
- They reject all of Allah's 99 names except 7

These seven are:
[الحي] - Al-Hayy - the Ever Living
[القادر] - Al-Qudra - the Powerful
[الإرادة] - Al-Irada - the Self Willed
[العليم] - Al-Alim - the All Knowing
[المتكلم] - Al-Mutakallim - the Speaker
[السميع] - As-Sami' - the All Hearing
[البصير] - Al-Baseer - the All Seeing

- We say to the Ashaa'ira we realize that you did not mention Al-Khaliq (the Creator) as one of the names that you believe in
- Are you trying to say that there are other creators besides Allah?
- Also you did not mention al-Adl (the Just) as one of Allah's names
- Are you saying that Allah is a tyrant and an oppressor?
- The other group that belies Allah's names is the Ashaa'ira
- We say to the Ashaa'ira you don't believe that Allah is above the arsh
- Yet you call yourself Hanife?

Abu Haneefah (rh) said, when asked of his opinion of the one who says, ‘I do not know whether Allah is above the heavens or on the earth.’ - “He has disbelieved, because Allah says, “The Most Merciful rose above the Throne,” and His Throne is above His seven heavens.’ He was then asked , ‘what if he said that Allah is above His Throne but he does not know whether the Throne is in the heavens or on the earth?’ He said, ‘He has disbelieved, because He has denied that He is above the heavens, And whosoever denied that He is above the heavens has disbelieved.” (‘Sharh Usul I'tiqaad Ahlus Sunnah’ of al-Laalikaaee (d.414AH), ‘al-Uluww’ of adh- Dhahabee, also ‘Sharh Aqueedah at-Tahaawiyyah’ of ibn Abee al-Izz al-Hanafee)

- But Abu Haneefah made takfir on people like you
- We say to the Ashaa'ira; why do you reject that Allah has Two Hands?
- Allah told us He has two hands in the Quran

(Allah) said: "O Iblis (Satan)! What prevents you from prostrating yourself to one whom I have created with Both My Hands. Are you too proud (to fall prostrate to Adam) or are you one of the highly exalted?" (Sad 38:75)

- You can't believe Allah has Two Hands because your heart is impure
- The clock has two hands, why can't you believe Allah does
- In your heart you believe Allah is similar to man
- But the two hands on the clock do not resemble two hands
- this is why you cannot accept the Ayah where Allah said He created Adam with His Two Hands

Mujahid narrated Abdullah ibn Umar (RA) said: “Allah created four things with His Hand; 1. The Throne 2. The Pen 3. Aadam and 4. The paradise of ‘Adn. He then said to the rest of the creation ‘Kun’ [Be] and it was.” [Adh Dhahabi in ‘Mukhtasar al-‘Uluw’ (p105), Abu al-Shaikh al-Asbahani in 'al-‘Adhuma' (5/1555), Tafsir al-Tabari (21/239), ‘The chain is authentic according to the conditions of Muslim.’]

- Your heart is full of kufr, shirk and zandaqa (heresy)
- Whenever you read the Quran and you see Allah mention His Hands and His Face,
- you have to accept the Ayah with its external meaning
- Allah has Two Hands, but they don't resemble your hands
- The Ashaa'ira says Allah's Two Hands means His two powers
- They borrowed this belief from the Zoroastrians of Iran

The other group that reject Allah's names and attributes are the Jahmiyyah

'Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Muhammad Ibn Habeeb Ibn Abee Habeeb on the authority of his father, on the authority of his grandfather [who] said: I witnessed Khaalid Ibn 'Abdullah Al-Qasree - and he addressed them at Waasit - "Oh People, make sacrifice, may Allah accept it from you. Verily I am sacrificing Al-Ja'd Ibn Dirham, for indeed he claims that Allah did not take Ibrahim as a khaleel (close friend), and [that] He did not speak to Moosa. Most Perfect is He and exalted is He from what Al-Ja'd says." Then he descended and slaughtered him. I say: And the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah speak with this, and they distort the text of the revelation regarding that, and they claim that the Lord is purified of that (i.e. having spoken to Moses and taken Ibrahim as a khalil). [Mukhtasar al-Uluww of adh-Dhahabi, (p.134)]

- Therefore Khaalid Al-Qasree chopped off the head of Jad ibn Dirham
- because he was of those who belie Allah's 99 names and attributes as mentioned in the above narration

AYAH 181
وَمِمَّنْ خَلَقْنَا أُمَّةٌ يَهْدُونَ بِالْحَقِّ وَبِهِ يَعْدِلُونَ
And of those whom We have created, there is a community who guides (others) with the truth, and establishes justice therewith. (Al-A'raf 7:181)

- This Ayah means that in every Ummah you will find a group of people who remain steadfast with the truth
- Moses had a companion and Jesus had disciples
- But the best was Muhammad (SAW)

Narrated By Muawiya: I heard the Prophet saying, "A group of people amongst my followers will remain obedient to Allah's orders and they will not be harmed by anyone who will not help them or who will oppose them, till Allah's Order (the Last Day) comes upon them while they are still on the right path." [Sahih Bukhari (4/207) No. 3641]

It was narrated from Thawban that: The Messenger of Allah () said:“A group among my Ummah will continue to follow the truth and prevail, and those who oppose them will not be able to harm them, until the command of Allah comes to pass.” [Sunan ibn Majah (1/7) No. 10]

O you who believe! Whoever from among you turns back from his religion (Islam), Allah will bring a people whom He will love and they will love Him; humble towards the believers, stern towards the disbelievers, fighting in the Way of Allah, and never afraid of the blame of the blamers. That is the Grace of Allah which He bestows on whom He wills. And Allah is All­Sufficient for His creatures' needs, All­Knower. (Al-Ma'idah 5:54)

One of the characteristics of the believers is that they will not fear the blame of the blamers
- The wicked scholars are barking, the caravans are rolling, the dawla is expanding and borders are being eroded
- eroded like the Sykes-Picot border set up by the infidels 100 years ago

AYAH 182
وَالَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا سَنَسْتَدْرِجُهُم مِّنْ حَيْثُ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ
Those who reject Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.), We shall gradually seize them with punishment in ways they perceive not. (Al-A'raf 7:182)

- The punishment that Allah is talking about are; natural disasters and diseases

It was narrated that 'Abdullah bin 'Umar said: "The Messenger of Allah (SAW) turned to us and said: 'O Muhajirin, there are five things with which you will be tested, and I seek refuge with Allah lest you live to see them: Immorality never appears among a people to such an extent that they commit it openly, but plagues and diseases that were never known among the predecessors will spread among them. They do not cheat in weights and measures but they will be stricken with famine, severe calamity and the oppression of their rulers. They do not withhold the Zakah of the wealth, but rain will be withheld from the sky, and were it not for the animals, no rain would fall on them. They do not break the covenant with Allah and His Messenger, but Allah will enable their enemies to overpower them and take some of what is in their hands. Unless their leaders rule according to the Book of Allah and seek all good from that which Allah has revealed, Allah will cause them to fight one another. [Sunan Ibn Majah (Arabic/English), Vol. 5, pg. 222-223, Hadith #4019]

- Allah punishes them with these disasters because of their kufr
- These new diseases were not found in earlier generations, like ebola
- people who eat monkey meat get ebola and people who have sex with monkey get aids

Corruption has appeared throughout the land and sea by [reason of] what the hands of people have earned so He may let them taste part of [the consequence of] what they have done that perhaps they will return [to righteousness]. (Ar-Rum 30:41)

AYAH 183
وَأُمْلِي لَهُمْ إِنَّ كَيْدِي مَتِينٌ
And I respite them; certainly My Plan is strong. (Al-A'raf 7:183)

- This means if they don't come back to the straight, I will punish them
- Respite means to give a person a chance
- Allah gives the person a chance to come back to the straight path
- My Plan is strong means if they don't come back to the straight path, I will punish them
- with natural disasters and diseases in this life
- and in the next life with the Hellfire
- It is worthy of mentioning that depression is a punishment from Allah for those who reject the truth

"But whosoever turns away from My Reminder (i.e. neither believes in this Qur'an nor acts on its orders, etc.) verily, for him is a life of hardship, and We shall raise him up blind on the Day of Resurrection." (Ta-Ha 20:124)

AYAH 184
أَوَلَمْ يَتَفَكَّرُوا مَا بِصَاحِبِهِم مِّن جِنَّةٍ إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا نَذِيرٌ مُّبِينٌ
Do they not reflect? There is no madness in their companion (Muhammad SAW). He is but a plain warner. (Al-A'raf 7:184)

- Every Prophet was accused of being a madman
- The infidel likes to call you mentally ill
- it is called to assassinate the character of the Messenger, so that the message would be rendered void

AYAH 185
أَوَلَمْ يَنظُرُوا فِي مَلَكُوتِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ مِن شَيْءٍ وَأَنْ عَسَىٰ أَن يَكُونَ قَدِ اقْتَرَبَ أَجَلُهُمْ فَبِأَيِّ حَدِيثٍ بَعْدَهُ يُؤْمِنُونَ
Do they not look in the dominion of the heavens and the earth and all things that Allah has created, and that it may be that the end of their lives is near. In what message after this will they then believe? (Al-A'raf 7:185)

- The coming of Muhammad was a sign for the coming of the Day of Judgment

Al-Awza'i said that Ismail bin Ubaydullah said:"Anas bin Malik went to Al-Walid bin Abdul-Malik who asked him about what he heard from the Messenger of Allah (SAW) about the Last Hour. Anas said:"I heard the Messenger of Allah (SAW) say: "You and the Last Hour are as close as these two (fingers)." [Musnad Ahmad (3/223) No. 13360]

- The last Prophet was Muhammad and the last book to believe in is the Quran
- there is no other message after the Quran

Muhammad (SAW) is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the last (end) of the Prophets. And Allah is Ever All­Aware of everything. (Al-Ahzab 33:40)

- Because the Quran is the last message, when the Prophet saw Umar reading the Torah he became angry with him

It was reported that the Prophet (SAW) became angry when he saw that ‘Umar had a page with something from the Torah written on it, and he (SAW) said: “Are you in doubt, O son of al-Khattab? Have I not brought you something shining and pure? If my brother Musa were alive, he would have no choice but to follow me.” [Musnad Ahmad (3/387) No. 15195 and Sunan al-Darime (1/126) No. 435]

- All you will have after Islam are; cults - no other religions

AYAH 186
مَن يُضْلِلِ اللَّهُ فَلَا هَادِيَ لَهُ وَيَذَرُهُمْ فِي طُغْيَانِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ
Whomsoever Allah sends astray, none can guide him; and He lets them wander blindly in their transgressions. (Al-A'raf 7:186)

- It is worthy of mentioning that Allah will never send someone astray, until he rejects the truth

So when they turned away (from the Path of Allah), Allah turned their hearts away (from the Right Path). And Allah guides not the people who are Fasiqun (rebellious, disobedient to Allah). (As-Saff 61:5)

- Allah will never send you astray until you decide to reject the truth
- like the Pharaoh, Nimrod, Abu Lahab and Abu Jahl