Tuesday, April 21, 2015

(Notes & Audio ) Science Of Quran – Part 1 - The Names Of The Quran

Science Of Quran – Part 1 - The Names Of The Quran
By Shaikh Abdullah Faisal

Monday, 20th April 2015


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Notes Typed live by AT19
Edited and formatted by BintZaki and AT38

It was requested of me to cover the topic ‘Sciences of Hadith’
But I felt it was more appropriate to cover that after covering ‘Science of the Quran’ in sha Allah.

Although Tawheed is the root of our religion, people consider topics such as Tawheed and shirk to be ‘radical topics’.  Sciences of Quran and Hadith are luxury topics and are easier for people to digest.

THE NAMES OF THE HOLY QURAN

The Quran has 90 names according to the scholars
Tonight
I shall be discussing 20 of those names in sha Allah.

1. AL QURAN

Al Quran means that which is recited
Therefore the Quran was recited and memorized by thousands of people
Omar Ibn Al Khattab suggested to Abu Bakr (radiyallahu ‘anhuma) to put the Quran in the form of a book
This was because many Hafiz died on the battlefield and Omar feared that the Quran would be lost and scattered.
Abu Bakr hesitated but Omar convinced him to do so

Verily, We have sent it down as an Arabic Qur'ān in order that you may understand. (Yusuf 12: 2)

2. AL KITAB – THE BOOK

He it is Who sent among the unlettered ones a Messenger (Muhammad SAW) from among themselves, reciting to them His Verses, purifying them (from the filth of disbelief and polytheism), and teaching them the Book (this Qur'ān, Islāmic laws and Islāmic jurisprudence) and Al-Hikmah (As-Sunnah: legal ways, orders, acts of worship, etc. of Prophet Muhammad SAW). And verily, they had been before in mainfest error; (Al-Jumu'ah 62: 2)

The Kitab is the Quran and the Hikmah (wisdom) is the Sunnah

3. KALAMULLAH - THE SPEECH OF ALLAH (SUBHANAHU WA TA’ALA)

And if anyone of the Mushrikûn (polytheists, idolaters, pagans, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allāh) seeks your protection then grant him protection, so that he may hear the Word of Allāh (the Qur'ān), and then escort him to where he can be secure, that is because they are men who know not. (At-Tawbah 9: 6)

If a person believes that the Quran is the speech of someone other than Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala), that person is a kaafir

4. NUR

O mankind! Verily, there has come to you a convincing proof (Prophet Muhammad SAW) from your Lord, and We sent down to you a manifest light (this Qur'ān). (An-Nisa 4: 174)

The Quran is called Nur because you are enlightened with the teachings of the Quran.
It takes you away from the darkness of jahiliyyah to the light of Islam

5. MAW'IDHA
It admonishes the believers.  

6. SHIFAA – THE CURE
It cures you from both physical and spiritual ailments

The scholars use this hadith to say you can charge money for reciting over sick people (rukiyyah) and for teaching people the Quran:

Narrated By Abu Said: A group of the companions of Allah's Apostle proceeded on a journey till they dismounted near one of the Arab tribes and requested them to entertain them as their guests, but they (the tribe people) refused to entertain them. Then the chief of that tribe was bitten by a snake (or stung by a scorpion) and he was given all sorts of treatment, but all in vain. Some of them said, "Will you go to the group (those travelers) who have dismounted near you and see if one of them has something useful?" They came to them and said, "O the group! Our leader has been bitten by a snake (or stung by a scorpion) and we have treated him with everything but nothing benefited him Has anyone of you anything useful?" One of them replied, "Yes, by Allah, I know how to treat with a Ruqya. But. by Allah, we wanted you to receive us as your guests but you refused. I will not treat your patient with a Ruqya till you fix for us something as wages." Consequently they agreed to give those travelers a flock of sheep. The man went with them (the people of the tribe) and started spitting (on the bite) and reciting Surat-al-Fatiha till the patient was healed and started walking as if he had not been sick. When the tribe people paid them their wages they had agreed upon, some of them (the Prophet's companions) said, "Distribute (the sheep)." But the one who treated with the Ruqya said, "Do not do that till we go to Allah's Apostle and mention to him what has happened, and see what he will order us."  So they came to Allah's Apostle and mentioned the story to him and he said, "How do you know that Surat-al-Fatiha is a Ruqya? You have done the right thing. Divide (what you have got) and assign for me a share with you." [Sahih Bukhari, Vol 7, Book 71, Hadith #645]

The following hadith is used to allow people to charge for knowledge of the Quran:

Sahl ibn Sad Saidi (RA) reported that a woman came to Allah’s Messenger (SAW) and said, “I submit myself to you.” Then, she stood for a long time. A man said, “O Messenger of Allah, marry me to her, if you do not need her.” He said, “Do you have anything to give her (by way of dower)?’ He said, “I have nothing but this lower wrapper of the body.” So, Allah’s Messenger (SAW) said, “If you give it to her then you will sit and have no lower garment on you. So, Look out for something else.”
” He said, “I do not find.” The Prophet (SAW) said, “Search, even if you find an iron ring.” He said, “I sought but could not find anything.” So, Allah’s Messenger asked him, “Do you have with you anything of the Qur’an?” He said, “Yes, That surah, and that surah.” So Allah’s Messenger (SAW) said, “I marry you, to her with what you have of the Qur’an.” [Sahih Bukhari (6/192) No. 5029, Sahih Muslim (2/1040) No. 1425, Sunan Tirmidhi (3/421) No. 1114, Musnad Ahmad (5/330) No. 22850, Sunan An-Nasa'i (6/113) No. 3339]
   
7. HUDA – THE GUIDANCE
A guidance for mankind

8. RAHMA - MERCY
Mercy for mankind

O mankind! There has come to you a good advice from your Lord (i.e. the Qur'an, ordering all that is good and forbidding all that is evil), and a healing for that (disease of ignorance, doubt, hypocrisy and differences, etc.) in your breasts, - a guidance and a mercy (explaining lawful and unlawful things, etc.) for the believers. (Yunus 10: 57)

Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) has mentioned 4 of the names of the Quran in a single ayah. These are the ones for points 5-8:-

Maw’idha = an Instruction / Caution / Good advice
Shifaa = A Healing
Huda = A Guidance
Rahma = A Mercy

9. Al FURQAN
Furqan - A Criterion that you use to decide good from bad etc

For example, according to Quranic values two cousins are allowed to marry, but it is frowned upon in European culture.
Muslims see Quranic Values as their norm.
European values frown upon cousin marriages but allow and encourage marriage between two men or between two women
In South Africa it is not illegal for a person to have an affair

These infidels have no values

There is no other Furqan except the Quran
You use it to differentiate the Good from the Evil, the pure from the impure, etc
As Muslims, our values are the Quranic values

Ibn Mas'ud (RA) said, "Whatever the Muslims see as good is good with Allah, Whatever the Muslims see as bad, Allah sees as bad." [Mustadrak al-Haakim (3/83) No. 4465, classed as Sahih by Adh-Dhahabee]

10. THE DHIKR - REMINDER

Verily We: It is We Who have sent down the Dhikr (i.e. the Qur'ān) and surely, We will guard it (from corruption). (Al-Hijr 15: 9)

If you hear a person say the Quran is corrupted and you have doubts that the person is a kaafir, you become a kaafir as well
This concept is called, ‘Chain Takfir’
It is chain takfir because when you refuse to call the kaafir a kaafir, you become a kaafir yourself.

Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab (rahimahullah) explained chained takfir
Some misquote him and claim you cannot make takfir on born Muslims
This claim is ridiculous and is incorrect
If a person has apostatised from Islam, you make Takfir on him.
You are allowed to make takfir on born Muslims who have apostatised from Islam.

Al-Imam Ishaq Ibn Rahawayh said: ‘All Muslims are in consensus that whoever curses Allah or curses His Messenger, or rejects something from what Allah revealed, or killed a prophet, that he is a kafir; and even if he accept what was revealed by Allah. And Al-Khattabi said, "I don't know of anyone who disagrees with the obligation of his killing." And Muhammad Ibn Sahnun said that the scholars are in consensus that the one who curses the Messenger is a Kafir; and whoever doubts his Kufr is a Kafir.’ (Kitab al-Sarim al-Maslul 'ala satim al-Rasul, by Ibn Taymiyya)

11. THE RUH

It is called the Ruh because it gives life to those who were spiritually dead
There are two types of dead: Physical and Clinical

Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) refers to the Quran as Ruh in Ash Shura Verse 52:

And thus We have sent to you (O Muhammad SAW) Ruhan (an Inspiration, and a Mercy) of Our Command. You knew not what is the Book, nor what is Faith? But We have made it (this Qur'ān) a light wherewith We guide whosoever of Our slaves We will. And verily, you (O Muhammad SAW) are indeed guiding (mankind) to the Straight Path (i.e. Allāh's religion of Islāmic Monotheism). (Ash-Shura 42: 52)

Why does the Quran give life to the living?
Because it gives life to people who used to be spiritually dead

When Jesus (‘alayhi salatu wa salam) said, ‘Let the dead bury their dead’
He meant, let those who are spiritually dead (kuffaar) bury their relative (s) who were physically dead

12. AH SANUL HADITH
This means the Best of Speech
The word hadith means speech
And the best speech is the Quran
This is because some ahadith recorded about the Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) are hasan, daeef, daeef jidan, fabricated, munkar and sahih.

Hasan = good
Daeef = weak
Daeef jidan = very weak
Fabricated = fabricated
Sahih = Authentic
Munkar = objectionable / denounced (contradicts history)
E.g. If you see a hadith that says the prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) spent 15 years in Makkah, that contradicts the facts and so is Munkar

The Quran has no levels of grading because no one can say an ayah is fabricated or weak.
This is why Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Said the Best Hadith is the Book of Allah:

Allāh has sent down the best statement, a Book (this Qur'ān), its parts resembling each other in goodness and truth, oft-repeated. The skins of those who fear their Lord shiver from it (when they recite it or hear it). Then their skin and their heart soften to the remembrance of Allāh. That is the guidance of Allāh. He Guides therewith whom He pleases and whomever Allāh sends astray, for him there is no guide. (Az-ZOmar 39: 23)

This is why whenever you debate with people who don't believe in hadith, it's best that you use the Quran to debate them.
Because they can’t claim that the hujjah is weak or fabricated

Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Told you to contemplate on the Quran

Do they not then consider the Qur'ān carefully? Had it been from other than Allāh, they would surely have found therein much contradictions. (An-Nisa 4: 82)

13. TANZIL – THAT WHICH IS REVEALED (A REVELATION)

It is referred to Tanzilul Rahman – The revelation of Al Rahman

And truly, this (the Qur'ān) is a revelation from the Lord of the 'Alamīn (mankind, jinns and all that exists), (Ash-Shu'ara 26: 192)

14. THE WAHI

The word Wahi also means Revelation.

Say (O Muhammad SAW): "I warn you only by the revelation (from Allāh and not by the opinion of the religious scholars and others). But the deaf (who follow the religious scholars and others blindly) will not hear the call, (even) when they are warned [(i.e. one should follow only the Qur'ān and the Sunnah (legal ways, orders, acts of worship, statements of Prophet Muhammad SAW , as the Companions of the Prophet SAW did)]. (Al-Anbiya 21: 45)


15. THE ROPE OF ALLAH (SUBHANAHU WA TA’ALA)

Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) said in Aali Imran Verse 103:

And hold fast, all of you together, to the Rope of Allāh (i.e. this Qur'ān), and be not divided among yourselves...(Aali Imran 3: 103)

The Rope of Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) in the above ayah is the Holy Quran

16. AL ILM - THE KNOWLEDGE

Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) said that the Quran is the knowledge:

Never will the Jews nor the Christians be pleased with you (O Muhammad Peace be upon him) till you follow their religion. Say: "Verily, the Guidance of Allāh (i.e. Islāmic Monotheism) that is the (only) Guidance. And if you (O Muhammad Peace be upon him) were to follow their (Jews and Christians) desires after what you have received of Knowledge (i.e. the Qur'ān), then you would have against Allāh neither any Walī (protector or guardian) nor any helper. (Al-Baqarah 2: 120)

Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Told us in the Quran that the kuffar wants us to be like them in the above ayah.
This is why they complain that we don’t integrate into their societies

Even though Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) is Addressing Muhammad (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) in the ayah, it is a command for the Ummah of Muhammad (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) unless it is specified that this action is only for Muhammad (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam)

Similarly, even though the Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) only told one boy to eat from the area close to him, the instruction is for all Muslims:

Narrated By 'Omar bin Abi Salama: I was a boy under the care of Allah's Apostle and my hand used to go around the dish while I was eating. So Allah's Apostle said to me, 'O boy! Mention the Name of Allah and eat with your right hand, and eat of the dish what is nearer to you." Since then I have applied those instructions when eating. [Bukhari #5061 & Muslim #2022]

I once saw a woman in the Philippines making two rakah after Asr.  I had to correct her by telling her the hadith she took was only for the Prophet Muhammad (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) and not for the Ummah.


17. BASHIR - THE BRINGER OF GLAD TIDINGS

Giving glad tidings [of Paradise to the one who believes in the Oneness of Allāh (i.e. Islāmic Monotheism) and fears Allāh much (abstains from all kinds of sins and evil deeds) and loves Allāh much (performing all kinds of good deeds which He has ordained)], and warning (of punishment in the Hell Fire to the one who disbelieves in the Oneness of Allāh), but most of them turn away, so they listen not. (Fussilat 41: 4)

18. NADHIR - WARNER

Nadhir is a Warner for mankind
It warns us about the Day Of Judgement and the punishment one will receive if we disobey Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)

19. AL HAQQ - THE TRUTH

Verily! This is the true narrative [about the story of 'Iesa (Jesus)], and, Lā ilāha ill-Allāh (none has the right to be worshipped but Allāh, the One and the Only True God, Who has neither a wife nor a son). And indeed, Allāh is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise. (Aali Imran 3: 62)

The Quran is Al Haqq
No batil (Falsehood) can come into the Quran

Falsehood cannot come to it from before it or behind it (it is) sent down by the All-Wise, Worthy of all praise (Allāh). (Fussilat 41: 42)

20. AMRULLAH - THE COMMANDMENT OF ALLAH (SUBHANAHU WA TA’ALA)

That is the Command of Allāh, which He has sent down to you, and whosoever fears Allāh and keeps his duty to Him, He will remit his sins from him, and will enlarge his reward. (At-Talaq 65: 5)

According to the Mu'tazila, all the Commandments of the Quran mean mustahab (i.e. recommended)
According to Ahla sunna wal jamaa, all the Commandments of the Quran mean Fard (i.e. obligatory)
It is compulsory on you to follow the Commands of Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) unless we have evidence to do otherwise
According to Alha sunna wal jamaa all the commandments from the Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) are also fard unless we have evidence to prove otherwise.

The evidence of Ahla sunna wal jamaa is stronger:

And whatever the Messenger has given you - take; and what he has forbidden you - refrain from. And fear Allah; indeed, Allah is severe in penalty.’ (Hashr: 7)

In the time of the Rasool (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) there was a man called Magheeth (radiyallahu ‘anhu) and he loved his wife, Barira
Ayesha (radiyallahu ‘anha) paid to release his wife, Barira, from slavery.
According to Shariah if you and your wife are on the same status then you are kufuwan (co- equal to one another)
Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) used the same word in the following ayah

"And there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him." (Al-Ikhlas 112:4)

Barira was no longer a slave but her husband was still a slave
If one is not a slave, they can leave you on the grounds that you are no longer ‘kufuwan’ (co-equal)
 
When Ayesha paid for Barira to be free, she decided to move on
Magheeth would walk behind his ex-wife crying, begging her not to leave him
Magheeth asked the Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) to beg his wife not to move on
The Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) was touched by this & interceded
Barira asked the Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) "Are you commanding me?"
The Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) said, ‘No.. I am only interceding for Magheeth’
As the prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) declared that it was not a commandment, she acknowledged & moved on
This is the argument you use to checkmate the Mu'tazila:

Narrated Ibn `Abbas: Barira’s husband was a slave called Mughith, as if I am seeing him now, going behind Barira and weeping with his tears flowing down his beard. The Prophet () said to `Abbas, "O `Abbas ! are you not astonished at the love of Mughith for Barira and the hatred of Barira for Mughith?" The Prophet () then said to Barira, "Why don't you return to him?" She said, "O Allah's Messenger ()! Do you order me to do so?" He said, "No, I only intercede for him." She said, “I am not in need of him.” (Bukhari, Vol. 7, Book 63, Hadith 206)

All the four Imams except Imam Malick said that the marriage between two people who aren’t kufuwan is batil