Wednesday, June 10, 2015

(Notes & Audio) Science of Quran - Part 14 - The Causes of Revelation – Al Anfal

Science of Quran - Part 14 - The Causes of Revelation – Al Anfal 
By Shaikh Abdullah Faisal
Monday 8th June 2015

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Anfal means the booty or the spoils of war

This surah was revealed in Madinah
There was no Jihad (Anfal) during the Makkan period

What did Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Say in Anfal Verse 1 and why was it Revealed?

They ask you (O Muhammad SAW) about the spoils of war. Say: "The spoils are for Allah and the Messenger." So fear Allah and adjust all matters of difference among you, and obey Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad SAW), if you are believers. (Anfal: 1)

Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) revealed this ayah because the sahabah differed about the booty (Anfal) after the Battle of Badr:
Some sahabah said that they chased after the Kuffaar when they were fleeing from the battlefield, thus wanted a bigger portion
Some said they protected the Rasool (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) so they should get the bigger portion
And others said they fought and should therefore get the bigger portion

They asked the RASOOL (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) to adjudicate 
This is when Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Revealed the first ayah in surah Anfal
Telling them the Anfal belonged to Allah and His Messenger (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam)
Meaning the person who makes the final verdict has to be the Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam)
He (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) distributed the Anfal equitably among the Sahabah 
No one was given any special treatment regarding the Anfal

The Anfal was made halal for the ummah
The Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) said he was given 6 things no other prophet was given:

Abu Huraira reported that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: I have been given superiority over the other prophets in six respects: I have been given words which are concise but comprehensive in meaning; I have been helped by terror (in the hearts of enemies): spoils have been made lawful to me: the earth has been made for me clean and a place of worship; I have been sent to all mankind and the line of prophets is closed with me. [Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Hadith #1062]

The Battle of Badr started because of the Anfal
Abu Sufyaan (radiyallahu ‘anhu) was returning to Makkah from Syria with a caravan
The Rasool (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) then sent some sahabah to take the wealth from the caravan from Abu Sufyaan as a compensation for what they did:
They (the kuffaar of Makkah) seized the wealth of the Muslims when they were making hijra

Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Tells us that we are allowed to seek revenge if wrong is done to us by the infidels:

And indeed whosoever takes revenge after he has suffered wrong, for such there is no way (of blame) against them. (Shura: 41)

The way (of blame) is only against those who oppress men and wrongly rebel in the earth, for such there will be a painful torment. (Ash-Shura: 42)

If you are asked if you are allowed to launch a battle because of Anfal, the answer would be yes. It is halal to launch a jihad for the sake of Anfal

1/5th of the Anfal belongs to Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) and His Rasool (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam)
So the Caliph or the Amir takes 1/5th and gives it to ahlul bait

The Caliph has to be from Quraish

Narrated by Ibn Omar: the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said, "This matter (caliphate) will remain with the Quraish even if only two of them were still existing." [al-Bukhari (3501) and Muslim (1820)]

The Caliph plays the role of the Rasool (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam)

And know that whatever of war-booty that you may gain, verily one-fifth (1/5th) of it is assigned to Allah, and to the Messenger, and to the near relatives [of the Messenger (Muhammad SAW)], (and also) the orphans, Al-Masakin (the poor) and the wayfarer, if you have believed in Allah and in that which We sent down to Our slave (Muhammad SAW) on the Day of criterion (between right and wrong), the Day when the two forces met (the battle of Badr) - And Allah is Able to do all things. (Anfal: 41)

From this ayah we know that 1/5th of the booty goes to the Caliph who will give some of the Anfal to widows, orphans and to the masakeen (the poor)
The remaining 4/5th belongs to the Mujahideen

As for who gets what, that is left up to the ijtihad of the Amir
The Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) chose to split it evenly
Others gave 1/5th to foot soldiers and 3/5th to soldiers with horses
No mujahid fights on the back of horses now so this is not applicable
The Amir decides how this is distributed

After the battle, the women and children of the kuffaar are taken as captives and sold in the marketplace at an auction like you auction cattle
The evidence for it is in surah mu’minoon Verses 5-7

And those who guard their chastity (i.e. private parts, from illegal s-xual acts) (Mu'minun: 5)

Except from their wives or (the captives and slaves) that their right hands possess, for then, they are free from blame; (Mu'minun: 6)

But whoever seeks beyond that, then those are the transgressors; (Mu'minun: 7)

Because of this ayah, the ulama agree that right hand posses is permissible from now up until the Day of Judgement (DOJ)
Because of the following hadith:

On the authority of Jabir the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: "... Jihad is compulsory on you until Judgment Day..." [al-Mu'jam al-Awsat al-Tabarani (5/95) No. 4775 and Abu Naeem al-Asbahani in 'Hilyatul Awliya' (3/73)]

What did Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Say in Anfal Verse 7 and why was it Revealed?

And (remember) when Allāh promised you (Muslims) one of the two parties (of the enemy i.e. either the army or the caravan) that it should be yours, you wished that the one not armed (the caravan) should be yours, but Allāh willed to justify the truth by His Words and to cut off the roots of the disbelievers (i.e. in the battle of Badr). (Anfal: 7)

The Muslims wanted to go after the easy targets, but Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) wanted them to go after hard targets

The Muslims had to confront two parties:
1. The caravan of Abu Sufyaan (easy target)
2. The army of Abu Jahl (tough fight because they were armed)

In the Ayah, Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Tells us that the sahabah wanted to go after the easy target
That it is human nature to take the easier option.
Even the animals in the jungle prefer the easy target

Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Promised them one of the two
Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) wanted for them to get the hard catch - to face the army of Abu Jahl
Because He (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) wanted the Words of Allah to become manifest
He (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Wanted them to cut off the root of kufr (disbelief)
If they defeated Abu Jahl, they would kill the heads of Quraish - the greatest enemies of the Rasool (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam)
The more difficult the battle, the sweeter the victory

What did Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Say in Anfal Verse 8 and why was it Revealed?

That He might cause the truth to triumph and bring falsehood to nothing, even though the Mujrimûn (disbelievers, polytheists, sinners, criminals, etc.) hate it. (Anfal: 8)

Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) revealed this ayah to tell the sahabah why He wanted them to face the army of Quraish
They were 1000 kuffaar and the Muslims were only 313
And they won the battle and disgraced kufr
When you win a battle against the kuffaar; you disgrace kufr

What did Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Say in Anfal Verse 9 and why was it Revealed?

(Remember) when you sought help of your Lord and He answered you (saying) : "I will help you with a thousand of the angels each behind the other (following one another) in succession." (Anfal: 9)

Before the Battle of Badr began, the Rasool (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) made a dua:

Narrated By Ibn Abbas: On the day of the battle of Badr, the Prophet said, "O Allah! I appeal to You (to fulfil) Your Covenant and Promise. O Allah! If Your Will is that none should worship You (then give victory to the pagans)." Then Abu Bakr took hold of him by the hand and said, "This is sufficient for you." The Prophet came out saying, "Their multitude will be put to flight and they will show their backs." (54.45) [Sahih Bukhari, Vol 5, Book 59, Hadith #289]

The Angel Gabriel asked the Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) about the sahabah who fought at Badr

Jibril (Gabriel) came to the Prophet () and asked him: "How do you estimate among you those who participated in the battle of Badr?" He replied, "They were the best of Muslims" (or he may have said something similar to that). Jibril said: “he same is the case with the angels who were at Badr." (Al- Bukhari: Book 19, Hadith 1829)

What did Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Say in Anfal Verse 17 and why was it Revealed?

You killed them not, but Allah killed them. And you (Muhammad SAW) threw not when you did throw but Allah threw, that He might test the believers by a fair trial from Him. Verily, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower. (Anfal: 17)

When the two armies came face to face
The Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) picked up a handful of sand
He (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) threw it in the air
Although it was a small handful, it went into the eyes each kafir who was in army of Quraish
So Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Revealed Anfal: 17 Saying the act of throwing came from Muhammad (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam), but the Miracle of it reaching the eyes of the kuffaar Came from Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)

"Allah does not Grant us Victory except after we go through a struggle."  Imam Anwar Al Awlakī (rahimahullah)

What did Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Say in Anfal Verse 19 and why was it Revealed?

(O disbelievers) if you ask for a judgement, now has the judgement come unto you and if you cease (to do wrong), it will be better for you, and if you return (to the attack), so shall We return, and your forces will be of no avail to you, however numerous it be, and verily, Allah is with the believers. (Al-Anfal 8: 19)

The disbelievers here are the kuffaar of Quraish
Before the Battle of Badr started Abu Jahl made a dua because he believed in Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala).

If he believed in Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala), Why is he a kaafir?
He was a Kaafir because he worshipped idols and used the idols as a conduit to reach Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala).
(The shahadah is made up of two parts, rejecting Taghoot & believing in Allah alone)

What was the dua of Abu Jahl?

`Abdullah bin Tha`labah said, "Abu Jahl asked for (Allah's judgment) when he said upon facing the Muslims, `O Allah! Those among us who severed the relations of the womb and brought forth what we do not recognize, then destroy him this day.''' This was also recorded by An-Nasa'i in the Book of Tafsir (of his Sunan) and Al-Hakim in his Mustadrak, and he said, "It is Sahih according to the criteria of the Two Shaykhs, and they did not record it. ''. Similar statements were reported from Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, Yazid bin Ruwman and several others. As-Suddi commented, "Before the idolators left Makkah for Badr, they clung to the curtains covering the Ka`bah and supplicated to Allah for victory, `O Allah! Give victory to the exalted among the two armies, the most honored among the two groups, and the most righteous among the two tribes.' [Ahmad]

Abu Jahl made a dua against the Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam)
He believed the rasul (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) broke up families
Because fathers, son, uncles, nephews were fighting each other
Because one is a Muslim and the other is a kafir

When Abu Jahl came face to face with Muhammad (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam), he prayed to Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) not to Lat, Hubal, Manat
When Abu Jahl made this dua, Allah Revealed Anfal: 19

(O disbelievers) if you ask for a judgement, now has the judgement come unto you and if you cease (to do wrong), it will be better for you, and if you return (to the attack), so shall We return, and your forces will be of no avail to you, however numerous it be, and verily, Allāh is with the believers. (Anfal: 19)

Abu Jahl found Islam strange
So the Rasool (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) said:

Abu Hurayrah narrated: The Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: “Islam began as something strange and will revert to being strange as it began, so give glad tidings to the strangers.” [Sahih Muslim (1/130) No. 145]

And today some people will deem you crazy for not believing in democracy
Our Way of Life is Islam, not Democracy
True Islam is strange today even to the Muslim

What did Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Say in Anfal Verse 22 and why was it Revealed?

Verily! The worst of (moving) living creatures with Allah are the deaf and the dumb, those who understand not (i.e. the disbelievers). (Anfal: 22)

This ayah was revealed for the disbelievers who were loyal to their kufr
They should have used their Aql and ask, "How can I make my own God with my own hands?"
You are a beast if you don't use your own brain
Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) has Given you a brain to contemplate on these things

If you don't use your aql, you don't understand anything
When you hear the priest say, ‘Holy Mary Mother of God’
Why don't you use your aql and ask, ‘How can Mary give birth to God?’

When you hear them say, ‘God beget a son’
You should question, ‘How can this be so?’
They say God has the power to do everything, so He can beget a son
They have this ideology because they don’t have Tauheed Asma Wa sifaat
Some things are beneath the Dignity of Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)
To oppress people is an example of such
Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) has the Power to oppress, but He will never do so
Oppression is haram on Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala):

Abu Dharr reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said: Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, said, “O my servants, I have forbidden oppression for myself and I have made it forbidden among you, so do not oppress one another. O my servants, all of you are astray except for those I have guided, so seek guidance from me and I shall guide you. O my servants, all of you are hungry except for those I have fed, so seek food from Me and I shall feed you. O my servants, all of you are naked except for those I have clothed, so seek clothing from me and I shall clothe you. O my servants, you sin by night and day and I forgive all sins, so seek forgiveness from me and I shall forgive you. O my servants, you will not be able to cause harm to me and you will not be able to cause benefit to me. O my servants, were the first of you and the last of you, the human of you and the jinn of you, to become as pious as the most pious heart of anyone of you, that would not increase my kingdom in anything. O my servants, were the first of you and the last of you, the human of you and the jinn of you, to be as wicked as the most wicked heart of anyone of you, that would not decrease my kingdom in anything. O my servants, were the first of you and the last of you, the human of you and the jinn of you, to rise up in one place and make a request of me, and were I to give everyone what he requested, that would not decrease what I have any more than a needle would decrease the sea if put into it. O my servants, it is only your deeds that I record for you and then recompense for you, so let him who finds good praise Allah and let him who finds other than that blame no one but himself.” (Muslim 2577)

Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) said that Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) will never Tell a lie, Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) will never break a promise and Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) will never beget a son

All these things are beneath the Dignity of Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)
Only humans do these things
Christians don't understand Tawheed Asma wa Sifaat
They don’t even understand Tauheed Haakimiyyah – Tauheed of legislation
They take their priests as law-givers
They don't understand Tawheed Ibaadah
Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) alone deserves to be worshipped
This is why they worship three gods
They don't understand Tawheed ar Rububiyyah
Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Said the worst of created people are those who don't use their aql
Those who are loyal to a false religion are loyal to a fault
They will loose out in the long run

What did Allah Say in Anfal Verse 27 and why was it Revealed?

O you who believe! Betray not Allah and His Messenger, nor betray knowingly your Amanat (things entrusted to you, and all the duties which Allah has ordained for you).[]  (Anfal: 27)

In 5 AH, a Jewish tribe, Banu Qurayda, broke their treaty with the Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam)
The Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) laid siege over their fortress for 21 days
They were hoping that the Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) would give them a break
They were hoping the Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) would allow them to leave Madinah quietly like he allowed Banu Nadir in 4 AH
Banu Nadir plotted to kill the Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam)
And he (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) allowed them to leave Madinah quietly

This Jewish tribe had relations with a sahabi called Abu Lubabah (radiyallahu ‘anhu)
They asked him who should adjudicate in their matter: Muhammad (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) or Saad ibn Mu'adh (radiyallahu ‘anhu)
Abu Lubabah said, If you ask Saad to adjudicate you will be beheaded - using his finger to swipe his neck as a description
He advised them to ask for Muhammad (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) but they asked for Saad anyway

Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Revealed Ayah 27 in Surah Anfal for Abu Lubabah
You are not allowed to tip-off the enemy like Abu Lubabah did
Abu Lubabah knew Saad because they were from the same community

The Jews broke their peace treaty at the Battle of the Ditch
They did not follow Abu Lubabah's advice, and asked Saad to adjudicate:

Narrated Sa’id Al-Khudri (RA): Some people (i.e. the Jews of Bani Quraidah) agreed to accept the verdict of Saad Ibn Muaadh (RA), so the Prophet (PBUH) sent for him. He came riding a donkey, and when he approached the mosque, the Prophet (PBUH) said, “Get up for the best amongst you.” Or said, “Get up for your chief.” Then the Prophet (PBUH) said, “O Saad! These people have agreed to (accept) your verdict.” Saad Ibn Muaadh (RA) said, “I judge that their warriors should be killed and their children & women should be taken as captives.” The Prophet (PBUH) said, “You have given a judgement similar to Allah’s judgement.” (Hadith No. 3804, Book of Merits of Al-Ansar, Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 5)

Saad did exactly as Abu Lubabah said he would
He advised the Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) to have the treacherous tribe beheaded
And Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Agreed with the verdict of Saad

Saad wasn't an ordinary sahabi
When he died the Throne of Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) shook and 70,000 angels attended his janazah:

'Abdallah ibn Omar reported, "The Prophet (SAW), said, 'This is (Sa'd ibn Mu'azh), for whom the Throne (of Allah) moved. The doors of Heaven were opened for him and seventy thousand angels participated (in his funeral prayer). (His grave) was compressed and later on was expanded for him'.'' [Musnad al-Bazzar (12/152) No. 5747, Nasa'i in 'Sunan al-Kubra' (1/660) No. 2182, al-Tabarani in 'al-Mu’jam al-Awsat' (2/199) No. 1707 and 'al-Mu’jam al-Kabir' (6/10) No. 5333]

What did Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Say in Anfal Verses 32-33 and why were they Revealed?

And (remember) when they said: "O Allah! If this (the Qur'an) is indeed the truth (Revealed) from You, then rain down stones on us from the sky or bring on us a painful torment." (Anfal: 32)

And Allah would not punish them while you (Muhammad SAW) are amongst them, nor will He punish them while they seek (Allah's) Forgiveness. (Anfal: 33)

This ayah was revealed because of Abu Jahl
When Abu Jahl had doubt about the Book of Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)
He made a dua; his dua is mentioned in Anfal: 32 above

When Abu Jahl made the dua, Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) answered him in Anfal: 33

Out of respect for Muhammad (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam),
Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) would not Destroy the place with a natural disaster
While Muhammad (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) was still with them
Because Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Said in Anbiya: 107

And We have sent you (O Muhammad SAW) not but as a mercy for the 'Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists). (Anbiya: 107)

Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Said Muhammad (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) is a mercy for all of mankind

What did Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Say in Anfal Verse 36 and why was it Revealed?

Verily, those who disbelieve spend their wealth to hinder (men) from the Path of Allah, and so will they continue to spend it; but in the end it will become an anguish for them. Then they will be overcomed. And those who disbelieve will be gathered unto Hell. (Anfal: 36)

This Ayah was revealed about the pagans of Quraish
They spent their wealth to fight the Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) in many battles
But in the end Quraish was defeated and had to embrace Islam
The last battle they fought, was the Battle of the Trench (Battle of the Ditch)
The Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) said it will be the last battle
In which they will attack the Muslims

On the day of Al-Ahzab (i.e. clans) the Prophet said, (After this battle) we will go to attack them (i.e. the infidels) and they will not come to attack us." (Sahih Bukhari, Book 5 Volume 59 Hadith 435)

What did Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Say in Anfal Verse 39 and why was it Revealed?

And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and polytheism: i.e. worshipping others besides Allah) and the religion (worship) will all be for Allah Alone [in the whole of the world[]]. But if they cease (worshipping others besides Allah), then certainly, Allah is All-Seer of what they do. (Anfal: 39)

This ayah was revealed to explain that Jihad is of two types: Defensive and Offensive
Daf3 = Defensive
Talab = Offensive

In the Islamic State you are not allowed to say the Ministry of Defense
You have to say the Ministry of War
Ministry of Defense is bidah
Thinking that jihad is just one type (defensive) misleads the Muslims
The apologetic Muslims promote this ideology

Narrated By Ibn Aun: “I wrote a letter to Nafi and Nafi wrote in reply to my letter that the Prophet had suddenly attacked Bani Mustaliq without warning while they were heedless and their cattle were being watered at the places of water. Their fighting men were killed and their women and children were taken as captives; the Prophet got Juwairiya on that day. Nafi said that Ibn Omar had told him the above narration and that Ibn Omar was in that army.” [al-Bukhari (2541) and Muslim (1730)]

The Rasool (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) attacked Banu Mustalik when they were asleep
This was the same battle Hazrat Aysha (radiyallahu ‘anha) got lost in

What did Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Say in Anfal Verse 64 and why was it Revealed?

O Prophet (Muhammad SAW)! Allah is Sufficient for you and for the believers who follow you. (Anfal: 64)

This was revealed about Omar ibn Al Khattab (radiyallahu ‘anhu)
The Muslims of Makkah use to be only 39 souls
When Omar took shahada, it made the number jump to 40 souls
When Omar took shahada, the Muslims felt protected because Omar was fierce
They put their trust in him instead of Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)
This is why Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Revealed Anfal: 64
To Remind the Muslims to put their trust in Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala)
The Muslims used to pray in secret before Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Guided Omar to take the shahada

What did Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Say in Anfal Verses 67 - 69 and why were they Revealed?

It is not for a Prophet that he should have prisoners of war (and free them with ransom) until he had made a great slaughter (among his enemies) in the land. You desire the good of this world (i.e. the money of ransom for freeing the captives), but Allah desires (for you) the Hereafter. And Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise. (Anfal: 67)

Were it not a previous ordainment from Allah, a severe torment would have touched you for what you took. (Anfal: 68)

So enjoy what you have gotten of booty in war, lawful and good, and be afraid of Allah. Certainly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (Anfal: 69)

This was Revealed to correct a mistake made by the Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam)
It was at the Battle of Badr when he (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) had 70 captives
He (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) called a shurah meeting
Both Abu Bakr and Omar (radiyallahu ‘anhuma) were at the meeting
He (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) asked what to do with the captives
Abu Bakr (radiyallahu ‘anhu) said to set them free because the Muslims fought their relatives at this battle
Omar (radiyallahu ‘anhu) said to chop off their heads
The Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) turned away from Omar because his own uncle, Abbas (radiyallahu ‘anhu), was among the captives
Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Revealed the Ayah to take sides with Omar

On the authority of Anas who said, "The Prophet asked the people for their opinion about the prisoners of war of Badr, saying, Allah has made you prevail above them. Omar bin Al-Khattab stood up and said, `O Allah's Messenger! Cut off their necks,' but the Prophet turned away from him. The Messenger of Allah again asked, O people! Allah has made you prevail over them, and only yesterday, they were your brothers. Omar again stood up and said, `O Allah's Messenger! Cut off their necks.' The Prophet ignored him and asked the same question again and he repeated the same answer. Abu Bakr As-Siddiq stood up and said, `O Allah's Messenger! I think you should pardon them and set them free in return for ransom.' Thereupon the grief on the face of Allah's Messenger vanished. He pardoned them and accepted ransom for their release. Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, Revealed this verse, Were it not a previous ordainment from Allah, a severe torment would have touched you for what you took. (Al-Anfal 8:68) [Musnad Ahmad (3/243) No. 13580]

What Omar (radiyallahu ‘anhu) said is shocking to many Muslims
Omar said if you have a kafir brother from Makkah that came to fight the Muslims in Madinah, you have to chop off the head of your brother
When you take captives it slows you down

The Muslims of Iraq have many cities to conquer: Baghdad, Karbala, Erbil etc
If they take captives, they will slow them down and resources will be wasted on them
Because they will have to be fed and watched over
It is cheaper to kill them and get over it
The food we have is for the mujahideen not for the Kuffaar!

One of the captives said to the Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam)
That he has daughters and that no one would be left to feed them
The Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) then released this man
He promised never to fight the Muslims again
The man came back a year later in Uhud to fight and killed Muslims

Omar knew that if you set captives free, they will come back later to take revenge
If you have a whole country to capture, to take captives is insanity

What did Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Say in Anfal Verse 70 and why was it Revealed?

O Prophet! Say to the captives that are in your hands: "If Allah knows any good in your hearts, He will give you something better than what has been taken from you, and He will forgive you, and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." (Anfal: 70)

This was revealed for Al Abbas (radiyallahu ‘anhu), the uncle of the Prophet
(Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam)
He was a captive at Badr and had 20 pieces of gold with him
It was taken away from him to buy his freedom
But when it was decided that he had to give up the gold to free himself
He said he would go home poor if he gave all 20 pieces of gold
He said he didn't want to beg from Quraish
The Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) asked him about the gold he left behind with his wife, Umm Fadl (radiyallahu ‘anha)
And the Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) quoted the exact amount his uncle left at home
Abbas was in shock and asked the Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) how he knew this, because only his wife and he knew about the money
He (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) said, Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) told him
When the Rasool (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) said that Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) told him, Abbas took his shahada
Abbas said that only a real Prophet could have known this fact
Because not even his children knew about it

Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Says about people like Abbas
That if He (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) Sees any good in their hearts, He will bring them to Islam
And when you come to Islam, Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) will enrich you
Abbas said after he embraced Islam, he became so rich
He had 20 different servants to attend to his needs

Question 1: Asalamu alaikum shaikh, the captive women and children that are sold, will the kids belong to their mothers or be separated? How will they (women and their children) be treated according to sharia?

Answer 1: They are not to be separated because you are not allowed to break the ties of kinship.
It is unwise to separate them
You have to feed them with what you eat and dress them with proper clothing.
These women are spoils of war so I had no choice but to mention them.

You don't have to marry your spoils of war to go to bed with them
The Prophet (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) didn't marry his right hand possess, Maria
They are NOT sex slaves. The media uses this term to shock their audience

Right hand possess can be educated and go to university
The kaafir use the term sex slave because all the people in the West think about is sex

You are not allowed to call these people sex slaves. They are right hand possess.

HADITH ABOUT SLAVES: “Verily, you are a person with ignorance in you. Your slaves are your brothers. Allah has placed them in your hand, and he who has his brother under him should feed him with the same food he eats and clothe him with the same clothes he wears, and do not burden him beyond his capacity, and if you burden him then help him.” [Sahih Muslim 1661]

Interestingly in countries like Thailand, where sex slavery is accepted in their culture, Thai women encourage their husbands to visit brothels to sleep with sex slaves instead of their husbands having a concubine at home. This is because they know the concubine (or the minor wife as they call it) has financial and emotional rights over the man, but a sex slave is just a piece of meat kept in a harem (brothel).

‘All-male groups out for a night on the town are considered normal in any Thai city, and whole neighborhoods are devoted to serving them. Most Thais, men and women, feel that commercial s-x is an acceptable part of an ordinary outing for single men, and about two-thirds of men and one-third of women feel the same about married men.'

For most married women, having their husbands go to prostitutes is preferable to other forms of extramarital s-x. Most wives accept that men naturally want multiple partners, and prostitutes are seen as less threatening to the stability of the family.' Prostitutes require no long-term commitment or emotional involvement. When a husband uses a prostitute he is thought to be fulfilling a male role, but when he takes a minor wife or mistress, his wife is thought to have failed. Minor wives are usually bigamous second wives, often married by law in a district different than that of the first marriage (easily done, since no national records are kept). As wives, they require upkeep, housing, and regular support, and their offspring have a claim on inheritance; so they present a significant danger to the well-being of the major wife and her children. The relationship may not be formalized (polygamy is illegal) but it nevertheless will be regarded as binding, and the children still have legal claims for support. For the minor wife from a poor background, attachment to a well-heeled older man is a proven avenue to upward social mobility. The potential disaster for the first wife is a minor wife who convinces the man to leave his first family, and this happens often enough to keep first wives worried and watchful.

Given that s-x is for sale everywhere, and that noncommercial s-x threatens the family more gravely, it is little wonder that Thai wives maintain a "don't ask-don't tell" policy about prostitution. As greater spending power means their husbands can buy s-x at will, most Thai women are resigned to it, simply hoping that his interest doesn't shift to a minor wife. Within this context, their husbands' occasional visits to brothels with the boys are overlooked by wives. Because it is part of a normal outing, most men feel little or no shame in buying s-x. Certainly any hesitation they might feel is quickly melted by alcohol and peer pressure.’

(Kevin Bales, Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy (University of California Press: 2004) p. 45)

Question 2: Is Abu Lubabah the same sahabi who tied himself to the pillar of the Masjid? Also, if someone preaches that Islam is peace and says Islam only preaches peace, does that make him a zindeeq, and as a result make him a kafir for his zandaqa?

Answer 2: Yes, he is the same sahabi who tied himself to a pillar of the masjid and swore he would not eat. He stayed tied up for 7 days and refused to leave that state until Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) forgave him. When this happened he said only the rasul (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) should untie the ropes. He (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam) did so.

He was ashamed of what he did, speaking about Saad
He was ashamed for tipping off the Jews
By tipping off the Jews, he betrayed Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala) and His Rasool (Salallahu 'Alayhi wa sallam)

As for the man who claims Islam is only peace, we say he is misguided not zindeeq
Zindeeq means a heretic and is a strong word for this situation
Zindeeq is someone who makes up his own religion like Mirza Ghulam Ahmad