Friday, May 26, 2017

The Rules of Fasting (Notes & Audio)

The Rules of Fasting
by Shaikh Faisal

Notes Typed Live by AT19 
Formatted and Edited by AT-001

Shaban 27, 1438
May 24, 2017 



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WHAT IS THE DEFINITION OF FASTING?

The literal meaning of fasting is Imsaak (abstention).
 - To abstain from food, drink, smoking and intercourse with your wife.
 - The duration of fasting is between the Adthan of Fajr and the Adthan of
   Maghrib.
 - The purpose is to seek the pleasure Allahﷻ.
 - Hearing Adthan of Fajr is the time to stop eating.
 - If you stop eating when the Fajr Adthan is over, then there’s no fault with
   you. However, it's better to stop eating when you hear the Muadthen
   (caller) pronounces the first "Allahu Akbar.”
 - Also, if you live in a far community and can not hear the Adthan on a loud
   speaker, then follow the timetable of your community.
 - For example, if your local timetable states that Fajr starts at 4:30am and
   ends at 5:30am, you should stop eating at 4:30am.
 - However, if you stop eating at 5am, there's no fault in you.
 - Therefore, you are allowed to stop eating in the middle of the duration of
   the times.  So if Fajr begins at 4:30am and ends at 5am you can stop eating
   at  4:45am.

SUHOOR

 - Suhoor is the meal you eat before the Fajr Adthan.
 - This meal is a Sunnah Mu’akkadah (Certainty).

HADITH

Salmaan (RA) narrated the Allah’s Messengerﷺ said: "Blessings are found in three things, the Group (Al-Jama'ah), Ath-thareed (a type of food) and As-Suhoor (the Pre-dawn meal)." [Al-Bukhari (1923) and Muslim (1095)]

ANOTHER HADITH

Anas ibn Malik (RA) narrated the Prophetﷺ said: “Eat sahoor, for in sahoor there is blessing.” [Al-Bukhari (1923) and Muslim (1095)]

 - You should eat your Sahoor until the last minute possible.
 - Don't think it is better to stop eating prematurely or a little early before  
   Fajr Adthan.
 - On a side note, you should rush to break your fast.

THOSE EXEMPTED FROM FASTING

There are 12 people who are exempted from fasting:


1.  THE MADMAN

 - This person is exempted because he can't formulate an intention to fast.  
 - Without an intention, there is NO fast.

HADITH

Ali reported that Allah's Messengerﷺ said: "The pen has been raised for three persons (meaning they are not held accountable for what they do): one who is sleeping until he gets up, a child until he reaches the age of puberty, and an insane person until he becomes sane." [Musnad Ahmad (1/154) No. 1327, Sunan Abu Dawud (4/140) No. 4402, Sunan Tirmidhi (4/32) No. 1423, Sunan Ibn Majah (3/198) No. 2041, al-Sunan al-Kubra al-Nasa'i (5/265) No. 5596, Mustadrak al-Haakim (2/67) No. 2350]


2.  CHILDREN WHO HAVEN’T REACHED PUBERTY

FATWA

Ibn Qudaamah (RH) said: "The age of ten is more likely, because the Prophetﷺ enjoined smacking children for not praying at this age, and regarding fasting as being like prayer is better, because they are close to one another, and because they are both physical actions that are pillars of Islam. But fasting is harder, so attention should be paid to when the child becomes able for it, because some may be able to pray who are not yet able to fast." [Al-Mughni (3/161)]

ANOTHER FATWA

Uthaymeen said: If he is young and has not yet reached puberty, he is not obliged to fast, but if he is able to do it without hardship, then he should be told to do so. The Sahaabah (RA) used to make their children fast, and if the younger ones cried they would give them toys to distract them. But if it is proven that it is harmful to him, then he should be stopped from fasting. If Allahﷻ has forbidden us to give youngsters their wealth if there is the fear that they may abuse it, then it is more appropriate that they be stopped from doing something if there is the fear of physical harm. But that should not be done by force, because that is not appropriate in raising children. Majmoo’ Fataawa al-Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, 19/83


3.  THE ELDERLY

 - If the elderly are rich, they should donate $100 in charity.


4.  THE SICK

There are two types of sicknesses:

  • Terminally sick
  • Temporarily sick

 - An example of a terminally ill person is someone with diabetes.
 - The terminally ill person is exempted from fasting.
 - This person should donate $100 in charity.
 - An example of a temporarily ill person is someone with a fever.
 - The person who is temporarily ill has to make up the missed fasting days.


5.  THE PREGNANT WOMAN


6.  THE BREASTFEEDING MOTHER

 - The pregnant woman and breastfeeding mother have the same Hukm
   (ruling).
 - They are treated like the man who is terminally ill.
 - She may fear for the health of the baby.
 - If they fear they can't fast, they should give away in charity by feeding the
   poor.
 - They do not have to make up the fasting days.

FATWA

Among the Sahabah, this was the view of Abdullah Ibn Abbas (RA). Ibn Qudamah also narrated this in al-Mughni (3/150) from Ibn Omar (RA). Abu Dawood (231 narrated from Ibn Abbas (RA) and Ali (RA) that this phrase; 'those who can fast with difficulty [Surah al-Baqarah (2):184] was a concession granted to old men and old women who find it difficult to fast, allowing them not to fast and to feed one poor person for each day instead, and the same for pregnant and breastfeeding women if they are afraid. Abu Dawood said, i.e., for their children they may not fast and may feed (the poor) instead.' Al-Nawawi said, 'its isnad is hasan.' This was also narrated by al-Bazzar who added at the end, 'Ibn Abbas used to say to a concubine of his who was pregnant: You are like one who cannot fast, so you have to pay the Fidya but you do not have to make up the fasts. [Al-Daraqutni classed its isnad as saheeh, as stated by al-Hafiz in al-Talkhees]

 - In South Africa, I appeared on ITV. They asked me questions about the
   pregnant and breastfeeding mother and were surprised at my response
   about not being obliged to make up the fast.
 - They questioned this fatwa and ruling because it was the first time they
   ever heard of this.
 - This fatwa is the Madthab of Ibn Abbas and Ibn Umar.
 - In South Africa, they follow Hanifi Madthab. Abu Hanifa had the opinion
   that the days should be made up.

HADITH

'Ata' said: "One should break the fast on account of illness, whatever it may be, as Allahﷻ has said (in Al-Baqarah: 184)."

And Hasan and Ibrahim said:

"Concerning the woman who gives suck and the one with child, when they fear about themselves or their child, they should break the fast, then fast on other days. And as to the very old man when he cannot bear fasting. Anas, after he became old, fed one who was needy, for a year or two daily with bread and meat, and broke the fast." [Sahih Bukhari (6/25)]

 - Some women miss multiple Ramadan due to pregnancy and breastfeeding.
 - Making up those days missed will be a burden and a hardship.


7.  THE TRAVELLER

HADITH

Aisha (RA) narrated: Hamza bin 'Amr Al-Aslami asked the Prophetﷺ : "Should I fast while traveling?" The Prophetﷺ replied, "You may fast if you wish, and you may not fast if you wish." [Al-Bukhari (1943) and Muslim (1121)]

ANOTHER HADITH

Hamza bin 'Amr Al-Aslami Aisha (RA) narrated: Hamza bin 'Amr Al-Aslami asked the Prophetﷺ :
"Should I fast while traveling?" The Prophetﷺ replied, "You may fast if you wish, and you may not fast if you wish." [Al-Bukhari (1943) and Muslim (1121)]


8.  THE MUJAHIDEEN

HADITH

Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri (RA) said: 'We travelled with the Allah’s Messengerﷺ to Makkah (meaning at the Conquest of Makkah) and we were fasting. We stopped to camp and Allah’s Messengerﷺ said: “You are approaching your enemy and breaking the fast will make you stronger.” This was a concession, and some of us continued to fast and some of us broke our fast. Then we stopped to camp again, and he said, “You are going to meet your enemy in the morning, and breaking the fast will make you stronger, so break your fast.” So we had no choice but to break our fast.' [Sahih Muslim (2/789) No. 1120]


9.  WOMEN ON MENSES

 - The woman on her menses doesn't fast. However, she has to make up the days missed after Ramadan ends.

HADITH

Mu'adha narrated: I asked 'A'isha: What is the reason that a menstruating woman completes the fasts (that she abandons during her monthly course). But she does not complete the prayers? She ('A'isha) said: Are you a Haruriya? I said: I am not a Haruriya, but I simply want to inquire. She said: We passed through this (period of menstruation), and we were ordered to complete the fasts, but were not ordered to complete the prayers. [Sahih Muslim (1/265) No. 335]

 - The Mother of the Believers Aisha (RA) questioned the woman as a
   Haruriya.
 - Haruriya were the Khawarij of the time because they occupied a town in
   Iraq called Harur.


10.  A WOMAN BLEEDING AFTER CHILDBIRTH

 - A woman bleeding due to childbirth is not allowed to fast.
 - She has the same hukm (ruling) as the women on their menses.


11.  PEOPLE WITH DIFFICULT JOBS
- People with difficult occupations are exempted from fasting.
- For example, Bricklayers and truck drivers are exempt.


12.  PEOPLE WHO FIND THE FAST UNBEARABLE

 - A person is allowed to break the fast because it's unbearable. However,
   you would have to make up the days missed.
 - If you start the first day of Ramadan fasting then finding it difficult to
   continue, you can end the fast the same day you started, and then making
   it up at a later time after Ramadan ends.

FATWA

Ibn Taymiyyah stated:
If Fasting Causes Fainting and Madness, he was asked about a man who, whenever he wants to fast, he faints, and speaks incomprehensibly. He may continue for days in this state. Some people accuse him of madness, although this is not apparent from him?

He (Sheikh ul Islam) answered:

Praise be to Allahﷻ. If fasting causes such illness for him, he is permitted to break his fast and make it up. If this happens whenever he fasts, then he is unable to fast. Hence he is required to feed a poor person for everyday he breaks the fast. And Allahﷻ knows best.   

(Ibn Taymiyyah, ‘The Nature of Fasting’ (Dar us Salam: Riyadh, 2000) pg 79)


STARTING YOUR FAST IN A STATE OF JANAABA

 - If you have intercourse with your wife or wake up with a wet dream in the
   middle of the night, you have to make ghusl (major washing) before the
   Fajr Adthan.
 - Also, you are allowed to begin the fast in a state of janaaba.
 - The janaaba doesn't impact on starting the fast.

HADITH

Aisha and Umm Salama (RA) narrated: "The Prophetﷺ used to get up at dawn while in a state of Janaba (sexual impurity). Then, he would take a bath and fast." [Al-Bukhari (1926) and Muslim (1109)]

 - However, if you don't make ghusl (major washing), then you have no fast
   for that day.


THE DURATION OF FASTING

The Adthan of Fajr and Maghrib are very important during Ramadan.
 - Adthan of Fajr means to stop eating Sahoor.
 - Adthan of Maghrib means rush to break your fast.

HADITH

Sahl ibn Sad reported that Allah's Messengerﷺ said: "The people will remain on the right path as long as they hasten the breaking of the fast." [Al-Bukhari (1957) and Muslim (109]

 - The duration of fasting is between the Adthan of Fajr and the Adthan of
   Maghrib.


QUESTION

WHAT ABOUT THE PERSON WHO LIVES IN A COMMUNITY WHERE THEY HAVE TO FAST 20 HOURS OR MORE DUE TO EXTREME DAYLIGHT?

FATWA

Sheikh Muhammad Abduh, Grand Mufti of Egypt, mentions in Tafsir al-Manar, classically they mentioned two possibilities to follow more moderate timings:

a) Follow timings of the lands of revelation, viz. Mecca and Medina (Hijaz) – throughout the year, the dawn-sunset fast here is 12-15 hours.

b) Follow timings of the nearest “moderate land.”

Abduh adds, “Both of these are valid, since it is a matter of judgment (ijtihad), and there is no unequivocal text (nass) about it.”

(Tafsir al-Manar, Sheikh Muhammad Abduh, Grand Mufti of Egypt)

 - You don't need to follow the timetable of your area. You can fast with the
   timetable of Makkah as your standard.
 - Many are not familiar with the above fatwa which is over 100 years old.
 - The timetable of Makkah and Madinah are used because the Quran was
   revealed in Makkah and the Prophetﷺ established the Islamic State in
   Madinah.

HADITH

Narrated Abu Huraira: I have memorized two kinds of knowledge from Allah's Apostleﷺ.  I have propagated one of them to you and if I propagated the second, then my pharynx (throat) would be cut (i.e. killed).[Sahih Al Bukhari :: Book 1 :: Volume 3 :: Hadith 121]


KISSING WHILE FASTING

 - You are allowed to kiss your wife while fasting.

HADITH

Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin: The Prophetﷺ used to kiss her and suck her tongue when he was fasting. [Abu Dawud, 2386]

FATWA

Ibn Qudaamah (RA) said: With regard to swallowing the saliva of someone else, this invalidates the fast, because he is swallowing something that did not come from his own mouth, so it is likened to swallowing something else. If it is said that ‘Aa’ishah narrated that the Prophetﷺ used to kiss her when he was fasting and suck her tongue (narrated by Abu Dawood, 2386), our response is that it was narrated from Abu Dawood that he said this isnaad is not saheeh. Among those who also classed the additional phrase “and suck her tongue” as weak (da’eef) is al-Albaani in Da’eef Sunan Abi Dawood.

Ibn Qudaamah mentioned two ways of understanding the hadeeth if we assume that it is saheeh:

1 – That the two matters are not connected. He said: It may be that
he used to kiss her when fasting and suck her tongue at other times.
2 – The hadeeth does not refer to swallowing saliva at all. He said: It may be that he sucked it (her tongue) but did not swallow the saliva, because the wetness on her tongue was not transferred to his mouth. Al-Mughni, 3/17


SEXUAL INTERCOURSE DURING RAMADAN

 - Intercourse is allowed only after Maghrib, but before Fajr.

HADITH

Narrated By Abu Huraira: While we were sitting with the Prophetﷺ, a man came and said, "O Allah's Apostleﷺ! I have been ruined." Allah's Apostleﷺ asked what the matter with him was. He replied "I had sexual intercourse with my wife while I was fasting." Allah's Apostleﷺ asked him, "Can you afford to manumit a slave?" He replied in the negative. Allah's Apostleﷺ asked him, "Can you fast for two successive months?"

He replied in the negative. The Prophetﷺ asked him, "Can you afford to feed sixty poor persons?" He replied in the negative. The Prophetﷺ kept silent and while we were in that state, a big basket full of dates was brought to the Prophetﷺ. He asked, "Where is the questioner?" He replied, "I (am here)." The Prophetﷺ said (to him), "Take this (basket of dates) and give it in charity." The man said, "Should I give it to a person poorer than I? By Allahﷻ; there is no family between it's (i.e. Medina's) two mountains who are poorer than I." The Prophetﷺ smiled until his pre-molar teeth became visible and then said, 'Feed your family with it." [Al-Bukhari (1936) and Muslim (1111)]

 - If you have intercourse with your wife during the prescribed fasting time,
   you have committed a huge crime in Islam (see above Hadith).
 - In the above Hadith, the Sahaba who violated the rules of fasting was    
   given an option:
  • To free a slave.
  • To fast two months consecutively.  
  • Or to feed 60 poor people.
 - When the Sahaba couldn't fulfill any of the 3 options, the Prophetﷺ gave
   him food to feed his family because he was poor.
 - This Hadith shows the mercy of the Prophetﷺ.


EATING OR DRINKING DURING RAMADAN DUE TO FORGETFULNESS

HADITH

Abu Huraira reported that the Prophetﷺ said: “If anyone forgets and eats or drinks (by accident while he is fasting), he should complete his fast, for it is Allahﷻ who has fed him and given him drink.” [Al-Bukhari (6669) and Muslim (1155)]

ANOTHER HADITH

Ibn 'Abbas (RA) the Messenger of Allahﷺ said: "Verily Allahﷻ has pardoned [or been lenient with] for me my Ummah: their mistakes, their forgetfulness, and that which they have been forced to do under duress." [Sunan Ibn Majah (3/200) No. 2045, al-Mu'jam al-Kabir al-Tabarani (11/133) No. 11274, al-Sunan al-Kubra al-Bayhaqi (7/584) No. 15094, Sunan al-Daraqutni (5/300) No. 4351]


THOSE WHO OVERSLEPT AND MISSED SAHOOR

HADITH

Anas ibn Malik (RA) narrated the Prophetﷺ said: “Eat sahoor, for in sahoor there is blessing.” [Al-Bukhari (1923) and Muslim (1095)]

 - Sahoor is Sunnah Mu’akdada (Certainty), so if you miss the Sahoor, you
   still have to fast for that day.
 - Set an alarm to wake you up for Sahoor so you don't miss it.
 - Sahoor makes the fasting easier for you.


INTENTION FOR FASTING

 - Formulate an intention for fasting by saying "I intend to fast one day of
   Ramadan tomorrow."

HADITH

Hafsah (RA) reported the Prophetﷺ as saying: “He, who has not formed an intention (to fast) before dawn, has not fasted”. [Sunan Tirmidhi (3/10 No. 730, Sunan Abu Dawud (2/329) No. 2454, Sunan al-Nasa'i (4/196) No. 2331, Sunan Ibn Majah (2/59 No. 1700, Sunan al-Darime (2/12) No. 1698, Musnad Ahmad (6/287) No. 26500]

 - Imam Malik’s opinion is that you can make one intention for the entire
   month of Ramadan.
 - However, the other Imams (Abu Hanifa, Imam Ahmed & Imam Shaf’i) say
   you have to make 30 (or 29) intentions for each day of Ramadan.
 - The correct opinion is the Jamhoor (Majority).
 - If your fasting is a Sunnah fast and not the obligatory fast, then you have
   until Dthur Adthan to formulate your intention.
 - To formulate your intention before Fajr Adthan is only during the month of
   Ramadan.

HADITH

Aisha (RA) narrated the Prophetﷺ came to visit me one day and asked, “Do you have anything (to eat)?” I said, “No.” He said, “Then I am fasting.” Then he came to me another day and I said, “I had been given a present of some Hais (a mixture of dates and ghee). He said, “Show it to me, for I had began the day fasting.” Then he ate. [Sahih Muslim (2/809) No. 1154]


MASTURBATION DURING RAMADAN

 - Masturbating and ejaculating breaks your fast.
 - If you didn't ejaculate, you can continue with your fast.
 - Only the ejaculation breaks your fast and that day has to be made up.
 - This hukm (ruling) is applied to males and females.


THINGS THAT BREAK FASTING

  1. EATING
  2. DRINKING
  3. SMOKING (doesn't include smoke from cooking)
  4. INDUCING VOMIT

 - Regular vomiting doesn't break your fast. Only the vomiting that was
   voluntarily induced is what breaks the fast.

HADITH

Abu Huraira (RA) narrated the Allah’s Messengerﷺ said: “Whoever vomits involuntarily does not have to make up the fast, but whoever vomits deliberately let him make up the fast.” [Sunan Tirmidhi (3/9 No. 720, Sunan Abu Dawud (2/310) No. 2380, Sunan Ibn Majah (2/581) No. 1676, Musnad Ahmad (2/49 No. 10468, Sunan al-Daraqutni (3/155) No. 2276]

  1. MENSES BEFORE MAGHRIB

 - If a woman’s menses comes after Maghrib, then she has have completed a
   day of fasting and doesn't need to make that day up.

  1. BLEEDING AFTER MAGHRIB
  2. INTERCOURSE

 - Atonement has to be paid by the couple who have intercourse during the   
   obligatory fasting of Ramadan.
 - Scholars differ in opinion that both parties (husband & wife) have to pay
   the atonement.
 - However, the best opinion in regards to paying the atonement is made by
   the one who initiated the intercourse.

  1. MASTURBATING & EJACULATING BEFORE MAGHRIB
  2. IV DROPS IN THE HOSPITAL THAT TAKES THE PLACE OF FOOD
  3. APOSTASY

 - If you apostate during Ramadan, you have broken your fast.

  1. LOSS OF SANITY


THINGS THAT DO NOT BREAK FASTING

  1. EATING OR DRINKING OUT OF FORGETFULNESS

Allahﷻ said in Surah Al-Baqarah 2:286

لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا مَا اكْتَسَبَتْ رَبَّنَا لَا تُؤَاخِذْنَا إِن نَّسِينَا أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا رَبَّنَا وَلَا تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْنَا إِصْرًا كَمَا حَمَلْتَهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِنَا رَبَّنَا وَلَا تُحَمِّلْنَا مَا لَا طَاقَةَ لَنَا بِهِ وَاعْفُ عَنَّا وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا وَارْحَمْنَا أَنتَ مَوْلَانَا فَانصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ
Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope. He gets reward for that (good) which he has earned, and he is punished for that (evil) which he has earned. "Our Lord! Punish us not if we forget or fall into error, our Lord! Lay not on us a burden like that which You did lay on those before us (Jews and Christians); our Lord! Put not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear. Pardon us and grant us Forgiveness. Have mercy on us. You are our Maula (Patron, Suppor-ter and Protector, etc.) and give us victory over the disbelieving people." (Al-Baqarah 2:286)

  1. VOMITING UNINTENTIONALLY
  2. BRUSHING YOUR TEETH WITH TOOTHPASTE
  3. SWALLOWING YOUR OWN SALIVA
  4. MEDICINAL INJECTIONS
  5. ASTHMATIC PUMPS
  6. USING EARDROPS, EYEDROPS, MASCARA, KOHL, ETC

HADITH

Anas ibn Malik (RA) narrated: A man came to the Prophetﷺ and complained about his eyes troubling him. He said, “Shall I apply kohl (collegiums) while I am fasting?” He said, “Yes!"
[Sunan Tirmidhi (3/105) No. 726]

  1. HAVING A WET DREAM
  2. THINKING ABOUT BREAKING YOUR FAST
  3. BLOOD TEST
  4. HIJAMA (Cupping)

HADITH

Anas (RAA) narrated: 'The first time cupping was disliked for the one who is fasting was when Ja'far bin Abi Talib had himself cupped while fasting and Allah’s Messengerﷺ came across him and said, "Those two have broken their fast (meaning Ja'far and the man who was cupping him)." But later on, the Prophetﷺ allowed cupping for the one who is fasting. Anas used to have himself cupped while he was fasting. [Related by Ad-Daraqutni, who regarded it as a strong hadith]


  1. WATER ACCIDENTALLY GOING DOWN YOUR THROAT WHILE MAKING    WUDTHU (Minor) OR GHUSL (Major Washing)


WHEN FASTING IS HARAM

  1. DO NOT FAST ON A DOUBTFUL DAY

 - For example, when the clouds hide the moon and you aren't sure of the
   beginning of the month of Ramadan, then count Sha’ban as having 30
   days.

HADITH

Ammar bin Yasir (RA) reported: "He who observes the fast on a doubtful day, has in fact disobeyed Abul-Qasim." [Sunan Abu Dawud (2/300) No. 2334, Sunan Tirmidhi (3/70) No. 686, Sunan al-Nasa'i (4/153) No. 2188, Sunan Ibn Majah (2/561) No. 1645, Sunan al-Darime (2/5) No. 1682]

    2.   DO NOT FAST ON THE 10th, 11th, 12th & 13th DAY OF DTHUL HIJJAH

HADITH

Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri (RA) narrated: The Prophetﷺ forbade fasting on the day of (Eid) al-Fitr and al-Nahr (the day of sacrifice, i.e., Eid al-Adha). [Al-Bukhari (1991) and Muslim (113]

ANOTHER HADITH

NubAysha al-Hudhali narrated the Prophetﷺ said: “The days of al-Tashreeq are days of eating, drinking and remembering Allah.” [Sahih Muslim (2/800) No. 1141]

 - These days are Eid Al-Udha.

   3.   DO NOT FAST ON THE 1ST DAY OF SHAWWAL

 - This is Eid Ul-Fitr.

QUESTION

SHOULD WE FOLLOW THE MOON OF MAKKAH OR LOCAL SIGHTING?

HADITH

Kuraib narrated that Umm Al-Fadl sent him to Muawiyah in Ash-Sham. He said: "I came to Ash-Sham. He said: "I came to Ash-Sham and complete her errand. Then the new crescent of Ramadan was sighted while I was in Ash-Sham. I saw the new crescent on the night of Friday, then I came to Al-Madinah at the end of the month. 'Abdullah bin 'Abbas asked me about the sighting of the moon and said: ' When did you see it?' I said: 'We saw it on the night of Friday.' He said; 'You saw it on the ninth of Friday?' I said: 'Yes, and the people saw it and started fasting, and so did Muawiyah. He said: 'But we saw it on the night of Saturday, so we will continue fasting until we have completed thirty days or we see it.' I said: 'Will you not be content with the sighting of Muawiyah and his companions? He said; 'No; this is what the
the Allah’s Messengerﷺ enjoined upon us." [Sunan al-Nasa'i]

 - Scholars have discussed this issue and concluded that the local sighting of
   the moon should be followed.
 - However, the correct opinion is that we should follow the moon of Makkah.  
 - The purpose of this so that the Ummah is united.

HADITH

Abu Huraira (RA) reported: The Messenger of Allahﷺ said, "Observe Saum (fast) on sighting the crescent and terminate it on sighting it (the new moon), but if the sky is cloudy before you, then complete the number (thirty days) of the month." [Al-Bukhari (1909) and Muslim (1081)]

 - Every Eid, we have two eids in our communities because of the disunity.
 - To fast with the moon of Makkah is closer to piety.

QUESTION

SHOULD WE PRAY 8 OR 20 RAK’AH TARAWEEH?

 - Praying 8 rak'ah is practicing the Sunnah of Muhammadﷺ.
 - Praying 20 rak’ah is following the Sunnah of Umar (RA).
 - Both sunnah’s are valid.

HADITH

The Prophetﷺ said: ‘I advise you to fear Allahﷻ and to hear and obey even if an Abyssinian slave were to rule over you. For surely, he who lives from amongst you will see much differing, so it is upon you to be upon my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the Rightly Guided Caliphs. Bite on to it with your back molar teeth and beware of newly invented matters, for verily, every newly invented matter is an innovation, and all innovation is misguidance.’” Related by Aboo Daawood (no. 4607) and by at-Tirmidthee (no. 2676). It was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albaanee in Irwaa’ul-Ghaleel (no. 2455).

 - Uthaymeen rejected the Saudi Salafi aqeedah.
 - They say that you should only pray 8 rak’ah like the Prophetﷺ.

HADITH

The Prophetﷺ said: "Pray as you have seen me praying..." [Sahih Bukhari, Vol 1, Book 11, Hadith #604]

 - The Saudi Salafi will use the above Hadith to refute that argument.
   However, the hadith actually means to pray with your hand on your chest,
   and follow the salah as the Prophetﷺ actually performed his salah.
 - No one should criticise anyone who prays 8 or 20 rak’ah because both are
   acceptable.

WHEN IT IS MAKROOH TO FAST

Makrooh means disliked, but not sinful.

 - Haram means sinful.
 - In some instances, it is haram to fast, and other times, it is makrooh to
   fast.

  1.  TO FAST ON A FRIDAY   

 - Fasting on Friday is Makrooh because it is the Eid of the week.
 - Fasting is allowed on Friday when it is the month of Ramadan.
 - Every Friday is an Eid, so don't envy the kuffar for their holidays.

HADITH

Narrated Abu Huraira: I heard the Prophetﷺ saying, "None of you should fast on Friday unless he fasts a day before or after it." BUKHARI : Vol. 3, Book 31, Hadith 206

    2. TO FAST ON A SUNDAY

 - Fasting on Sunday is Makrooh because it is the day of the Christians.

    3. TO FAST ON SATURDAY

 - Fasting on Saturday is Makrooh because it is the day of the Jews.

    4. WOMAN FASTING THE SUNNAH FAST WITHOUT PERMISSION OF HER
        HUSBAND

HADITH

Abu Huraira (RA) narrated the Prophetﷺ said: "It is not lawful for a woman to fast (Nawafil) when her husband is present except with his permission; and she should not allow anyone to enter his house except with his permission; and if she spends of his wealth (on charitable purposes) without being ordered by him, he will get half of the reward." [Al-Bukhari (5195) and Muslim (1026)]

ANOTHER HADITH

Talq ibn Ali (RA) reported that Allah’s Messengerﷺ said: "When a man calls his wife to satisfy his urge then she must go to him even if she is at the stove." [Sunan Tirmidhi (3/465) No. 1160, Sunan al-Kubra al-Nasa'i (8/187) No. 8922 and Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah (3/558) No. 17135]

ANOTHER HADITH

Allah's Messengerﷺ said, "When a man calls his wife to satisfy his desire she must go to him even if she is occupied at the oven." Al-Tirmidhi 3257, narrated Talq ibn Ali


BEST DAYS TO FAST

   1.   MONDAY & THURSDAY

HADITH

It was narrated that Aisha (RA) said: "The Prophetﷺ was keen to fast on Mondays and Thursdays." [Sunan Tirmidhi (3/121) No. 745, Sunan Ibn Majah (2/627) No. 1739, Musnad Ahmad (6/106) No. 24792, al-Sunan al-Kubra al-Nasa'i (3/122) No. 2508]

ANOTHER HADITH

Abu Huraira (RA) that the Allah’s Messengerﷺ said: “Deeds are shown (to Allahﷻ) on Mondays and Thursdays, and I like my deeds to be shown when I am fasting.” [Sunan Tirmidhi (3/122) No. 747]


   2. DAY OF ARAFAH

 - The Day of Arafah is the 9th of Dthul Hijjah.

HADITH

Abu Qatada narrated: The Allah’s Messengerﷺ was asked about fasting the Day of 'Ashura' and said, "It expiates the past year." [Sahih Muslim (2/819) No. 1162 and Musnad Ahmad (5/296) No. 22590]

ANOTHER HADITH

Al-Nawawi (rh) said: “Fasting the day of 'Arafaah expiates for all minor sins, in other words this brings forgiveness for all sins except for major sins.”


   3. SIX DAYS IN THE MONTH OF SHAWWAL

HADITH

Abu Ayub narrated that: The Allah’s Messengerﷺ said: "Whoever fasts Ramadan, then follows it with six from Shawwal, then that is (equal in reward) to fasting every day." [Tirmidhi]

 - On a side note, if you missed days of fasting in Ramadan, you have to make up those days first before you fast the 6 days of Shawwal.


   4. THE 10TH DAY OF MUHARRAM

HADITH

Abu Qatada narrated: The Allah’s Messengerﷺ was asked about fasting the Day of 'Ashura' and said, "It expiates the past year." [Sahih Muslim (2/819) No. 1162 and Musnad Ahmad (5/296) No. 22590]

ANOTHER HADITH

Ibn Abbas said: "When the Allah’s Messengerﷺ came to Al-Madinah, he found the Jews fasting the day of `Ashura'. Therefore he asked them about it and they said, `This is the day that Allahﷻ gave Musa victory over Fir`awn.' Then, the Prophetﷺ said, 'We have more right to Musa (than them), so fast it.'" [al-Bukhari (3943) and Muslim (1130)]

 - We fast the 10th day of Muharram because Allahﷻ saved Prophet Musa  
   (AS) from the Pharaoh on that day.


   5. THE FAST OF DAVID (AS)

 - The fast of David (AS) is to fast one day then skip one day, and so forth.

HADITH

Abdullah bin Amr bin al-'As (RA) narrated: The Allah’s Messengerﷺ was informed that I have said: "By Allahﷻ, I will fast all the days and pray all the nights as long as I live." On that, Allah’s Messengerﷺ asked me. "Are you the one who says: 'I will fast all the days and pray all the nights as long as I live?? ?' “I said, "Yes, I have said it." He said, "You cannot do that. So fast (sometimes) and do not fast (sometimes). Pray and sleep. Fast for three days a month, for the reward of a good deed is multiplied by ten time, and so the fasting of three days a month equals the fasting of a year." I said: "I am capable of doing more than this, O Allah’s Messengerﷺ." Thereupon he said: "Fast one day and do not fast for the next two days." I said: "Allah’s Messengerﷺ, I have the strength to do more than that." The Holy Prophetﷺ, said: "Fast one day and break on the other day. That is known as the fasting of Dawud (AS) and that is the best fasting." I said: "I am capable of doing more than this." Thereupon the Allah’s Messengerﷺ said: "There is nothing better than this." [Al-Bukhari (341 and Muslim (1159)]

 - This is the best fast to perform because it is incumbent on the husband to
   have intercourse with his wife at least once every four days.


WHEN DOES FASTING BECOME COMPULSORY OUTSIDE OF RAMADAN

  1. IF YOU TAKE AN OATH

 - For example, if you say that ‘You will fast 5 days if Allahﷻ allows me to
   pass my exam’, then you have to fulfill that oath if you passed.

     2.   IF YOU BREAK YOUR ‘WALLAHI’

 - If you break your ‘wallahi,’ you would have to fast three days.

Allahﷻ said in Surah Al-Ma’idah 5:89

لَا يُؤَاخِذُكُمُ اللهُ بِاللَّغْوِ فِي أَيْمَانِكُمْ وَلَٰكِن يُؤَاخِذُكُم بِمَا عَقَّدتُّمُ الْأَيْمَانَ فَكَفَّارَتُهُ إِطْعَامُ عَشَرَةِ مَسَاكِينَ مِنْ أَوْسَطِ مَا تُطْعِمُونَ أَهْلِيكُمْ أَوْ كِسْوَتُهُمْ أَوْ تَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلَاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ ذَٰلِكَ كَفَّارَةُ أَيْمَانِكُمْ إِذَا حَلَفْتُمْ وَاحْفَظُوا أَيْمَانَكُمْ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللهُ لَكُمْ آيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
Allah will not punish you for what is unintentional in your oaths, but He will punish you for your deliberate oaths; for its expiation (a deliberate oath) feed ten Masakin (poor persons), on a scale of the average of that with which you feed your own families; or clothe them; or manumit a slave. But whosoever cannot afford (that), then he should fast for three days. That is the expiation for the oaths when you have sworn. And protect your oaths (i.e. do not swear much). Thus Allah make clear to you His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) that you may be grateful. (Al-Ma'idah 5:89)


   3.   FASTING ON BEHALF OF A DECEASED PERSON

HADITH

Aisha (RA) narrated the Prophetﷺ said: “Whoever dies while some fast is due from him (which is unfulfilled), and his heir must fast on his behalf.” [Al-Bukhari (1952) and Muslim (1147)]

ANOTHER HADITH

Narrated Ibn Abbas: A man came to the Prophetﷺ and said, 'O Allah's Apostleﷺ! My mother died and she ought to have fasted one month (for her missed Ramadan). Shall I fast on her behalf?' The Prophetﷺ replied in the affirmative and said, 'Allahﷻ debts have more right to be paid.' In another narration a woman is reported to have said, 'My sister died...'

Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: A woman said to the Prophetﷺ 'My mother died and she had vowed to fast but she didn't fast.' In another narration Ibn 'Abbas is reported to have said, 'A woman said to the Prophetﷺ, 'My mother died while she ought to have fasted for fifteen days.'  
(Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 31, # 174)

 - Also, if parents left behind a debt, the children have to pay off those debts.


   4.   VIOLATING YOUR IHRAAM

 - If you violate your ihraam, you have to fast 10 days.


THOSE WHOSE FASTING IS REJECTED

 1.  THE KAAFIR

 - Many kuffar fast in Ramadan because they have Muslim friends.
 - They can't form an intention so Allahﷻ will never accept their fast.
 - All they get is hunger and thirst.

Allahﷻ said in Surah An-Nur 24:39

وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَعْمَالُهُمْ كَسَرَابٍ بِقِيعَةٍ يَحْسَبُهُ الظَّمْآنُ مَاءً حَتَّىٰ إِذَا جَاءَهُ لَمْ يَجِدْهُ شَيْئًا وَوَجَدَ اللهَ عِندَهُ فَوَفَّاهُ حِسَابَهُ وَاللهُ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ
As for those who disbelieve, their deeds are like a mirage in a desert. The thirsty one thinks it to be water, until he comes up to it, he finds it to be nothing, but he finds Allah with him, Who will pay him his due (Hell). And Allah is Swift in taking account. (An-Nur 24:39)


   2.   THE MUNAFIQ

Allahﷻ said in Surah An-Nisa 4:145

إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِي الدَّرْكِ الْأَسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ وَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُمْ نَصِيرًا
Verily, the hyprocrites will be in the lowest depths (grade) of the Fire; no helper will you find for them. (An-Nisa 4:145)

 - The munafiq is a plastic, fake Muslim.


   3.   THE ZINDEEQ (Heretic)

Allahﷻ said in Surah Al-Furqan 25:23

وَقَدِمْنَا إِلَىٰ مَا عَمِلُوا مِنْ عَمَلٍ فَجَعَلْنَاهُ هَبَاءً مَّنثُورًا
And We shall turn to whatever deeds they (disbelievers, polytheists, sinners, etc.) did, and We shall make such deeds as scattered floating particles of dust. (Al-Furqan 25:23)

 - An example of a Zindeeq is the Nation of Islam.
 - They make up their own Islam.
 - They preach that a mad scientist named Yaqub made white people.
 - This makes their belief that there’s another creator besides Allahﷻ.

FIQH AL-WAQ’I

Yakub The Mad Scientist -
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yakub_%28Nation_of_Islam%29


   4.   THE MURTAD (Apostate)

 - If you spy for the kuffar, practice black magic or commit other nullifiers of
   Islam, then you become an apostate.
 - All you get from fasting is hunger and thirst.


   5.   THE MUSHRIK (Pagan)

 - Many pagan groups like Sufis, Berailvis & Shias fast.
 - These groups are pagan because they worship the graves.

Allahﷻ said in Surah Az-Zumar 39:65

وَلَقَدْ أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ وَإِلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكَ لَئِنْ أَشْرَكْتَ لَيَحْبَطَنَّ عَمَلُكَ وَلَتَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ
And indeed it has been revealed to you (O Muhammad SAW), as it was to those (Allah's Messengers) before you: "If you join others in worship with Allah, (then) surely (all) your deeds will be in vain, and you will certainly be among the losers." (Az-Zumar 39:65)

 
   6.   THE MADMAN

 - His fast is not accepted because he can not formulate an intention.

HADITH

Ali reported that Allah's Messengerﷺ said: "The pen has been raised for three persons (meaning they are not held accountable for what they do): one who is sleeping until he gets up, a child until he reaches the age of puberty, and an insane person until he becomes sane." [Musnad Ahmad (1/154) No. 1327, Sunan Abu Dawud (4/140) No. 4402, Sunan Tirmidhi (4/32) No. 1423, Sunan Ibn Majah (3/198) No. 2041, al-Sunan al-Kubra al-Nasa'i (5/265) No. 5596, Mustadrak al-Haakim (2/67) No. 2350]

ANOTHER HADITH

Omar ibn al-Khattab (RA) said: 'I heard the Allah’s Messengerﷺ say, "Actions only go by intentions. Everyone gets what they intend..." [Al-Bukhari (1) and Muslim (1907)]

ANOTHER HADITH

Hafsah (RA) reported the Prophetﷺ as saying: “He, who has not formed an intention (to fast) before dawn, has not fasted”. [Sunan Tirmidhi (3/10 No. 730, Sunan Abu Dawud (2/329) No. 2454, Sunan al-Nasa'i (4/196) No. 2331, Sunan Ibn Majah (2/59 No. 1700, Sunan al-Darime (2/12) No. 1698, Musnad Ahmad (6/287) No. 26500]


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